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E-Learning Readiness: A Literature Review



E-learning is one of the most used technologies in this modern time. E-learning is basically a learning platform that applies the utilization of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT). E-learning can be implied as other alternative terms such as online education, computer-based training, technology-enhanced learning and others. The implementation of e-learning has been carried out in multiple education departments and learning institutional levels. The usage has also broaden within some corporate and professional companies, in informing their staffs and customers on any related developement occurs within their business world. The importance of e-learning has led to the need in assessing the mental and physical preparation of the users before using the elearning environment. Therefore, e-learning readiness is required in making sure the users are capable of using the elearning environment technology in the best way possible. Technically speaking, e-learning readiness is the capability of prospect e-learning users in using a new learning environment as well as the usage of alternative technology. The results attained from this particular assessment can be used as some sort of guidelines perhaps for further developement of e-learning environment towards any enhancement that are seemed required. This paper will review a number of studies that have been carried out in assessing the users readiness before using the e-learning environment. Each study will be distinguished based on different assessment methods, types of respondents as well as the type of e-learning technology used.
E-Learning Readiness: A Literature Review
Hisyamuddin Hashim
Department of Educational Sciences, Mathematics, and
Creative Multimedia, Faculty of Education
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Zaidatun Tasir
Department of Educational Sciences, Mathematics, and
Creative Multimedia, Faculty of Education
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Abstract E-learning is one of the most used technologies in
this modern time. E-learning is basically a learning platfor m that
applies the utilization of electronic media and information and
communication technologies (ICT). E-learning can be implied as
other alternative terms such as online education, computer-based
training, technology-enhanced learning and others. The
implementation of e-learning has been carried out in multiple
education departments and learning institutional levels. The
usage has also broaden within some corporate and professional
companies, in informing their staffs and customers on any
related developement occurs within their business world. The
importance of e-learning has led to the need in assessing the
mental and physical preparation of the users before using the e-
learning environment. Therefore, e-learning readiness is
required in making sure the users are capable of using the e-
learning environment technology in the best way possible.
Technically speaking, e-learning readiness is the capability of
prospect e-learning users in using a new learning environment as
well as the usage of alternative technology. The results attained
from this particular assessment can be used as some sort of
guidelines perhaps for further developement of e-learning
environment towards any enhancement that are seemed
required. This paper will review a number of studies that have
been carried out in assessing the users readiness before using the
e-learning environment. Each study will be distinguished based
on different assessment methods, types of respondents as well as
the type of e-learning technology used.
Keywords—E-learning; E-learning readiness; Assessment
The emergence of internet in terms of its speed and as the
platform of any form of multimedia communication has
broadened up the usage of e-learning environment. According
to [1] e-learning has become a part of the internet which
experiences the highest growth rate and will encounter a
number of major changes in times. E-learning environment has
been widely implemented in many organizations and
institutions. It is not only being used for education purposes
alone, but for training purposes in many corporate departments.
Nevertheless, with the active increment of both supply and
demand for the e-learning technology, there is one major
question brought up by most professionals, basically
questioning on the effectiveness of the usage of the e-learning
environment for online learning surroundings [2]. This issue
seems aligned with the fact that if a learner shows great
potential learning through conventional approach, it does not
necessarily mean that they will gain the same success using the
alternative e-learning environment approach. Thus, it seems
appropriate in applying the e-learning readiness assessment of
the users before the implementation of the e-learning
environment being carried out completely.
E-learning readiness can be defined as the level of
readiness of certain institution or organization towards various
aspects of the technology of e-learning, before the whole e-
learning environment being applied for various purposes [3].
Therefore, any e-learning readiness will be conducted prior to
the introduction of the e-learning technology itself to the
prospective users, whom will be the respondents to the e-
learning readiness assessment. The typical e-learning readiness
assessment will measure the users' ability in adapting to
technological challenges, collaborative learning and training as
well as the synchronous and asynchronous self-paced learning
and training.
In this section, we present the review of past researches on
the implementation of e-learning readiness assessment in
various institutions and organizations. A total of 12 papers
were selected to classify various papers regarding this
particular topic within ten years, from the year 2004 until the
year 2013. The selected papers were chosen from different
electronic journal databases such as eBook History Collection
(EBSCO), Wiley Online Library, Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and ScienceDirect. Table 1
below shows the list of the researches related to the issue
concerned. We begin the review with the brief explanation on
each study, followed by the instruments used, and also some
valuable directions for future studies.
