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Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and prevention of late-life cognitive decline and dementia: A systematic review

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Abstract

A prolonged preclinical phase of more than two decades before the onset of dementia suggested that initial brain changes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the symptoms of advanced AD may represent a unique continuum. Given the very limited therapeutic value of drugs currently used in the treatment of AD and dementia, preventing or postponing the onset of AD and delaying or slowing its progression are becoming mandatory. Among possible reversible risk factors of dementia and AD, vascular, metabolic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the development of dementia and late-life cognitive disorders, opening new avenues for the prevention of these diseases. Among diet-associated factors, coffee is regularly consumed by millions of people around the world and owing to its caffeine content, it is the best known psychoactive stimulant resulting in heightened alertness and arousal and improvement of cognitive performance. Besides its short-term effect, some case-control and cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies evaluated the long-term effects on brain function and provided some evidence that coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or higher plasma caffeine levels may be protective against cognitive impairment/decline and dementia. In particular, several cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies suggested a protective effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine use against late-life cognitive impairment/decline, although the association was not found in all cognitive domains investigated and there was a lack of a distinct dose-response association, with a stronger effect among women than men. The findings on the association of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or plasma caffeine levels with incident mild cognitive impairment and its progression to dementia were too limited to draw any conclusion. Furthermore, for dementia and AD prevention, some studies with baseline examination in midlife pointed to a lack of association, although other case-control and longitudinal population-based studies with briefer follow-up periods supported favourable effects of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption against AD. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods should be encouraged, addressing other potential bias and confounding sources, so hopefully opening new ways for diet-related prevention of dementia and AD.

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... Ao traçarmos uma relação causal, observa-se, claramente, que o avanço da medicina e o aumento global da expectativa de vida criam um ambiente propício para a senilidade; portanto, o fato de que o envelhecimento da população aumenta a prevalência de doenças que advém dessa condição, requer novos conhecimentos, tratamentos e medidas preventivas para que o impacto nas sociedades ao redor do mundo seja o menor possível e a expectativa de vida, junto ao bem-estar, estejam em pauta (Panza et al., 2015). Nesse sentido, sabemos que as síndromes demenciais tem um papel importante nesse cenário, mundialmente, a Doença de Alzheimer (DA) é responsável por 50-70% dos casos, seguida pela Doença de Parkinson (DP) (Londzin et al., 2021;Hong et al., 2020), além de outras doenças como a Demência Vascular. ...
... O café é uma das bebidas mais consumidas no mundo e suas propriedades psicoativas, resultam numa melhora temporária da cognição e ativa o estado de vigília. As propriedades antioxidantes e outros benefícios do café exercem efeitos sistêmicos e em diversas patologias, como no diabetes e no infarto agudo isquêmico e hemorrágico, além de evidências positivas na DP e na DA, em geral advindas da cafeína; não obstante, existem relatos sobre a participação de outras substâncias, comprovadas, também, por experimentos com a ingestão do café livre de cafeína (Carman et al., 2014;Panza et al., 2015). Porém, a expressão dos efeitos da cafeína -presente no café, na erva mate, na cola, no guaraná e em bebidas energéticas -em si, são dependentes de diversos fatores, sendo que a dose é um ponto crucial, já que os níveis delimitados seguros estão entre 400mg por dia, de acordo com a European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), considerando que em um copo de aproximadamente 473mL de café coado está presente, em média, 188mg de cafeína (Kolahdouzan & Hamadeh, 2017). ...
... Quanto as constatações em humanos, um estudo longitudinal acompanhou, durante 21 anos, 875 mulheres e 534 homens com mais de 50 anos, relatando que um consumo moderado, entre 3-5 copos por dia reduziu o risco de DA em 62%-64% em comparação com pessoas que ingeriram de zero a dois copos por dia (Eskelinen et al., 2009;Kolahdouzan & Hamadeh, 2017), outro estudo, realizado no Canadá, pela análise de 10.263 pessoas acima de 65 anos, confirmou a redução de 31% no risco de DA naqueles com a ingesta de café (Kolahdouzan & Hamadeh, 2017). Outra revisão analisou uma gama de estudos, com relações condizentes com as já citadas, entretanto, um estudo longitudinal, realizado durante 28 anos, com participantes entre 46-52 anos, com a ingestão média de 5.4 copos de café por dia, não confirmou o benefício da ingestão de café, durante a meia idade, no desenvolvimento de DA (Panza et al., 2015). Por fim, outro trabalho de revisão, pela análise de cinco estudos prospectivos relacionou as dosagem de três a quatro copos (aproximadamente 300mg) como a melhor dosagem com efeito protetor quanto ao desenvolvimento de DA, enquanto outros dois pequenos estudos relatam esse nível entre 62mg/dia e 200mg/dia (Carman et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Introdução: A prevalência da Doença de Alzheimer (DA) e da Doença de Parkinson (DP), tende a aumentar com o envelhecimento populacional. Até o momento, os esquemas terapêuticos para essas doenças não consegue alcançar a cura e geralmente não são atualizados, o que evidencia a necessidade de outras opções para a melhora da qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Dado que essas síndromes demenciais tem etiologia multifatorial, a dieta, por meio do café, tem mostrado evidências significativas na degeneração neuronal, que é um dos principais aspectos alterados no desenvolvimento dessas patologias. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, que buscou responder quais os possíveis efeitos da cafeína como fator protetor no desenvolvimento e na progressão da revisional e da DP, nas bases de dados: Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), National Library of Medicine (PubMed MEDLINE) e Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo). Resultados e Discussão: A cafeína age no sistema nervoso central (SNC) pela mimetização aos receptores de adenosina, mais concentrada nos receptores A1R e A2aR. Como antagonista competitivo, a cafeína, eventualmente, poderia reduz os processos de formação das placas b-amiloides na DA e reduzir a neuroinflamação e neurodegeneração na DP, além de outros possíveis mecanismos. Conclusão: A delimitação de um consenso sobre a relação dose/efeito decorrente do uso da cafeína é de difícil estabelecimento e ainda não se observa um consenso, entretanto, é possível observar que um consumo entre 200mg a 511mg por dia poderia trazer efeitos benéficos tanto na DP, como na DA, superando os possíveis efeitos colaterais.
... In recent years, an increasing attention towards the beneficial impact of coffee also on some neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders has been noted, although epidemiological studies did not reach consensus regarding a protective effect of caffeine on the risk of cognitive impairment. While several findings have reported a coffee-related protection on cognition (Panza et al. 2015;Rom an et al. 2019), a detailed neuropsychological assessment was rarely carried out and a firm association has not been established yet, at least not for every cognitive domain (Panza et al. 2015). The same holds true for a consensus on a dose-response association with mood status or cognitive performance (Jarvis 1993;Johnson-Kozlow et al. 2002;Gelber et al. 2011;Lucas et al. 2011;Panza et al. 2015). ...
... In recent years, an increasing attention towards the beneficial impact of coffee also on some neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders has been noted, although epidemiological studies did not reach consensus regarding a protective effect of caffeine on the risk of cognitive impairment. While several findings have reported a coffee-related protection on cognition (Panza et al. 2015;Rom an et al. 2019), a detailed neuropsychological assessment was rarely carried out and a firm association has not been established yet, at least not for every cognitive domain (Panza et al. 2015). The same holds true for a consensus on a dose-response association with mood status or cognitive performance (Jarvis 1993;Johnson-Kozlow et al. 2002;Gelber et al. 2011;Lucas et al. 2011;Panza et al. 2015). ...
... While several findings have reported a coffee-related protection on cognition (Panza et al. 2015;Rom an et al. 2019), a detailed neuropsychological assessment was rarely carried out and a firm association has not been established yet, at least not for every cognitive domain (Panza et al. 2015). The same holds true for a consensus on a dose-response association with mood status or cognitive performance (Jarvis 1993;Johnson-Kozlow et al. 2002;Gelber et al. 2011;Lucas et al. 2011;Panza et al. 2015). ...
