Conference Paper

Initial quantitative comparison of 940nm and 950nm infrared sensor performance for measuring glucose non-invasively

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This project uses a non-invasive method for measuring the blood glucose concentration levels. By implementing two infrared light with different wavelength; 940nm and 950nm based on the use of light emitting diodes and measure transmittance through solution of distilled water and d-glucose of concentration from 0mg/dL to 200mg/dL by using a 1000nm photodiode. It is observed that the output voltage from the photodiode increased proportionally to the increased of concentration levels. The relation observed was linear. Nine subjects with the same age but different body weight have been used to observe the glucose level during fasting and non-fasting. During fasting the voltage is about 0.13096V to 0.236V and during non-fasting the voltage range is about 0.12V to 0.256V. This method of measuring blood glucose level may become a preferably choice for diabetics because of the non-invasive and may extend to the general public. For having a large majority people able to monitor their blood glucose levels, it may prevent hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and perhaps the onset of diabetes.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Cardoso et al. [50] implemented an architecture composed of two light emitters, with a wavelength of 940 nm and 805 nm. Another work [51] used 950 nm in addition to 940 nm and have shown that the output voltages are nearly linear with the increment of glucose concentration. In [52], average value of three different wavelengths was used to determine the blood glucose concentration. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current standard of diabetes management depends upon the invasive blood pricking techniques. In recent times, the availability of minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring devices have made some improvements in the life of diabetic patients however it has its own limitations which include painful insertion, excessive cost, discomfort and an active risk due to the presence of a foreign body under the skin. Due to all these factors, the non-invasive glucose monitoring has remain a subject of research for the last two decades and multiple techniques of non-invasive glucose monitoring have been proposed. These proposed techniques have the potential to be evolved into a wearable device for non-invasive diabetes management. This paper reviews research advances and major challenges of such techniques or methods in recent years and broadly classifies them into four types based on their detection principles. These four methods are: optical spectroscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, electromagnetic sensing and nanomaterial based sensing. The paper primarily focuses on the evolution of non-invasive technology from bench-top equipment to smart wearable devices for personalized non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring in these four methods. With the rapid evolve of wearable technology, all these four methods of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring independently or in combination of two or more have the potential to become a reality in the near future for efficient, affordable, accurate and pain-free diabetes management.
... In this simulated study, we use 950-nm infrared LED and photodiode sensor coming from a transmissive optical sensor with phototransistor output [3] to build the light beam field according to the three-pair sensor array layout. We use Arduino MEGA 2560 [42] to collect the data of sensors. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inkjet 3D printing is a disruptive manufacturing technology in emerging metal- and bio-printing applications. The nozzle of the printer deposits tiny liquid droplets, which are subsequently solidified on a target location. Due to the elegant concept of micro-droplet deposition, inkjet 3D printing is capable of achieving a sub-millimeter scale manufacturing resolution. However, the droplet deposition process is dynamic and uncertain which imposes a significant challenge on quality assurance of inkjet 3D printing in terms of product reproducibility and process repeatability. To this end, we present Luban as a certification tool to examine the printing quality in the inkjet printing process. Luban is a new low-cost and in-situ droplet micro-sensing system that can precisely detect, analyze and localize a droplet. Specifically, we present a novel tiny object sensing method by exploiting the computational light beam field and its sensitive interference effect. The realization of Luban is associated with two technical thrusts. First, we study integral sensing, i.e., a new scheme towards computational light beam field sensing, to efficiently extract droplet location information. This sensing scheme offers a new in-situ droplet sensing modality, which can promote the information acquisition efficiency and reduce the sensing cost compared to prior approaches. Second, we characterize interference effect of the computational light beam field and develop an efficient integration-domain droplet location estimation algorithm. We design and implement Luban in a real inkjet 3D printing system with commercially off-the-shelf devices, which costs less than a hundred dollars. Experimental results in both simulation and real-world evaluation show that Luban can reach the certification precision of a sub-millimeter scale with a 99% detection accuracy of defect droplets; furthermore, the enabled in-situ certification throughput is as high as over 700 droplets per second. Therefore, the performance of our Luban system can meet the quality assurance requirements (e.g., cost-effective, in-situ, high-accuracy and high-throughput) in general industrial applications.
... This research demonstrated that the photon counts per second and glucose concentration have a linear correlation in samples with glucose concentrations from 10 mg.dL -1 to 260 mg.dL -1 . Another research performed by Abidin et al. in [22] D a system by using NIR of wavelengths 940 nm and 950 nm generated from an LED to observe the transmittance of light. The measured output voltage from photo-sensor increased with increasing glucose concentrations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Current blood glucose monitoring (BGM) techniques are invasive as they require a finger prick blood sample, a repetitively painful process that creates the risk of infection. BGM is essential to avoid complications arising due to abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Laser light based sensors have demonstrated a superior potential for BGM. Existing Near-infrared (NIR) based BGM techniques have shortcomings such as the absorption of light in human tissue, higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and lower accuracy, these disadvantages have prevented NIR techniques from being employed for commercial BGM applications. A simple, compact and cost-effective non-invasive device using visible red laser light of wavelength 650 nm for BGM (RL-BGM) is implemented in this paper. The RL-BGM monitoring device has three major technical advantages over NIR. Unlike NIR, Red laser light has ~30 times better transmittance through human tissue. Furthermore, when compared to NIR the refractive index of laser light is more sensitive to the variations in glucose level concentration resulting in faster response times ~7-10 seconds. Red laser light also demonstrates both higher linearity and accuracy for BGM. The designed RL-BGM device has been tested for both in-vitro and in-vivo cases and several experimental results have been generated to ensure the accuracy and precision of the proposed BGM sensor.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this project was to develop a non-invasive blood glucose sensor based on the Beer - Lambert principle of light reflection. This paper describes three main stages of this project. 1) Characterizing the wavelength absorption properties of glucose. 2) Design and construction of a prototype non-invasive blood glucose sensor. The electronic subsystems of this device are separately defined sensor, signal conditioning, and display circuits. The sensor circuit consists of a TCRT1000 reflective optical sensor with transistor output, operating with an emitter/receiver wavelength of 950 nm. The signal conditioning part consists of high-pass filter, non-inverting amplifier, and low-pass filter circuits. From the output signal, we can derive a relationship between blood glucose levels (in micrograms per milliliter) and voltage, which is displayed using a digital oscilloscope. 3) Testing the non-invasive blood glucose sensor. The instrument's calibration curve equation relating blood glucose level with voltage is determined using multiple regression analysis. The device test results demonstrate that blood glucose level is inversely proportional to output voltage, with the relationship described by the equation y = 252.95x-0.779, and a coefficient of determination of 0.96.