Author(s) Participants Instrument(s)
[3] U.S. Coast Guard Online Learner
Readiness Self-Assessment
2014 International Conference on Teaching and Learning in Computing and Engineering
978-1-4799-3592-5/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/LaTiCE.2014.58
Author(s) Participants Instrument(s)
Directors o
resource departments of
various companies in
e-Learning Readiness
Survey (e-LRS)
Academic staffs and
deans of the International
Islamic University
Lecturer E-Learning
Peerceptual Survey
Questionnaire (LEPSQ)
and e-Learning Readiness
Survey (e-LRS)
[6] Nurses of Flemish
hospitals in Belgium
E-Learning Readiness
Analysis (ERA)
Students of Egyptian
Faculties of Tourism and
Interview and
questionnaire based on
three dimensions; technical
skills, learning skills, time
management behaviors
Staffs members of
Egyptian Faculties of
Tourism and Hotels
Questionnaire based
on three dimensions;
competencies, experiences,
EFL students of King
Khalid Uni versity in Saudi
Interview and
questionnaire based on four
variable; motivation for
learning, online
communication self-
efficacy, language skills
integration, perceived
facilitators and inhibitors of
computer-assisted language
learning (CALL)
Staff members of
universities in Thailand and
the United State of America
Questionnaire based
on five dimensions; policy,
technology, financial,
human resources,
Students, faculty
members, educational staffs
and executive managers of
Tarbiat Modares University
in Iran
Questionnaire based
on a proposed e-learning
readiness assessment
PHD students of
Graduate School, Christian
University of Thailand
Questionnaire based
on six dimensions;
technology access, online
skill and relationships,
motivation, onlin e
audio/video, int ernet
discussions, imp ortance of
A. Brief Explanations of Each Study
Generally, all the researches stated in Table 1 cover a wide
range of corporate organizations or educational institutions
where the e-learning readiness assessments have been carried
out. These assessments involved a various number of
individuals or professionals.
The study conducted by [3] focusing on the validation as
well as the internal consistency of the items used within the
development of self-assessment of e-learning readiness. The
data gained will be employed as a guide for further
enhancement that are seemed suitable for the development of
the instrument. The respondents involved are ones from the
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) within the age range of 17 up to 34
and above. Even though the study is about online learning,
these respondents are not required to be actively enrolled in
any online courses available. They are only required to be
enrolled within either “boot camp” or rate training. The result
of this particular assessment shows good potential in terms of
validity as well as consistency and will be a good prediction
tool in measuring e-learning performance.
Reference [4] took the initiatives by implementing the e-
learning readiness assessment specialized for companies
located within an emerging country, where their human
resources departments are only starting to show some positive
developments. Based on their encouraging sales production,
top 100 companies in Turkey have been selected to be
participating in the survey carried out. The selection of these
particular companies was determined by using the Istanbul
Chamber of Industry's (ICI) 500 Major Industrial Enterprises
of Turkey 2001 List. In gaining a precise e-learning readiness
of those companies, directors of human resource departments
of each company were chosen as respondents. The findings
show that although it seems that the companies are ready in
terms of the implementation of e-learning, the human resource
itself needs some enhancement for a successful e-learning
implementation as a whole.