Article
Coffee intake has been recently associated with better cognition and mood in mild vascular cognitive impairment (mVCI). As tobacco can reduce the caffeine half-life, we excluded smokers from the original sample. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Stroop Colour-Word Interference Test (Stroop), activities of daily living (ADL0) and instrumental ADL were the outcome measures. Significant differences were observed in higher consumption groups (moderate intake for HDRS; high intake for MMSE and Stroop) compared to the other groups, as well as in age and education. With age, education and coffee used as independent predictors, and HDRS, Stroop and MMSE as dependent variables, a correlation was found between age and both MMSE and Stroop, as well as between education and MMSE and between HDRS and Stroop; coffee intake negatively correlated with HDRS and Stroop. Higher coffee consumption was associated with better psycho-cognitive status among non-smokers with mVCI.
... Further caffeine intake comes from tea, energy or sports drinks, and various chocolate products (Fitt et al., 2013). While many advocates for the neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects of caffeine (McLellan et al., 2016;Panza et al., 2015), others proposed that the magnitude of these benefits are negligible, furthermore, a higher dose can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health (Nehlig, 2010(Nehlig, , 1999. As past literature tended to treat memory as a subset of cognitive functions, the specific effect of caffeine on memory has not been thoroughly discussed. ...
... Similar interactions between caffeine and sex, where a larger protective effect for females than males has been reported in a systematic review (Panza et al., 2015). However, Panza et al. (2015) focused on the role of habitual caffeine consumption in preventing cognitive decline and dementia, without detailing mechanisms underlying this sex effect. ...
... Similar interactions between caffeine and sex, where a larger protective effect for females than males has been reported in a systematic review (Panza et al., 2015). However, Panza et al. (2015) focused on the role of habitual caffeine consumption in preventing cognitive decline and dementia, without detailing mechanisms underlying this sex effect. Given the various metabolic pathways of caffeine, habitual consumption may participate in physiological processes that affect global cognition (de Mejia and Ramirez-Mares, 2014), but this does not translate to the effect of caffeine on memory tasks in the healthy population. ...
Article
Caffeine is a widely used nootropic drug, but its effects on memory in healthy participants have not been sufficiently evaluated. Here we review evidence of the effects of caffeine on different types of memory, and the associated drug, experimental, and demographical factors. There is limited evidence that caffeine affects performance in memory tasks beyond improved reaction times. For drug factors, a dose-response relationship may exist but findings are inconsistent. Moreover, there is evidence that the source of caffeine can modulate its effects on memory. For experimental factors, past studies often lacked a baseline control for diet and sleep and none discussed the possible reversal of withdrawal effect due to pre-experimental fasting. For demographic factors, caffeine may interact with sex and age, and the direction of the effect may depend on the dose, individual tolerance, and metabolism at baseline. Future studies should incorporate these considerations, as well as providing continued evidence on the effect of caffeine in visuospatial, prospective, and implicit memory measures.
... Although people with MCI have a greater risk of dementia, many studies have reported that it is possible to prevent progression to dementia by controlling environmental factors such as dietary habits, exercise, and chronic disease management (Eshkoor et al., 2015;Jiang et al., 2017). Several studies have recently investigated the associations between cognitive function and dietary factors, including certain foods and nutrients (Panza et al., 2015;Jiang et al., 2017). Adequate consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (Cederholm et al., 2013), fruits and vegetables (Dong et al., 2016;Jiang et al., 2017), dairy products (Ogata et al., 2016), and moderate alcohol consumption (Xu et al., 2017) have been reported to have protective effects against disease. ...
... Adequate consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (Cederholm et al., 2013), fruits and vegetables (Dong et al., 2016;Jiang et al., 2017), dairy products (Ogata et al., 2016), and moderate alcohol consumption (Xu et al., 2017) have been reported to have protective effects against disease. However, the association between dietary factors and the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia remains unclear (Panza et al., 2015;Kesse-Guyot et al., 2016;Smith and Blumenthal, 2016). ...
... A recent systematic review of several cross-sectional studies and longitudinal population-based studies suggested that coffee and tea intake had a protective effect on cognitive impairment in older people. Although there were some limitations (such as using a dose-response analysis and cognitive domains), this review reported that this association was stronger in females than in males (Panza et al., 2015). Barbour et al. (2014) examined the effects of nut consumption on blood pressure, glucose regulation, endothelial vasodilator function, arterial compliance, inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function through several epidemiological or intervention studies. ...
Article
The prevalence of age-related diseases such as dementia and cognitive disorders is rapidly increasing. This study aimed to identify the dietary patterns associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in adults aged over 50 years. This cross-sectional study investigated dietary patterns associated with cognitive function among older adults hospitalized in Gwangju province. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Diet information was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire with 112 food items and 24-h dietary recall. Using a principal component analysis, we identified three dietary patterns, "legumes and vegetables", "beverage and nuts", and "white rice". The "beverage and nuts" pattern was inversely associated with the prevalence of high MCI after adjusting for covariates (third vs. first tertile, adjusted odds ratio: 0.333; 95% confidence interval: 0.133∼0.831; P<0.05). The white rice pattern was associated with the prevalence of MCI in the crude analysis. However, after adjusting for all confounding factors, no association was found. The "beverage and nuts" pattern was inversely associated with the prevalence of MCI. In the future, longitudinal population-based studies and randomized clinical trials are required to confirm the effect of potential dietary patterns on cognitive impairment and reveal the underlying mechanism of their association.
... Further caffeine intake comes from tea, energy or sports drinks, and various chocolate products (Fitt et al., 2013). While many advocates for the neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects of caffeine (McLellan et al., 2016;Panza et al., 2015), others proposed that the magnitude of these benefits are negligible, furthermore, a higher dose can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health (Nehlig, 2010(Nehlig, , 1999. As past literature tended to treat memory as a subset of cognitive functions, the specific effect of caffeine on memory has not been thoroughly discussed. ...
... Similar interactions between caffeine and sex, where a larger protective effect for females than males has been reported in a systematic review (Panza et al., 2015). However, Panza et al. (2015) focused on the role of habitual caffeine consumption in preventing cognitive decline and dementia, without detailing mechanisms underlying this sex effect. ...
... Similar interactions between caffeine and sex, where a larger protective effect for females than males has been reported in a systematic review (Panza et al., 2015). However, Panza et al. (2015) focused on the role of habitual caffeine consumption in preventing cognitive decline and dementia, without detailing mechanisms underlying this sex effect. Given the various metabolic pathways of caffeine, habitual consumption may participate in physiological processes that affect global cognition (de Mejia and Ramirez-Mares, 2014), but this does not translate to the effect of caffeine on memory tasks in the healthy population. ...
Preprint
Caffeine is a widely used nootropic drug, but its effects on memory in healthy participants have not been sufficiently evaluated. Here we review evidence of the effects of caffeine on different types of memory, and the associated drug, experimental, and demographical factors. There is limited evidence that caffeine affects performance in memory tasks beyond improved reaction times. For drug factors, a dose-response relationship may exist but findings are inconsistent. Moreover, there is evidence that the source of caffeine can modulate its effects on memory. For experimental factors, past studies often lacked a baseline control for diet and sleep and none discussed the possible reversal of withdrawal effect due to pre-experimental fasting. For demographic factors, caffeine may interact with sex and age, and the direction of the effect may depend on the dose, individual tolerance, and metabolism at baseline. Future studies should incorporate these considerations, as well as providing continued evidence on the effect of caffeine in visuospatial, prospective, and implicit memory measures.
... Some dietary components of the Mediterranean diet have been traditionally considered as preventing factors of cardiovascular diseases (including stroke), and some age-related cognitive disorders (such as AD and VaD) [32][33][34][35][36]. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the exploration of the role of coffee intake in some neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, although large epidemiological investigations are still inconclusive in terms of a protective role of caffeine in the risk of cognitive disorders. Indeed, while many studies have found a protective role of coffee in cognitive impairment [37], an extensive neuropsychological evaluation was not always performed, and the association was not found, or at least not for all, cognitive domains [37]. Similarly, there is still no consensus regarding a dose-response effect on cognition or mood [37][38][39][40][41]. ...