Article
Diabetes Mellitus is a serious and chronic health disease. It occurs in all age group of people, especially in adults and aged persons. It is important to measure blood glucose level frequently for the diabetes affected persons which in need to determine the appropriate insulin dosage. Along with this, the continuous glucose monitoring is vital to know whether the glucose level is in normal range. The conventional method used to measure the glucose level in blood is invasive which is infectious and a painful process. Nowadays, the non-invasive blood glucose monitoring methods are widely used. In this work, the blood glucose level is measured non-invasively using IR sensor. Besides that, the indication of insulin dosage to be taken is done by determining blood glucose concentration (non- invasively) and comparing it with Body Mass Index (BMI) of the patient. The implementation is based on the variations in the intensity of the IR LED, BMI and blood density. Themethod ismore reliable than the invasive techniques.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
he conventional blood glucose monitoring (BGM) techniques currently used are invasive due to the collection of blood samples through finger prick making the process painful with the risk of infection. In recent years, researchers focus more on making BGM to be non-invasive by the virtue of near infrared (NIR) rays. However, NIR technique possesses certain limitations, viz. the absorption of light rays in human tissue, higher SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and low accuracy. Henceforth, these shortfalls have prevented NIR based blood glucose measurements from being utilized in healthcare market. To overcome these shortfalls, BGM by means of laser light is proposed in this work. Visible red laser light of wavelength 650 nm for BGM (RL-BGM) is implemented in this work to exploit the better transmittance of red laser through human tissue. The fact that the refractive index of laser light is more susceptible to changes in glucose concentration resulting in faster response times (~7-10s) compared to NIR makes visible red laser feasible for this application. The data obtained from the hardware is sent to the Thingspeak cloud server .The designed RL-BGM hardware module has been tested for both in-vitro and in-vivo cases. Results obtained in this work demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed system in achieving better accuracy in BGM on par with the standard glucometer used by the medical practitioners for monitoring blood sugar level in diabetic patients (PDF) Non – Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring based on Visible LASER Light. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333501389_Non_-_Invasive_Blood_Glucose_Monitoring_based_on_Visible_LASER_Light [accessed Oct 22 2021].
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes has evolved as one of the principal health care epidemics of the modern era. At present, the widely used method of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) involves determination of blood glucose concentration with specific devices using chemical analysis of blood samples taken by puncturing the finger or the forearm. Although SMBG has revolutionized the management of diabetes, discomfort and inconvenience of this invasive technique are frequent barriers for effective compliance and therefore, optimum management. The aim of this paper is to discuss the feasibility study and design issues of non invasive glucose measurement technique using optical method which would be able to overcome the current limitations.
Article
Full-text available
An overview of glucose sensors is presented, with specific focus on the promise of non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensors. The review addresses their merits and shortfalls with respect to their commercially available enzymatic counterparts. The mechanisms for catalysis are evaluated, and the future of the systems discussed.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, a new portable type Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) device, which is driven automatically from the blood sampling to the blood glucose measurement, is developed to establish the point-of-care technology in the ubiquitous medical care. It aims to overcome human errors due to the complicated manual operation of commercial SMBG devices. In this study, I mainly discuss the development of automatic operated blood sampling system. This system consists of Three Dimensional Blood Bessel Search (3D BVS) unit employing Near-Infrared Light (NIR) imaging and the stereo method, and automatic blood collection and transportation system. A prototype of the blood sampling system was examined its performance and confirmed the high accuracy in 1) blood vessel search, 2) punctuation and blood suction, and 3) transportation.
Article
A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on atomic gas (He-Ne) laser operating at 632.8nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.
Article
Maintaining healthy blood glucose concentration levels is advantageous for the prevention of diabetes and obesity. Present day technologies limit such monitoring to patients who already have diabetes. The purpose of this project is to suggest a non-invasive method for measuring blood glucose concentration levels. Such a method would provide useful for even people without illness, addressing preventive care. This project implements near-infrared light of wavelengths 1450nm and 2050nm through the use of light emitting diodes and measures transmittance through solutions of distilled water and d-glucose of concentrations 50mg/dL, 100mg/dL, 150mg/dL, and 200mg/dL by using an InGaAs photodiode. Regression analysis is done. Transmittance results were observed when using near-infrared light of wavelength 1450nm. As glucose concentration increases, output voltage from the photodiode also increases. The relation observed was linear. No significant transmittance results were obtained with the use of 2050nm infrared light due to high absorbance and low power. The use of 1450nm infrared light provides a means of measuring glucose concentration levels.
Available: http://windows.podnova.com/trends/proteus-7-professional-user-manual
  • Labcenter Electronics