As the technology of e-learning is not only being used by
students alone within an educational system, it is also
important in measuring the readiness level of the instructors
responsible in using the e-learning environment in their
teaching activities, Therefore, a study on assessing academic
lecturers' e-learning readiness level has been conducted by [5]
in the International Islamic University Malaysia. The main
objective of the study is basically to assess the notions shown
by those academic staffs in terms of their own ideas as well
readiness level of the implementation of e-learning. It is also
trying to identify the reasons most lecturers used in terms of
the sustainability of the adoption of e-learning environment in
their university. The personnel involved in this particular
survey were academic staffs as well as the Deans or Heads of
each department in every Kulliyyah in the university. In this
study, it shows that two particular factors, e-learning training
and e-learning confidence play their own role in terms of
affecting the e-learning adoption within the university. Another
finding is that the staffs show some good potential, but a little
improvement seems necessary in the area of infrastructure as
well as the staffs' capabilities. One attribute that does not seem
show any effect to the e-learning readiness is the gender of the
The implementation of e-learning has also been conducted
within many health departments all around the world. The
study of e-learning readiness in this particular department has
been done in Belgium by [6]. A number of selected nurses
from Flemish hospitals took part in this survey. The survey
shows that some works in the form of training has to be done in
making sure that the readiness level of the users in using e-
learning can be reached the high level required. Another thing
is, hospitals must state a clear policy in terms of the time need
to be spent by the nurses on using the e-learning system during
working hours. Finally, in terms of the development of the e-
learning itself, a deep discussion between the developer and the
hospitals seems necessary for a better implementation of the e-
learning technology itself.
Reference [7] conducted an e-learning readiness assessment
survey at the Egyptian Faculties of Tourism and Hotels, by
using the students as the selected respondents. The e-learning
readiness level of the students is believed affected by a number
of dimensions such as technical skills, learning skills, and
management behavior. The main objective of the study is
actually to promote the implementation of the technology of e-
learning within the teaching and learning activities within the
faculty. This can help to prepare the students before they are
going on to pursue into the career world which will obviously
test their skills level especially in technological area.
Unfortunately, in this study, it shows insufficiency in terms of
students' e-learning readiness level and this has called for some
measure to be taken so that students can improve their skills so
that they can meet at least the average requirements in dealing
with the e-learning technology. The same place as previous
study was used by [8] in conducting an e-learning readiness
level but this time by using a different set of respondents,
which is staff members. Since a different group of respondents
used, factors that influence the e-learning readiness are also
different. These factors are technical and pedagogical
competences, experience, and attitude. However,
unfortunately, same negative result as previous study was
gained and similar measure has to be taken but this time it has
to be suitable for the respondents, which is for the staff
members instead of for the students previously.
The selection of the type of students in terms of the course
they are taking in their higher education level was the main
criteria in the e-learning readiness assessment conducted by
[9]. A group of undergraduate English as Foreign Language
(EFL) students from the King Khalid University in Saudi
Arabia was selected to be the respondents. A various level of
students from this particular course were asked about their
view on the usage of e-learning as their main learning platform
as well as their acceptance level in using the e-learning
environment within their learning activities. The attributes that
will be analyzed are the attitude towards e-learning, readiness
to accept e-learning, and some factors that influence e-learning.
Findings show that students are well prepared in shifting to a
new way of teaching and learning activities, which is the e-
learning environment.
Two groups of respondents were chosen in a comparison
based study conducted by [10]. The students involved were the
ones from various universities in Thailand and the United
States of America (USA). The main objective of this study is
actually to use the key success of the implementation of e-
learning environment in the education system in the USA and
presenting it to the higher education of Thailand, where it
would be implemented over there. Respondents involved in the
survey are the staff members of each university, mainly are
deans, executives as well as the technicians, whom can give
clear judgment on the readiness level of the whole university of
the e-learning implementation within the university teaching
and learning system. From the comparison carried out, some
key success of the implementation of e-learning in the USA
has been discovered. These are support resources for online
learning, development of a well prepared learning plan, careful
selection of appropriate program, and training to improve
teachers teaching abilities.
Reference [11] proposed an appropriate framework in
terms of enhancing existing potentials as well as avoiding
certain shortages in using the e-learning environment within
higher education system, by running an e-learning readiness
survey. Students, faculty members, educational staffs, and
executive managers from Tarbiat Modares University in Iran
were among the respondents involved in the process of
carrying out this particular assessment. An elaboration of an
appropriate model for assessing e-learning readiness level that
suits with the learning environment of the Iranian higher
education has been carried out by doing some comparison as
well as opinions and ideas from national experts. Hence, the
framework proposed is certainly appropriate and suitable
according to the capability of the country as well as some local
characteristics. The framework developed has focused on
several feature that includes technical infrastructures, content,
human resources, laws and regulations, supervision, support
and management. The findings imply that two of these
attributes, laws and regulations and management plays huge
role in the implementations of e-learning in Iran. Thus, more
focus has to be put towards these two without decreasing the
focus level towards other elements mentioned earlier.