... Some dietary components of the Mediterranean diet have been traditionally considered as preventing factors of cardiovascular diseases (including stroke), and some age-related cognitive disorders (such as AD and VaD) [32][33][34][35][36]. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the exploration of the role of coffee intake in some neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, although large epidemiological investigations are still inconclusive in terms of a protective role of caffeine in the risk of cognitive disorders. Indeed, while many studies have found a protective role of coffee in cognitive impairment [37], an extensive neuropsychological evaluation was not always performed, and the association was not found, or at least not for all, cognitive domains [37]. Similarly, there is still no consensus regarding a dose-response effect on cognition or mood [37][38][39][40][41]. ...
... Indeed, while many studies have found a protective role of coffee in cognitive impairment [37], an extensive neuropsychological evaluation was not always performed, and the association was not found, or at least not for all, cognitive domains [37]. Similarly, there is still no consensus regarding a dose-response effect on cognition or mood [37][38][39][40][41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
To date, interest in the role of coffee intake in the occurrence and course of age-related neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders has provided an inconclusive effect. Moreover, no study has evaluated mocha coffee consumption in subjects with mild vascular cognitive impairment and late-onset depression. We assessed the association between different quantities of mocha coffee intake over the last year and cognitive and mood performance in a homogeneous sample of 300 non-demented elderly Italian subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular disease. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Stroop Colour-Word Interference Test (Stroop T), 17-items Hamilton Depression Rating Scalfe (HDRS), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and Instrumental ADL were the outcome measures. MMSE, HDRS, and Stroop T were independently and significantly associated with coffee consumption, i.e., better scores with increasing intake. At the post-hoc analyses, it was found that the group with a moderate intake (two cups/day) had similar values compared to the heavy drinkers (≥three cups/day), with the exception of MMSE. Daily mocha coffee intake was associated with higher cognitive and mood status, with a significant dose-response association even with moderate consumption. This might have translational implications for the identification of modifiable factors for vascular dementia and geriatric depression.
... Coffee, the most heavily consumed caffeinated beverage, has been a popular research topic in AD, with several epidemiological studies positing its neuroprotective effect [9]. Coffee comprises a few independently neuroprotective components: caffeine, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and trigonelline [10]. ...
... Trigonelline from coffee beans has been shown to alleviate neuronal loss by reducing oxidative stress, astrocyte activity, and neuroinflammation while preserving mitochondrial integrity [13]. The neuroprotective properties of coffee have been heavily linked to its high caffeine content, but this has been difficult to demonstrate independently through epidemiological studies due to the confounding effect of other components in caffeinated beverages [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, predicted to be the most significant health burden of the 21st century, with an estimated 131.5 million dementia patients by the year 2050. This review aims to provide an overview of the effect of caffeine on AD and cognition by summarizing relevant research conducted on this topic. We searched the Web of Science core collection and PubMed for studies related to the effect of caffeine on AD and cognition using title search terms: caffeine; coffee; Alzheimer's; cognition. There is suggestive evidence from clinical studies that caffeine is neuroprotective against dementia and possibly AD (20 out of 30 studies support this), but further studies, such as the "ideal" study proposed in this review, are required to prove this link. Clinical studies also indicate that caffeine is a cognitive normalizer and not a cognitive enhancer. Furthermore, clinical studies suggest the neuroprotective effect of caffeine might be confounded by gender. There is robust evidence based on in vivo and in vitro studies that caffeine has neuroprotective properties in AD animal models (21 out of 22 studies support this), but further studies are needed to identify the mechanistic pathways mediating these effects.
... In non-clinical populations, poor cognitive functioning has been associated with increased smoking (Campos, Serebrisky, & Castaldelli-Maia, 2016), alcohol drinking (Topiwala & Ebmeier, 2018), and cannabis use (Curran et al., 2016), although for impaired response inhibition specifically there are contradicting findings (Liu et al., 2019b). Although caffeine is often thought to have acute beneficial effects on cognition (Irwin, Khalesi, Desbrow, & McCartney, 2020), there is evidence that contests this (Galindo, Navarro, & Cavas, 2020;Weibel et al., 2020) and its long(er) term effects remain unclear (Cornelis, Weintraub, & Morris, 2020;Panza et al., 2015). ...
... For caffeine, research has focussed predominately on cognitive functioning or sleep. The largest available systematic review, including 28 studies, concluded that there is some evidence that caffeine is protective against cognitive decline (Panza et al., 2015). Despite the fact that caffeine has stimulating properties which are thought to interfere with sleep acutely, a cohort study in 26 305 adolescents with a follow-up of 4 years found no association between average daily caffeine consumption and sleep duration (Patte, Qian, & Leatherdale, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Poor mental health has consistently been associated with substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking, cannabis use, and consumption of caffeinated drinks). To properly inform public health policy it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying these associations, and most importantly, whether or not they are causal. Methods In this pre-registered systematic review, we assessed the evidence for causal relationships between mental health and substance use from Mendelian randomization (MR) studies, following PRISMA. We rated the quality of included studies using a scoring system that incorporates important indices of quality, such as the quality of phenotype measurement, instrument strength, and use of sensitivity methods. Results Sixty-three studies were included for qualitative synthesis. The final quality rating was ‘−’ for 16 studies, ‘– +’ for 37 studies, and ‘+’for 10 studies. There was robust evidence that higher educational attainment decreases smoking and that there is a bi-directional, increasing relationship between smoking and (symptoms of) mental disorders. Another robust finding was that higher educational attainment increases alcohol use frequency, but decreases binge-drinking and alcohol use problems, and that mental disorders causally lead to more alcohol drinking without evidence for the reverse. Conclusions The current MR literature increases our understanding of the relationship between mental health and substance use. Bi-directional causal relationships are indicated, especially for smoking, providing further incentive to strengthen public health efforts to decrease substance use. Future MR studies should make use of large(r) samples in combination with detailed phenotypes, a wide range of sensitivity methods, and triangulate with other research methods.
... The best-known antioxidants include plant polyphenols such as curcumin, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Experimental studies and/or population studies suggest the possibility of beneficial effects of curcumin [3,[72][73][74], ferulic acid [3,[75][76][77], epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) [3,[78][79][80] and caffeine [18][19][20][21]23,[81][82][83] in AD treatment and prevention. ...
... Due to the not fully understood, complex pathomechanism of AD and numerous clinical failures of anti-amyloid and anti-tau drugs, it is necessary to look at strategies involving modifying factors connected with the style of life or dietary factors which potentially would counteract the development of neurodegenerative changes or delay AD progression. Caffeine, or rather its sources (coffee, tea, yerba mate), are considered factors which may exert beneficial effects in the AD-prevent the risk of developing AD and/or delay the progression of AD [81,82]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia leading to progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment. Considering that pharmacological treatment options for AD are few and not satisfactory, increasing attention is being paid to dietary components that may affect the development of the disease. Such a dietary component may be caffeine contained in coffee, tea or energy drinks. Although epidemiological data suggest that caffeine intake may counteract the development of cognitive impairment, results of those studies are not conclusive. The aim of the present study is to review the existing experimental studies on the efficacy of caffeine against AD and AD-related cognitive impairment, focusing on the proposed protective mechanisms of action. In conclusion, the reports of studies on experimental AD models generally supported the notion that caffeine may exert some beneficial effects in AD. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of caffeine in the effects of its sources on cognition and possibly AD risk.
... Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects [41].A protective effect of coffee use was reported against cognitive impairment or decline, showing stronger effects among females than males [42], but this study lacked a dose-response relationship. It was demonstrated that caffeine consumption resulted in higher levels of alertness, energy, concentration, and arousal level during lecture time as compared to placebo [43]. With respect to cognitive function and alertness, the results of our present study support the above findings [39,42,43], demonstrating higher academic performance among students consuming increased amounts of coffee. ...
... It was demonstrated that caffeine consumption resulted in higher levels of alertness, energy, concentration, and arousal level during lecture time as compared to placebo [43]. With respect to cognitive function and alertness, the results of our present study support the above findings [39,42,43], demonstrating higher academic performance among students consuming increased amounts of coffee. Moreover, in the present study, the majority of students generally got 6-8 hours of sleep, and this could have had a favorable effect on maintaining concentration during classroom lectures, leading to better academic performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, trends, and predictors of coffee consumption among Saudi female students and its association with anthropometric and demographic variables. A survey-based study using a face-to-face interview was designed, and 930 (aged 21.5 ± 2.1 years) apparently healthy female students from different departments of King Saud University participated. The prevalence of coffee consumption was significantly higher (88.2%, p < 0.03) in the central Riyadh region. Coffee consumers had significantly higher prevalence of being overweight than non-consumers (p = 0.02). The frequency of coffee consumption was significantly higher (p < 0.02) in students who were single and belonged to families with a moderate income level. Coffee consumption was significantly higher among first-year students with a high-scale grade point average (GPA) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively). Increased coffee consumption during exam and stress conditions was associated with unhealthy dietary habits such as using more sugar and spices. The prevalence of coffee consumption was high among Saudi females. High body mass index (BMI) and increased family income level were strong determinants for coffee consumption. Continued nutritional education and awareness about the potential positive and negative health effects of coffee consumption and the importance of food label use should be provided to younger generations in order to correct the wrong perceptions.
... Clinical studies suggest acute intakes of caffeine benefit tasks involving memory, concentration, and reaction time (RT) (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11). However, studies of habitual caffeine intake and cognitive function, most feasibly done in an observational setting, have yielded mixed results (12). Observational studies may be biased by misclassification of caffeine "exposure" due to the use of self-reported coffee or tea cups as a unit of measure but also the known between-person variation in caffeine metabolism, which impacts duration of exposure to caffeine and its effects (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18). ...
... In our opinion, tea consumption may actually represent a novel marker of socioeconomic status in the UK Biobank not captured by other data collected and may be useful in future epidemiological analysis of this cohort. In a systematic review of cross-sectional studies, habitual coffee, tea, and caffeine intake generally associated with better cognitive performance and lower prevalence of cognitive impairment (12). No study reported findings consistent with our current analysis. ...
Article
Background: Coffee and tea are the major contributors of caffeine in the diet. Evidence points to the premise that caffeine may benefit cognition. Objective: We examined the associations of habitual regular coffee or tea and caffeine intake with cognitive function whilst additionally accounting for genetic variation in caffeine metabolism. Methods: We included white participants aged 37-73 y from the UK Biobank who provided biological samples and completed touchscreen questionnaires regarding sociodemographic factors, medical history, lifestyle, and diet. Habitual caffeine-containing coffee and tea intake was self-reported in cups/day and used to estimate caffeine intake. Between 97,369 and 445,786 participants with data also completed ≥1 of 7 self-administered cognitive functioning tests using a touchscreen system (2006-2010) or on home computers (2014). Multivariable regressions were used to examine the association between coffee, tea, or caffeine intake and cognition test scores. We also tested interactions between coffee, tea, or caffeine intake and a genetic-based caffeine-metabolism score (CMS) on cognitive function. Results: After multivariable adjustment, reaction time, Pairs Matching, Trail Making test B, and symbol digit substitution, performance significantly decreased with consumption of 1 or more cups of coffee (all tests P-trend < 0.0001). Tea consumption was associated with poor performance on all tests (P-trend < 0.0001). No statistically significant CMS × tea, CMS × coffee, or CMS × caffeine interactions were observed. Conclusions: Our findings, based on the participants of the UK Biobank, provide little support for habitual consumption of regular coffee or tea and caffeine in improving cognitive function. On the contrary, we observed decrements in performance with intakes of these beverages which may be a result of confounding. Whether habitual caffeine intake affects cognitive function therefore remains to be tested.
... A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between higher coffee consumption and better cognitive performance [9][10][11][12][13]. Cognitive benefits from coffee consumption were typically attributed to caffeine. ...
... Our finding about coffee consumption was partially consistent with the findings from some previous studies [11][12][13]20,51]. A population-based study of 145 community-based older individuals [11] found a positive effect of coffee on cognitive performance. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine the association of coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake from coffee with cognitive performance in older adults. we used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. Coffee and caffeine intake were obtained through two 24-hour dietary recalls. Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) test, Animal Fluency test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Binary logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the association of coffee and caffeine intake with cognitive performance. A total of 2513 participants aged 60 years or older were included. In the fully adjusted model, compared to those reporting no coffee consumption, those who reported 266.4–495 (g/day) had a multivariate adjusted odd ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.56(0.35–0.89) for DSST test score, compared to those reporting no caffeinated coffee consumption, those who reported ≥384.8 (g/day) had a multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 0.68(0.48–0.97) for DSST test score, compared to the lowest quartile of caffeine intake from coffee, the multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) of the quartile (Q) three was 0.62(0.38–0.98) for the CERAD test score. L-shaped associations were apparent for coffee, caffeinated coffee and caffeine from coffee with the DSST test score and CERAD test score. No significant association was observed between decaffeinated coffee and different dimensions of cognitive performance. Our study suggests that coffee, caffeinated coffee and caffeine from coffee were associated with cognitive performance, while decaffeinated coffee was not associated with cognitive performance.
... Fruits and beverages such as tea and coffee are the main sources of dietary polyphenols, which have a positive effect on cognition and memory [19,48,49]. However, one study found that habitual coffee and tea drinking had mixed effects on cognitive improvement [50]. Scientific evidence confirmed that adequate vegetable and fruit consumption has a beneficial influence on health and can prevent cognitive impairment due to the presence of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory factors [51,52]. ...
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The aim of this study was to quantify the dietary patterns (DPs) of Polish esports players aged 18–26 years. Data were obtained via questionnaires that assessed dietary habits and frequency of food consumption. Dietary patterns were derived using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA). In total, nine distinct DPs were identified. Eight DPs were considered unhealthy; fast food', 'High-processed food, meat and confectionery', 'Sweet', 'Fat-diary products', 'Vegetable-fruit', 'Spices and additives', 'Fats' and 'Cereal'; and only one was deemed healthy. E-athletes presented mostly poor dietary habits, which included: irregular eating of meals, frequent snacking, at least three meals a day and composition of snacks, frying of meat dishes and sweetening of hot drinks. Healthy dietary habits included proper hydration during the day and consumption of mainly non-sparkling water. The unbalanced and largely unhealthy dietary habits of esports players raise health concerns for these e-athletes, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle. Future research could assess the nutritional knowledge of this group as it relates to national guidelines, investigate interventions designed to introduce healthier eating options into their lifestyle and examine the relationship between DPs and health or cognitive performance.
... Bioactive compounds abundant in matcha such as caffeine, theanine and catechins have been linked to multiple benefits to the cognitive function. Caffeine is a psychoactive stimulant that results in increased alertness and enhanced cognitive performance as reported by multiple studies and systematic reviews (Smit and Rogers, 2000;Snel and Lorist, 2011;McLellan et al., 2016;Panza et al., 2015). In addition, previous literature showed that theanine influences neurogenesis and cognitive function positively in a manner independent of other compounds found in matcha (Yoneda et al., 2019;Camfield et al., 2014). ...
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Matcha is a powdered form of Japanese green tea that has been gaining global popularity recently. Matcha tea has various health benefits, including an enhancing effect on cognitive function, cardio-metabolic health, and anti-tumorogenesis. To date, randomized clinical trials (RCT) showed that matcha decreases stress, slightly enhances attention and memory, and has no effect on mood. Results regarding the effect of matcha on cognitive function are contradictory and more RCTs are warranted. The cardio-metabolic effects of matcha have only been studied in animals, but findings were more homogenous. Consuming matcha with a high-fat diet resulted in decreased weight gain velocity, food intake, improved serum glucose and lipid profile, reduced inflammatory cytokines and ameliorated oxidative stress. Evidence regarding the anti-tumor function of matcha is very limited. Findings showed that matcha can affect proliferation, viability, antioxidant response, and cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cells. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to examine this effect on different types of cancer cells, and there is also a need to verify it using animal models. Overall, the evidence regarding the effect of matcha tea on cognitive function, cardio-metabolic function, and anti-tumor role is still limited, and conclusions cannot be drawn.