Last but not least, [12] focusing on the readiness of PhD
students in engaging to the e-learning environment in their
learning experience. A group of PhD students from the
Christian University of Thailand from the first and other years
were selected to be the respondents involved. Six aspects were
taken into account in measuring the e-learning readiness of the
students. These aspects are technology access, online skill and
relationship, motivation, online audio/video, internet
discussion, and importance to success. From the study, it is to
be found that PhD students show great promising of their e-
learning readiness level, especially for the technology access
aspect while motivation shows the least promising aspect.
Furthermore, the differences of year between respondents as
well as their gender show no significant influence towards their
e-learning readiness level. Finally this research hopefully will
be the starting point for the implementation of training for
discussion skills on the internet as well as to innovate any
interactive programs towards the enhancement of the students'
e-learning readiness level.
B. Instruments
As the other existing assessment, e-learning readiness
assessment could also use a different number of instrument or
perhaps a combination of multiple instruments, if necessary.
The right and suitable selection of the instrument to be used in
the assessment is important in gaining the findings needed as
well as appropriate to the needs of the respondents. If the
instrument used is a product of a development of the
researcher, it should be verified by experts who are familiar
with not only the e-learning itself but the course the e-learning
is being implemented within.
As the study conducted by [3] is focusing on the
development of the instrument itself, therefore it consists of
several which mainly is to verify the phase of the instrument. It
was started off by using the self assessment instrument
developed by [13] as the instrument to be used within the
initial phase. There were a total number of 40 items which
were divided into 10 dimensions such of those are technology
skills, online readings, and internet chat. Each one of the
dimensions plays their own role in the successfulness of the
implementation of the e-learning environment. This instrument
was intended to be used by respondents who do not have any
experiences in terms of using the technology of e-learning
previously. Hence, the evaluation is basically based on the
future behaviors of those respondents respectively.
Most of e-learning readiness instruments do not have the
capability of ensuring its usefulness to be used in assessing the
e-learning readiness of companies in emerging countries.
These types of instruments consist of terms, phrases, and
applications that are only suitable to be used for well
developed countries and meaningless to under developed and
emerging countries. Therefore, [4] conducted a study using
perfect instruments to be used for emerging countries. The “e-
Learning Readiness Survey” (e-LRS) consists of two sections
with forty items overall. The first section focusing on the
demographic attributes of the respondents such as age, gender,
education level, position within the company, and experiences
in using computers. The second section comprises of items
based on the respondents’ self-report perceptions of their own
company e-learning readiness level. The theoretical framework
of this instrument follows the four factors implies from the
theory of "diffusion of innovation" by Everett Rogers. These
factors are technology, innovation, self-development, and
people. Additionally, each one of these factors might be
consisted of three different dimensions, mainly are resources,
skills, and attitudes. Reference [5] used two types of
instruments in their study. These instruments are “Lecturer E-
Learning Perceptual Survey Questionnaire” (LEPSQ) consists
of 35 items and the “E-Learning Readiness Survey” developed
by Marc Rosenberg which has a total number of 20 items. A 7-
point Likert scale ranging from “very strongly disagree” to
“very strongly agree” was used for both instruments.
In terms of literature review, the topic of e-learning
readiness can be said as well covered. Therefore, there are a
number of models have been suggested in assessing e-learning
readiness of different types of respondents. These developed
models were used by [6] in developing instrument to
measuring e-learning readiness simply called “E-Learning
Readiness Analysis” (ERA). The items within this instrument
are based on the self-assessment quality questionnaire
developed by [14]. Two criteria, delivery criteria and results
criteria act as the main ingredient Delivery criteria focuses on
the design of a surrounding which is suitable for any e-learning
implementation while the results criteria focuses on the level of
readiness of the organization in implementing the e-learning
environment. The e-learning readiness assessment framework
proposed by {11} consists of two major parts, which are
educational products readiness and educational processes
readiness. Educational processes implies all the unique
processes which happen within the e-learning environment,
while educational products means the results gained from those
processes which have been executed within the e-learning. By
using this proposed framework in the e-learning readiness
assessment, both procedural as well as the functional factors
will be taken into account. The validation of this framework
was confirmed by the survey carried out involving a number of
experts of e-learning environment.