... Although from the current clinical research, it seems uncertain to draw the conclusion that the consumption of tea, especially green tea, is significantly related to the improvement of cognitive impairment in AD patients. However, scientists do not deny that tea and its effective ingredients have certain neuroprotective effects [105][106][107]. Especially in animal experiments and in vitro experiments, tea has shown a better effect on improving cognitive function [108,109]. ...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable degenerative disease of the central nervous system and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. Despite years of extensive research efforts, our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of AD is still highly limited. Nevertheless, several hypotheses related to risk factors for AD have been proposed. Moreover, plant-derived dietary polyphenols were also shown to exert protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. In this review, we summarize the regulatory effects of the most well-known plant-derived dietary polyphenols on several AD-related molecular mechanisms, such as amelioration of oxidative stress injury, inhibition of aberrant glial cell activation to alleviate neuroinflammation, inhibition of the generation and promotion of the clearance of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, inhibition of cholinesterase enzyme activity, and increase in acetylcholine levels in the brain. We also discuss the issue of bioavailability and the potential for improvement in this regard. This review is expected to encourage further research on the role of natural dietary plant polyphenols in the treatment of AD.
... Arguably the most popular supplement used to enhance performance is caffeine, which can be consumed through various drinks (e.g., coffee and energy drinks) or as pills. Caffeine increases the excitability of the sympathetic nervous system [11,46] and consequently is used to enhance alertness-although there are large individual differences with regards to the response to caffeine and its effect on cognition or physical performance [21,23,81]. However, there are many more foods and food supplements that potentially enhance performance-and the market for such products exceeds 100 billion USD, with an annual growth rate of 3-4% [87]. ...
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This work explores perceptions of performance enhancer usage in esports. Specifically, we explored the perception of: food and food supplements; non-medical use of prescription drugs; drugs with some social acceptance (e.g. alcohol, nicotine, cannabis); drugs with lower social acceptance (e.g., psychedelics, opioids); and non-invasive brain stimulation (e.g. transcranial direct current stimulation). A mixed-methods approach was used to triangulate findings around three data sets, including both prompted and unprompted online forum comments, as well as survey data. The studies evidence that players are willing to use or are already using enhancers to increase their in-game performance, and that players are generally concerned about the use of enhancers in professional esports contexts. Furthermore, the community perceives that a substantial number of e-athletes use enhancers. The core contribution of this work is a comprehensive investigation into perspectives of esports performance enhancement, which highlights the urgent need for further research, as well as regulation by esports leagues.
... The health benefit of tea includes prevention of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, reduction of body weight, and alleviation of metabolic syndrome (Zhao et al. 2015a;Yang et al. 2018). The p olyphenols in tea p oss ess antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and antibacterial properties (Zhang et al. 2013a;Abd El-Aty et al. 2014;Panza et al. 2015;Chung et al. 2020). Besides, theanine, a unique amino acid derived during tea fermentation, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects and antiviral activities against the influenza and SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) viruses including the new SARSCoV-2 (Mitsui et al. 2020;Sharma et al. 2020). ...
Article
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a high valued beverage worldwide since ancient times; more than three billion cups of tea are consumed each day. Leaf extracts of the plant are used for food preservation, cosmetics, and medicinal purposes. Nevertheless, tea contaminated with mycotoxins poses a serious health threat to humans. Mycotoxin production by tea fungi is induced by a variety of factors, including poor processing methods and environmental factors such as high temperature and humidity. This review summarizes the studies published to date on mycotoxin prevalence, toxicity, the effects of climate change on mycotoxin production, and the methods used to detect and decontaminate tea mycotoxins. While many investigations in this domain have been carried out on the prevalence of aflatoxins and ochratoxins in black, green, pu-erh, and herbal teas, much less information is available on zearalenone, fumonisins, and Alternaria toxins. Mycotoxins in teas were detected using several methods; the most commonly used being the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, followed by HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Further, mycotoxins decontamination methods for teas included physical, chemical, and biological methods, with physical methods being most prevalent. Finally, research gaps and future directions have also been discussed.
... Therefore, it is crucial that a long term, low-toxicity, and cost-effective method to treat or even prevent AD is discovered. Research has demonstrated that coffee may pose as a potential substance for AD treatment or prevention (49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56). ...
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Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disease with neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques as histopathological markers. Due to this, although AD is the leading cause of dementia worldwide, clinical AD dementia cannot be certainly diagnosed until neuropathological post-mortem evaluation. Coffee has been reported to have neurologically protective factors, particularly against AD, but coffee brand and type have not been taken into consideration in previous studies. We examined the discrepancies among popular commercial and instant coffees in limiting the development and progression through Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 production, and hypothesized that coffee consumption, regardless of brand or type, is beneficial for stalling the progression and development of Aβ-related AD. Methods Coffee samples from four commercial coffee brands and four instant coffees were purchased or prepared following given instructions and filtered for the study. 5, 2.5, and 1.25% concentrations of each coffee were used to treat N2a/APPswe cell lines. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability for coffee concentrations, as well as pure caffeine concentrations. Sandwich ELISA assay was used to determine Aβ concentration for Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 peptides of coffee-treated cells. Results Caffeine concentrations were significantly varied among all coffees (DC vs. MDC, PC, SB, NIN, MIN p < 0.05). There was no correlation between caffeine concentration and cell toxicity among brands and types of coffee, with no toxicity at 0.5 mg/ml caffeine and lower. Most coffees were toxic to N2a/APPswe cells at 5% ( p < 0.05), but not at 2.5%. Most coffees at a 2.5% concentration reduced Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 production, with comparable results between commercial and instant coffees. Conclusion All coffees tested have beneficial health effects for AD through lowering Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 production, with Dunkin' Donuts® medium roast coffee demonstrating the most consistent and optimal cell survival rates and Aβ concentration. On the other hand, Starbucks® coffee exhibited the highest cell toxicity rates among the tested coffees.
... 2 Whether long-term, habitual, caffeine intake reduces or delays age-related cognitive impairment is unclear. 3 Most studies of cognitive decline or dementia present results separately for each dietary source of caffeine, thus separating beverage-specific associations from caffeine-specific associations is difficult. Meta-analyses of prospective studies of coffee consumption report no association with incident dementia or a nonlinear shaped association whereby light to moderate coffee drinking is protective, whereas none or very high intakes are relatively deleterious. ...
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Objective: To examine the association between caffeine intake and cognitive impairment. Caffeine-neuropathology correlations and interactions with lifestyle and genetic factors impacting caffeine metabolism and response were also tested. Methods: We included 888 participants aged 59+ from the Rush Memory and Aging Project(MAP) and 303,887 participants aged 55+ from UK Biobank(UKB). MAP participants took part in annual cognitive testing. Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical neurological examination and standardized criteria. A subset provided postmortem tissue for neuropathologic evaluation for common age-related diseases (e.g. AD, Lewy bodies, vascular). For UKB, dementia was determined by linked hospital and death records. Self-reported caffeine intake was estimated using food-frequency questionnaires in both cohorts. Cox proportional hazard ratio(HR), regression and mixed models were used to examine associations of caffeine intake with incident dementia, cognitive decline, and neuropathology. Results: In MAP, compared to ≤100mg/d, caffeine intake >100mg/d was associated with a significantly higher HR(95%CI) of all-cause[1.35(1.03,1.76)] and Alzheimer's[1.41(1.07,1.85)] dementia. Caffeine intake was not associated with cognitive decline. In UKB, compared to ≤100mg/d, the HRs(95%CI) of all-cause dementia for consuming 100≤200, 200≤300, 300≤400 and >400mg/d were 0.83(0.72,0.94), 0.74(0.64,0.85), 0.74(0.64,0.85) and 0.92(0.79,1.08), respectively. Similar results were observed for Alzheimer's dementia. In MAP, caffeine intake was inversely associated with postmortem Lewy bodies but no other age-related pathologies. Caffeine intake >100mg/d was associated with lower neocortical type Lewy bodies[Odds ratio(95%CI): 0.40(0.21,0.75)]. Interpretation: Caffeine intake was inconsistently associated with clinical dementia; potentially explained by cohort differences in underlying dementia etiology. Lewy bodies may link caffeine to lower risk in some persons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In animal experiments, caffeine has been shown to promote improved memory and reverse the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Drinking caffeine-containing substances can thus help maintain cognitive function [53]. ...