C. Future Studies
There are still gaps in some of the studies discussed earlier
which can be filled by carrying out further study in the future.
The usage of more respondents in each category could give
more reliable result. For example, instead of using only one
officer of certain department of an organization, more officers
could be used to gain more reliable result. The number of
method in assessing the e-learning readiness could also be
increased in each study, Perhaps multiple instruments can be
used in a single assessment that could support each other
results acquired. Both quantitative data and qualitative data
can be used together to get a better result for instance. More
studies in assessing the non-human readiness of the e-learning
is also seemed necessary. This can be done perhaps by setting
a certain standard on how an organization can be classified as
ready or otherwise based only on their infrastructures. Finally,
more factors such as experience in using the internet,
educational background, gender, or cultural background could
also be a subject for future studies in determining whether
these factors actually influence the e-learning readiness or
As the other technology available out there, the emergence
of the implementation of e-learning environment should not be
ignored. The usage of e-learning which is conventionally
known for its use within only educational institutions has been
widen up to many organization and corporate industries.
Therefore, it is always important in assessing the readiness of
the implementation of the e-learning environment, not only for
the users but also for all the infrastructures as well as the
factors that affect either directly or indirectly to the
development of the e-learning environment. Continuous
assessment of the readiness should be taken in order for the
implementation of the e-learning to be successful.
The authors would like to thank Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia (UTM) and Ministry of Education (MoE) Malaysia
for their continuous support and encouragement in carrying out
this study. This work was supported by the Research
University Grant [R.J130000.7810.4L093] initiated by UTM
and MoE.
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... Kaur and Abas (2004a) highlighted technological readiness as a key driver of OLT. Hashim and Tasir (2014) interpreted e-readiness as competency for adjustment to new learning environments including the "electronic learning system" (p. 267) and its technological tools. ...
... 267) and its technological tools. Darab andMontazer (2011) andvan Zyl et al. (2013) believed that e-ready online instructors should efficiently and effectively apply technology as needed for OLT when using an ELS (Darab and Montazer 2011;Gay 2016;Hashim and Tasir 2014;Hung et al. 2014). E-ROT includes their familiarization with using information and communication technology (Gay 2016;Hung et al. 2014). ...
... E-ROT includes their familiarization with using information and communication technology (Gay 2016;Hung et al. 2014). Thus, a holistic approach to e-learning readiness calls for addressing the technological, social, and organizational preparedness of users for ELS (Hashim and Tasir 2014 In their new roles, teachers must use various teaching methods, establish social relationships with students, take on administrative and organizational tasks, and provide technical support (Coppola et al. 2002). Technological readiness requires desire and willingness to embrace change and use new technologies to accomplish goals. ...
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... Human resources are one of the important factors because human resources are energy that functions as work input that will run the learning model. However, human resources are also determined by other elements such as the environment, infrastructure, and support from the environment (Hashim & Tasir, 2014;Hendrastomo, 2008). The readiness of the human factor is also determined by other factors, the determining factors for the successful use of e-learning are the collaboration of teachers and students, support from educational institutions, technology, environment, and teaching materials (Agustina, 2016;Saekow, 2011). ...
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... Applying E-learning in the educational institution, it helps the universities and schools to assist their learners in enhancing their learning opportunities (The & Usagawa, 2018). ELR may be defined as the level of readiness of students, academic staff and institutions towards E-learning technologies (Hashim & Tasir, 2014). ...
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In this research, it is aimed to examine the readiness for online education of teachers who are members of the eTwinning platform (eTwinner) and who take part in the project processes that present a quality label as a result, in the context of demographic and technology usage variables and to develop suggestions in this direction. The research, based on the cross-sectional survey model, was carried out with 384 teachers working in Eskişehir and registered on the eTwinning portal in the 2022-2023 academic year. The K–12 Teachers’ Online Teaching Readiness Scale was applied. In the analysis of the data, a t-test was used for variables with two sublevels, and one-way ANOVA was used for the variables with more than two sublevels. In case of a difference in the ANOVA test, post-hoc tests were used to determine the pairwise differences. The results showed that the average level of readiness for online education of eTwinner teachers working in Eskişehir is high and the group with the highest readiness for online education is teachers with a service period of 1-10 years. Among the factors of educational technology proficiency, learner readiness, and relative usefulness, male teachers were more than female. On the other hand, it is a remarkable result in the research that female teachers have higher proficiency in pedagogical and ethical competency than male teachers, and that postgraduate teachers in technical and pedagogical, and ethical competence have higher proficiency than those with undergraduate degrees.
The COVID-19 pandemic forced many instructors to temporarily shift their courses online, pushing them to adapt—and sometimes reinvent—their teaching activities in a short period of time. For courses grounded in experiential learning (EL), the shift to virtual meetings also involved a reflection from instructors on how to best translate experiential elements (whether classroom-based activities, assignments, or even the overall format of the course) online. We argue that decisions as to whether and how to adapt these experiential elements were guided by heuristics, allowing instructors to draw on their implicit theories of EL to adjust and design these components of their courses. Seizing the opportunity to examine management educators’ core beliefs, we interviewed 23 instructors with prior experience using experiential learning. Through our discussions, we explored their reflections on, and experiences with, integrating EL into their online courses at the outset of the pandemic. Our results suggest that implicit theories of EL helped instructors decide how to modify these components of their courses, ascertain potential risks for their students, and determine how to mitigate these risks.KeywordsImplicit theories of experiential learningExperiential learningOnline coursesCOVID-19 pandemicHeuristicsInstructor perceptions
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The volume presents research that emerges from the 9th international Adult Education Academy (2022), which brings together researchers, students and practitioners from around the world to share perspectives comparatively. More than 80 participants from almost 20 different countries have exchanged, compared and expanded their individual knowledge and experience on adult learning and education. This volume consisting of eight contributions (including one fundamental article beforehand) assumes that globalisation affects national, regional and local levels of adult learning and education. Transformational relations are observed and analysed through the lens of participation, sustainability and digitalisation. All contributions apply an international comparative research approach to empirically investigate these areas with their upcoming needs. This approach takes place under consideration of comparison as a research method which not only grounds on a long tradition and relies on a set of rules and techniques, but also on an inner attitude and sensitivity with which we look at the world and its global needs while trying to understand.
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Widened access is one of the main features of present-day higher education (HE) policies worldwide. International organisations such as the OECD, UNESCO, and the European Union have advocated the need to increase the participation of other groups beyond the so-called traditional students. On the one hand, arguments of an economic, egalitarian, and social justice nature underlie international organisations’ political guidelines. On the other hand, the ageing of Western societies and the spread of new public management policies have placed additional pressure on national HE systems and institutions. Under these circumstances, new groups of students, referred to as non-traditional students, are attending HE. This paper focuses on mature women students in Germany, Palestine, and Portugal whose HE experiences have remained underexplored in terms of motivations, barriers, and support mechanisms. The research follows the comparative method developed by Egetenmeyer (2012). The comparative analysis points to the existence of different types of HE systems and institutions in terms of the barriers with which non-traditional students in general and mature women, in particular, are confronted and the support mechanisms at their disposal. The results contribute to establishing the first recommendations for country-specific HE systems and institution policies to improve the conditions for mature women students.
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The digital transformation of our societies brings new possibilities and new challenges. To shape this transformation in a self-determined and reflexive manner, digital compe-tencies are necessary. The education system in general, and adult education in particular , are addressed as relevant social spaces for acquiring these competencies and considering how educators develop them. We analyse strategies for digital competence development against the backdrop of the interplay of different levels of policy making. First, European guidelines (mega level) are analysed and, then, the national (macro level) governmental strategies are studied. We present findings from interviews with adult education students on the development of their digital competencies (micro level). To analytically differentiate the impact of policies at these levels, we conduct an international comparison of two European Union countries (Portugal and Italy). Drawing on Egetenmeyer (2016), categories of comparison are developed, the two country cases are juxtaposed, and the commonalities and differences are interpreted. Our results contribute to academic reflection on national characteristics in digitalisation discourse and enrich the practical development of strategies.