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Background: This study examines correlates of disabilities related to ADL, IADL, mobility, and frailty in men and women with a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the community. Methods: A total of 10,898 noninstitutionalized Taiwanese nationals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the 2001 (N = 2,064), 2005 (N = 2,727), 2009 (N = 2,904), and 2013 (N = 3,203) National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of mobility disabilities and frailty in older adults in Taiwan decreased during the past decade ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Exercise, social engagement, and tea and coffee intake were found to be associated with lower levels of all types of disabilities in both men and women. In addition, a diet based on carbohydrates, falls, depressive symptomatology, lung and metabolic diseases were risks for most of the disabilities under consideration. Gender-specific independent correlates included: being married (OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.98), eggs/beans/fish/meat consumption (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.16-0.80); depressive symptoms, obesity and cataracts, which were associated with higher IADL (OR = 3.61, 1.63, and 1.18, respectively) and frailty limitations (OR = 10.89, 1.27, and 1.20, respectively) in women. Cognitive impairment was found to be an important correlate for ADL limitations in men (OR = 3.64, 95%CI: 2.38-5.57). Conclusions: Exercise, social participation and diet (more tea and coffee intake and lower carbohydrates) were correlates for lower levels of disability. Some gender-specific correlates were also identified, including associations of disability with depressive symptoms, obesity, and cataracts that were more distinct in women, and lower levels of disability which were especially significant in men who were married, eat more eggs, beans, fish, and meat, and those free from cognitive impairment.
... Caffeine has also been shown to exhibit anti-neuroinflammatory properties as well as decreasing tau protein phosphorylation in the hippocampus [190]. In low to moderate doses, caffeine inhibits AChE, thereby improving cognitive actions and reducing the progression of AD [191]. Eugenol, found in cloves, has been reported to reduce amyloid plagues and increase memory in rat models induced with Aβ peptides [192]. ...
Article
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) rate is accelerating with the increasing aging of the world’s population. The World Health Organization (WHO) stated AD as a global health priority. According to the WHO report, around 82 million people in 2030 and 152 million in 2050 will develop dementia (AD contributes 60% to 70% of cases), considering the current scenario. AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease, intensifying impairments in cognition, behavior, and memory. Histopathological AD variations include extracellular senile plaques’ formation, tangling of intracellular neurofibrils, and synaptic and neuronal loss in the brain. Multiple evidence directly indicates that oxidative stress participates in an early phase of AD before cytopathology. Moreover, oxidative stress is induced by almost all misfolded protein lumps like α-synuclein, amyloid-β, and others. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in activating and causing various cell signaling pathways that result in lesion formations of toxic substances, which foster the development of the disease. Antioxidants are widely preferred to combat oxidative stress, and those derived from natural sources, which are often incorporated into dietary habits, can play an important role in delaying the onset as well as reducing the progression of AD. However, this approach has not been extensively explored yet. Moreover, there has been growing evidence that a combination of antioxidants in conjugation with a nutrient-rich diet might be more effective in tackling AD pathogenesis. Thus, considering the above-stated fact, this comprehensive review aims to elaborate on the basics of AD and antioxidants, including the vitality of antioxidants in AD. Moreover, this review may help researchers to develop effectively and potentially improved antioxidant therapeutic strategies for this disease as it also deals with the clinical trials in the stated field.
... which was similar to our results. The caffeine in tea may improve human cognition and catechins contained in tea were strong antioxidants against oxidative stress [46]. ...
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Background Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may be the first symptomatic manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease, but information on its health correlates is still sparse in Chinese older adults. This study aimed to estimate SCD symptoms and its association with socio-demographic characteristics, common chronic diseases among southern Chinese older adults. Methods Participants aged 60 years and older from 7 communities and 2 nursing homes in Guangzhou were recruited and interviewed with standardized assessment tools. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were used to measure poor sleep quality, depression symptoms and anxiety symptoms. The SCD symptoms were measured by SCD questionnaire 9 (SCD-Q9) which ranged from 0 to 9 points, with a higher score indicating increased severity of the SCD. Participants were divided into low score group (SCD-Q9 score ≤ 3) and higher score group (SCD-Q9 score > 3). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for exploring the influences of different characteristics of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors on SCD symptoms. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to explore the association between SCD symptoms with common chronic diseases. Results A total of 688 participants were included in our analysis with a mean age of 73.79 ( SD = 8.28, range: 60–101), while 62.4% of the participants were females. The mean score of the SCD-Q9 was 3.81 ± 2.42 in the whole sample. A total of 286 participants (41.6%) were defined as the low score group (≤3 points), while 402 participants (58.4%) were the high score group (> 3 points). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female ( OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.35–2.93), primary or lower education level ( OR = 2.58, 95%CI : 1.38–4.83), nursing home ( OR = 1.90, 95%CI : 1.18–3.05), napping habits ( OR = 1.59, 95%CI : 1.06–2.40), urolithiasis ( OR = 2.72, 95%CI : 1.15–6.40), gout ( OR = 2.12, 95%CI : 1.14–3.93), poor sleep quality ( OR = 1.93, 95%CI : 1.38–2.71), depression symptoms ( OR = 3.01, 95%CI : 1.70–5.34) and anxiety symptoms ( OR = 3.11, 95%CI : 1.29–7.46) were independent positive related to high SCD-Q9 score. On the other hand, tea-drinking habits ( OR = 0.64, 95%CI : 0.45–0.92), current smoking ( OR = 0.46, 95%CI : 0.24–0.90) were independent negative related to high SCD-Q9 score. Conclusions Worse SCD symptoms were closely related to common chronic diseases and socio-demographic characteristics. Disease managers should pay more attention to those factors to early intervention and management for SCD symptoms among southern Chinese older adults.
... In conclusion, contrary to other neurodegenerative diseases [38,39], the potential effect of coffee and tea on MS severity remains to be uncovered. However, this study suggests a possible harmful effect of high doses of coffee and an intriguing possible interaction with HLA genes. ...
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Background and aims The association between lifestyle factors and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease severity and progression has been investigated to a lesser extent compared with susceptibility to the disease. We aimed to assess the impact of lifetime coffee and tea consumption on MS severity. Methods Design: a cross-sectional study. Two hundred and eight patients (139 women and 69 men) consecutively admitted to the Department of Neurology in Novara, Italy were asked about their lifetime consumption of coffee and tea. The lifetime intensity of consumption (cups/day) was estimated as the weighted sum of the mean number of standard cups drunk per day at different ages. A measure of cumulative lifetime load of the exposure was expressed in terms of cup-years. Disease severity was estimated by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS). HLA-DRB1*15 and HLA-A*02 genotyping was performed in 167 patients. Results The MSSS was not associated with the status of coffee or tea consumer, or the amount of cups/day or cup-years. The Odds Ratios (OR) for falling in the upper tertile of the MSSS distribution was 1.30 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47-3.58) for coffee consumers of 1-3 cups/day and 1.14 (95%CI: 0.33-3.95) for 4-8 cups/day vs. non-consumers. The OR was 0.69 (95%CI: 0.35-1.34) for tea consumers vs. non-consumers. The results did not change substantially after controlling for age at onset, education, smoking status, and alcoholic drinking. However, heavy consumers of coffee (4-8 cups/day) more frequently had a progressive form than small consumers (1-3 cups/day) and non-consumers (19% vs. 14% vs. 0%), and the age at MS onset was significantly higher (36.6±10.3; 31.5±9.5; 28.6±8.1 years, p=0.001). Conclusions Coffee or tea intake is not associated with different severity of MS. However, we cannot exclude a possible effect of higher doses of coffee for a subgroup of patients.