The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a shift to online education, and work from home is becoming the new normal for teachers. Key areas of interest in this context are teacher readiness, online teaching, and working from home. Through a rigorous literature survey, this paper identifies gaps, looks for possibilities, and identifies factors affecting teacher readiness, online teaching, and working from home for online teachers. Five main areas for intervention are identified: keeping online audience attention, technology and preliminary infrastructure, social and emotional factors of online teachers, learner readiness, and effective management. The future course of research is also discussed.KeywordsTeacher readinessOnline teachingWork from homeE-learningOnline teachersOnline students
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It is challenging to enhance quality of e-learning. We based the quality assessment on the EFQM and the Kirkpatrick models. We built our own SEVAQ quality model on which we based our multi-functional self-evaluation questionnaire. We focused and limited ourselves on the valuable learners feedback. Our questionnaire is structured around the 3 main criteria: the enabling learning resources, learning processes and the learning results. Questions are linked with their criteria and subcriteria. The SEVAQ tool addresses the designer of the questionnaire as well as the learner, being the evaluator and so being the user of the questionnaire. The designer selects on a flexible way a set of relevant questions to be answered by the learner. After finishing the questionnaire by the learner, the system analysis the results
Conference Paper
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Nowadays, e-Learning is a common delivery media for education in many universities. The purpose of this study is to measure an individual’s perceived readiness to engage in e-Learning of PhD. students. The samples were 41 PhD. students in the first and others year at Christian University of Thailand. The e-Learning readiness was measured through self-assessment tool, (Watkins, Leigh and Triner, 2004) six aspects: Technology Access, Online Skill and Relationship, Motivation, Online Audio/Video, Internet Discussion and Importance to Your Success. The study found that the majority of PhD. students demonstrated total high score level of e-Learning readiness. Looking through each factor, the average score was high and highest, especially; Technology Acceptance’s average score was the highest. The Motivation average score was the lowest. Further, the study found that PhD. students of different year (1st year, 2nd year and 3rd to 6th year), different ages (31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years), different gender (female-male), different discipline (nursing management, hospital management, public and private management, educational administration) and different experiences in using computers (with experience- no experience) showed statistically indifferent average score of e-Learning readiness. This research proposal should include training for discussion skills on the Internet to date and should innovate effective educational programs of instruction for Ph.D. students.
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This study investigated the preparedness of the academic lecturers for the introduction of e-learning at the International Islamic University Malaysia. The response rate was 98% totaling 324 respondents. Initial findings revealed that e-learning training and e-learning confidence were statistically significant predictors of both e-learning adoption and e- learning readiness. These variables have practical importance for the study and these results were replicated in the cross-validation analyses. Phase two showed that the academic staff was making progress, but more efforts would be worthwhile to overcome some hindrances, which were related to infrastructure and lack of personal capability. Finally, the amount of variance explained was above 30 percent and the expected error rate for any prediction is approximately ±9 percent. The results showed two strong influences of e-learning confidence and e-learning training on both e-learning adoption and e-learning readiness, and a somewhat lesser influence of gender on e-learning adoption and e-learning readiness.
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Today, e-learning is a common delivery media for education and training within many organizations. Yet, while both the supply and demand for e-learning opportunities has risen in recent years, many professionals are beginning to question whether e-learn-ers are prepared to be successful in an online learning environment (e.g., Gug-lielmino & Guglielmino, 2003; Watkins & Corry, 2005). After all, a learner's demonstrated success in a conventional education and training classroom may not be an adequate predictor of success in an e-learning classroom.One way of gauging a potential online learner's readiness is through self-assessment. As a first step in defining an instrument that measures an e-learner's readiness, with the cooperation of volunteer participants from the U.S. Coast Guard, this study looked into the validity and internal consistency of items within a self-assessment of e-learning readiness that is under development, and provided data for the continuing development and revision of the instrument. Having demonstrated evidence of internal consistency and construct validity, the self-assessment now provides a tool for continuing research into the prediction of e-learning performance.Funding for this study was provided by the International Society for Performance Improvement.