... Interestingly, acute and appropriate caffeine administration could reverse sleep losseinduced cognitive degradation [24]. Besides its acute effect, the review summarized that long-term caffeine consumption protected against late-life cognitive impairment and dementia [25,26]. However, the effect on cognitive function was controversial as Mendelian randomization meta-analysis did not find any evidence to support beneficial or adverse long-term effects of coffee intake on global cognition [27]. ...
Article
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Schizophrenia is a common psychiatric disorder which affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. However, the complexity of etiology, treatment resistance and side effects induced by current antipsychotics, relapse prevention, and psychosocial rehabilitation are still to be uncovered. Caffeine, as the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug, plays a crucial role in daily life. Plenty of preclinical and clinical evidence has illustrated that caffeine consumption could have a beneficial effect on schizophrenia. In this review, we firstly summarize the factors associated with the caffeine-induced beneficial effect. Then, a variety of mechanism of actions independent of adenosine receptor signaling will be discussed with an emphasis on the potential contribution of the microbiome–gut–brain axis to provide more possibilities for future therapeutic, prognosis, and social rehabilitation strategy.
... It has been shown that coffee and caffeine can have both -positive and negative effects on human health. On the one hand, caffeine is used to treat premature bronchopulmonary dysplasia, it may have a protective effect in some diseases such as Parkinson's disease [5], Alzheimer's disease (but not yet fully proven) [6], and for some types of tumors (hepatocyte, endometrial, prostate) [7]. Caffeine can prevent the death of pancreatic cells in alcohol poisoning [8]. ...
Article
The effects of long-lasting high concentration coffee and caffeine diets on calcium mobilization in rat hippocampal neurons were studied. Changes in the basal calcium level in the hippocampal neurons of control and experimental rats kept on a coffee or caffeine diet were measured. We also recorded the changes in the Ca2+ transients’ amplitude evoked by membrane depolarization or emptying the Ca2+ depot of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced by caffeine activator of the ryanodine receptors. In rats on a coffee or caffeine diet, the basal Ca2+ level was increased by 7.4% and 11%, respectively, compared to control animals. In these groups, the amplitude of Ca2+ transients increased by 70% and 90%, respectively, of the basal level in response to the membrane depolarization. In the same groups, the amount of Ca2+ released from the ER was increased by two and three times, respectively, compared to the control after activation of ryanodine receptors. We concluded that long-term coffee and caffeine diets in rats cause a significant disruption of the hippocampal neurons’ endoplasmic reticulum function. The diets evoke an increase in Ca2+ concentration in the neurons and an excessive release of Ca2+ in response to excitation. The latter can lead to increased excitability of neurons and their further death from excessive Ca2+ levels.
... 3 Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk mencegah dan memperlambat penurunan fungsi kognitif ialah dengan pemberian asupan makanan, berupa makanan atau minuman yang mengandung kafein. 4 Kafein merupakan zat psikoaktif yang paling sering dikonsumsi oleh 80% populasi dunia dan 90% populasi di Amerika Utara. 5 Kafein tersedia secara luas, banyak dipasarkan, dan dapat diterima secara sosial, bahkan beberapa kalangan meyakini bahwa minuman berkafein dapat meningkatkan performa dan keadaan mental dengan mengurangi atau menghilangkan rasa kantuk. ...
Article
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Elderly population which continues to increase in number every year causes various social, economic, and health problems inter alia cognitive dysfunction. One of the efforts that can prevent and slow down the decline in cognitive function is consuming caffeinated beverages. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between the pattern of caffeinated beverage consumption and cognitive function among the elderly at GKJ Gondokusuman in Yogyakarta. This was an analytical observational study with a cross-sectional design. We used the modified Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption patterns of caffeinated beverage meanwhile the cognitive function was measured by using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT). Sample size was determined by using the total sampling method. There were 54 samples of elderly population. Data were analyzed by using the Spearman correlation test which obtained (p=0.023; r=-0.309) for the relationship between caffeinated beverage consumption pattern and cognitive function measured with the MMSE, and (p=0.075; r=0.244) for the relationship between caffeinated beverage consumption pattern and cognitive function measured with the the CDT. In conclusion, there was a significant relationship between caffeinated beverage consumption pattern and cognitive function measured with the MMSE, however, there was no significant relationship between caffeinated beverage consumption pattern and cognitive function measured with the the CDT.Keywords: caffeinated beverage consumption patterns, cognitive function, elderlyAbstrak: Populasi lanjut usia (lansia) yang terus mengalami peningkatan setiap tahunnya menimbulkan berbagai masalah sosial, ekonomi, dan kesehatan, antara lain gangguan fungsi kognitif. Salah satu upaya untuk mencegah dan memperlambat penurunan fungsi kognitif ialah dengan minuman yang mengandung kafein. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya hubungan pola konsumsi minuman berkafein dengan fungsi kognitif lansia di GKJ Gondo-kusuman. Jenis penellitian ialah observasional analitik dan desain potong lintang. Pola konsumsi minuman berkafein diukur dengan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) yang telah dimodifikasi, sedangkan fungsi kognitif diukur dengan Mini Mental (MMSE) dan Clock Drawing Test (CDT). Penghitungan besar sampel dengan metode total sampling mendapatkan 54 sampel dari populasi, yaitu lansia di GKJ Gondokusuman. Hasil analisis data menggunakan uji Spearman terhadap hubungan antara pola konsumsi minuman berkafein dengan fungsi kognitif yang diukur dengan MMSE mendapatkan (p=0,023; r=-0,309) sedangkan dengan fungsi kognitif yang diukur dengan kuisioner CDT mendapatkan (p=0,075; r 0,244). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat hubungan bermakna antara pola konsumsi minuman berkafein dengan fungsi kognitif lansia yang dinilai menggunakan MMSE, namun tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna dengan fungsi kognitif lansia yang dinilai menggunakan CDT.Kata kunci: pola konsumsi minuman berkafein, fungsi kognitif, lansia
... Overall, there is a compelling amount of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical evidence that selected polyphenols could improve cognitive performance and be considered in a preventive setting against age-related cognitive loss and neurodegenerative diseases [9,79,[81][82][83]. The most compelling evidence documented so far are for coffee, cocoa and tea, the most common sources of polyphenols, mainly flavonoids [14,16,81,[84][85][86][87]. In addition, berries, such as blueberry and grape, have shown potential to prevent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline [82,83,[88][89][90][91][92]. ...
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The scope of evidence on the neuroprotective impact of natural products has been greatly extended in recent years. However, a key question that remains to be answered is whether natural products act directly on targets located in the central nervous system (CNS), or whether they act indirectly through other mechanisms in the periphery. While molecules utilized for brain diseases are typically bestowed with a capacity to cross the blood–brain barrier, it has been recently uncovered that peripheral metabolism impacts brain functions, including cognition. The gut–microbiota–brain axis is receiving increasing attention as another indirect pathway for orally administered compounds to act on the CNS. In this review, we will briefly explore these possibilities focusing on two classes of natural products: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) from marine sources and polyphenols from plants. The former will be used as an example of a natural product with relatively high brain bioavailability but with tightly regulated transport and metabolism, and the latter as an example of natural compounds with low brain bioavailability, yet with a growing amount of preclinical and clinical evidence of efficacy. In conclusion, it is proposed that bioavailability data should be sought early in the development of natural products to help identifying relevant mechanisms and potential impact on prevalent CNS disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease.