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Information technologies have caused the accumulation and interaction of knowledge to be increasingly reshaped with significant ramifications affecting the processes of acquisition, communication and dissemination of knowledge in almost all societies. In the meantime, assessing the capabilities of the educational system for the successful introduction and implementation of e-learning programs – namely, e-learning readiness – is of paramount importance for the goals of the national higher education to be achieved.To serve the above purpose, this survey attempts to propose a proper framework for strengthening the existing capabilities and identifying possible deficits. As such, the first part of the paper elaborates on an appropriate model developed for assessing e-learning readiness of the Iranian higher education institutions based on comparative studies as well as the national experts’ views. It is noteworthy that the proposed model has been objectively tailored in accordance with particular features and local characteristics of the country, and has eventually been applied and tested against real situation in one of the most prestigious national universities for complementary studies. Thus, it is assumed flexibly adaptable and safely advisable to be practically applied for assessing e-learning readiness in all of the universities country wide.
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Electronic learning (e-learning) is seen as a good solution for organisations that deal with fast-changing knowledge and for reducing the cost of training. E-learning is a good opportunity for companies but it needs to be well prepared because it often takes high investment costs. That is why it is important for a company to know if it is e-ready. E-readiness is already well covered in the literature and several models are suggested. We used these models to develop an e-learning readiness measurement instrument and questionnaire. We used our instrument to check whether the Flemish hospitals were e-ready for e-learning.
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In order to benefit from e-learning, companies should conduct considerable up-front analysis to assess their readiness. There are a number of instruments in the market that can be used for assessing readiness for e- learning. However, almost all of these instruments are developed to be used in countries that have a mature field of human resources development. So, these instruments consist of terms, phrases, and applications that are meaningless for many companies in especially emerging countries where human resources development field has just shown an improvement. This article includes the description of a survey instrument that has been developed to assess e-learning readiness of companies in these kinds of countries and the results of a study that examines organizational readiness of companies for e-learning in Turkey. The study reveals that companies surveyed are overall ready for e-learning but they need to improve need to improve themselves, particularly in the area of human resources, in order to be able to successfully implement e-learning. Although this instrument has been developed according to the cultural characteristics of Turkish companies it can easily be adapted to be used by companies of other emerging countries.
E learning is becoming increasingly prominent in higher education, with universities increasing provision and more students signing up. This research measures the students' e readiness for e learning at the faculties of tourism and hotels in Egypt which influenced by a number of factors and dimensions. These are technical skills, learning skills and time management behavior. This may help Tourism faculties to promote the use of IT in teaching and learning and also apply e learning effectively in these faculties to make qualified students for market work. Data was collected through an interview based on a questionnaire of 62 students of tourism studies and hotel management departments. Also this research is based on a basic hypothesis that there is a shortage and insufficient of students e readiness for e learning. E readiness model is utilized in this research.. I. Using developed information and communication technologies (ICT) in learning process have been increased the interest by both academic and non academic institutions in e learning. The Increasing of e learning especially in higher education raises the issue of quality resulting in both theoretical and practical evidence of how to achieve high quality as well as benefiting from e learning (Ismail, 2008). As a nation, Egypt is only just beginning to engage with e learning and as a result, it is believed that many people within the country fully understand or appreciate the power and benefits provided by e learning (Gohneim, 2008). In tourism sector, tourism is the fourth largest exported service in the world, representing of global exports of 7 % of good & services or 30% of services exports alone (Egyptian Tourism Federation, 2008). Egypt has no doubt been effects by this international development that the tourism sector is estimated to generate a total of 18.8$ billion in both direct and indirect economy (Egyptian Ministry of tourism, 2007. To meet this growth in demand, accommodation capacity has also been grown. It based out demand growth with 9% increase in capacity over 2005-2010. In addition, it has been observed growth of tourism related service and facilities during 2005-2009, such as travel agents, restaurants, cafeterias and moreover environmental awareness. Furthermore, the planned expansion of faculties and institutions of tourism and hotels management should further enhance tourism performance in coming years (Abdelwahab, 2006). So, tourism industry needs better students and more students in field of tourism and Hotels management. It needs also academics as the world moves towards the 2015 target of education for all, and we need raise the skills of the existing tourism studies and hotel management academics, one of the ways to strengthening education process is E learning (Waring, s.(2006) & Elshenawi, 2007)&(Nermin, 2007).E learning in the university context is influenced by a number of factors. However, the researcher particular interest in this paper in the e readiness of the students for e learning at the Egyptian faculties of tourism and hotels in Fayoum, Menia, Helwan and Alex. This is to the increasing and flexible market that is difficult to research by only traditional education.