... It was found that coffee intake decrease mortality, the risk of Parkinson's disease, depression, and could protect against cognitive decline. Research of Panza suggested that gender appears to play a considerable role in the bene cial effects of caffeine, which are stronger in women (Panza et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
This chapter covers methylxanthines, with a focus on caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. The key topics of the chapter cover the chemical structure of methylxanthines, their potential in nutrition, and a broad spectrum of biological functions for pharmacological applications. The content of methylxanthines in food and their bioavailability are also discussed, as well as growing applications in functional food products and dietary supplements. The final section covers briefly the current analytical methodologies and techniques applied in the analysis of methylxanthines.
... It was found that coffee intake decrease mortality, the risk of Parkinson's disease, depression, and could protect against cognitive decline. Research of Panza suggested that gender appears to play a considerable role in the beneficial effects of caffeine, which are stronger in women (Panza et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
In food and biological systems, the main function of tocochromanols is antioxidant action – they deactivate free radicals and protect lipids from peroxidation (autoxidation). In addition to the antioxidant role of vitamin E and protection against oxidative stress, the “non-antioxidant” functions of vitamin E, including cell signaling and antiproliferation, is also described. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are not the only compounds classified as tocol derivatives. This chapter also includes an overview of the properties and occurrence of other forms of tocols (including: tocomonoenols, tocodienols, and plastochromanol-8). Content of tocochromanols in food may be determined using a wide range of analytical techniques. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with various detection systems and mass spectrometers enable identification of individual compounds. In the analysis of these compounds, spectroscopic methods are also being developed. The principles of these techniques are discussed in the chapter and examples of their applications are also provided.
... They found that cognitive function significantly decreased with consumption of one or more cups of coffee or tea consumption. Panza et al. (2015) conducted a systematic review and found that coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or higher plasma caffeine levels were protective against cognitive impairment/decline and dementia. However, there was a lack of a distinct dose-response association, and the preventive effect was stronger among females than males. ...
... However, several studies did not show the association. Some studies with uncommon tea drinking customs of participants [14,36], and others with a weak association between tea consumption and cognitive impairment failed to draw any conclusion [37]. As known, cognitive dysfunction was a complex process of various risk factors interactions. ...
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Background Biologic studies have suggested that tea may have neuroprotective activity. However, tea’s protective effect on cognitive function is controversial in human epidemiological studies, and no data, including the middle-aged, are available. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of habit, frequency, and types of tea consumption with incident cognitive impairment in middle-aged and older adults. Methods Data from the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community study were used (aged over 40y). We gathered information on tea consumption, including habit, frequency, and types, via a standardized questionnaire and assessed cognitive function by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and/or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Three thousand eight hundred sixty-eight and 806 participants were selected in MMSE and MoCA subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to examine associations between tea consumption and cognitive impairment in middle-aged and older participants. Results In MMSE analyses, after adjustment for potential confounding factors, habitual (odds ratio (OR) 0.47, [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.68], p < 0.001) and high frequency (p trend < 0.001) of tea intake were associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment. The risk of cognitive impairment was lower in green tea consumption (OR 0.36, [95% CI 0.22–0.61], p < 0.001) than other types (OR 0.59, [95% CI 0.38–0.91], p = 0.017). In MoCA analyses, we got similar results. Conclusions Habitual tea consumption, especially high-frequency and green tea consumption, was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in middle-aged and older individuals.
... 212 Dietary supplementation with a specific grape-derived polyphenolic preparation significantly improved cognitive function in a mouse model of AD. 213 In a systematic review of human studies, moderate intake of coffee or caffeine-rich beverages reduced cognitive decline. 214 Another case is EGCG from green tea, which has been reported to improve cognitive performance. 215 The effect of lemon balm on cognitive ability is explained by its content of substances with cholinergic receptor-binding properties. ...
Article
The performance of the human brain is based on an interplay between the inherited genotype and external environmental factors, including diet. Food and nutrition, essential in maintenance of brain performance, also aid in prevention and treatment of mental disorders. Both the overall composition of the human diet and specific dietary components have been shown to have an impact on brain function in various experimental models and epidemiological studies. This narrative review provides an overview of the role of diet in 5 key areas of brain function related to mental health and performance, including: (1) brain development, (2) signaling networks and neurotransmitters in the brain, (3) cognition and memory, (4) the balance between protein formation and degradation, and (5) deteriorative effects due to chronic inflammatory processes. Finally, the role of diet in epigenetic regulation of brain physiology is discussed.
... The management of cardiovascular risk factorsincluding diabetes, obesity, and hypertensionreduces risk of cognitive decline and may reduce risk for dementia (Baumgart et al., 2015). Aside from short-term effects of heightened alertness and improved cognitive performance, there is some evidence that long-term caffeine consumption may be protective against late-life cognitive impairment, decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (Liu et al., 2016;Panza et al., 2015). Given the geographical underpinning of our work focused on the spaces and activities of local eateries (as opposed to nutritional value or lack thereof of items served and consumed), we are interested in the role that these environments play in the everyday lives and wellbeing of aging individuals. ...
Article
In this exploratory sequential mixed-methods study, interviews with 125 adults aged 55–92 (mean age 71) living in the Minneapolis (Minnesota) metropolitan area suggested that eateries, including coffee shops and fast-food restaurants, represent popular neighborhood destinations for older adults and sources of wellbeing. Thematic analysis of how older adults perceived and utilized local eateries included sites of familiarity and comfort; physical and economic accessibility; sociability with friends, family, staff, and customers; and entertainment (e.g., destinations for outings and walks, free newspapers to read). To test the hypothesis that these sites, and the benefits they confer, are associated with cognitive welfare, we analyzed data from urban and suburban community-dwelling participants in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a national racially diverse sample of older Americans followed since 2003 (n = 16,404, average age at assessment 72 years). Results from multilevel linear regression models of these data demonstrated a positive association between kernel density of local eateries and cognitive functioning, which corroborated qualitative findings. Taken together, these results complicate our understanding of casual eatery settings as possible sites of wellbeing through social interaction and leisure activities. Results prompt further research investigating whether and how retail food environments can serve as community spaces for older adults that may help buffer against cognitive decline.
... 4 The consumption of certified organic coffees has also been growing strongly, about 5-10% † Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10 annually in the last 13 years. 3,5 Roughly, 16% of all green coffee imported by the U.S. is certified as organic. ...
Article
The United States is the largest coffee consumer country worldwide. Recently, in addition to cup quality, the focus on health promotion has increased outstandingly in the country, with launching of many brands with health claims, mainly concerning the antioxidative and stimulating properties of the beverage. Mycotoxins and, to a lesser extent, acrylamide, on the other hand, have raised concerns among consumers and health autorities. This study investigated the contents of the main bioactive compounds (caffeine, chlorogenic acids and their 1,5-γ-quinolactones, and trigonelline) in health performance coffees and compared them to those of conventional roasted coffees available in the U.S. market. The following categories were compared by ANOVA at p≤ 0.05, followed by Fisher test: 1-health performance, 2-gourmet and 3-traditional, tottaling 127 samples.As complementary results, the content of acrylamide and ochratoxin A were evaluated in part of the samples (n=58). The mean contents (g/100g) of bioactive compounds for categories 1 to 3, respectively, were: 1.09, 1.11 and 1.07 for caffeine; 1.75, 1.88 and 1.34 for chlorogenic acids/lactones, and 0.63, 0.64 and 0.56 for trigonelline. The mean contents (μg/kg) of acrylamide for categories 1 to 3, respectively, were: 82, 71 and 85. Only about 7% of the evaluated samples presented quantifiable amounts of OTA and all of them were within the maximum limits established by health authorities. In general, contents of bioactive and potentially harmful compounds were not consistently different among categories, with high and low individual amounts in all of them. Most label health claims related to the amout of bioactive compounds in health performance coffees were unjustified, suggesting the need for improvement in coffee labeling regulation in the U.S.
... Other benefits of caffeine could be linked to increasing alertness, concentration, improved mood, reduced depression, and even potentiation of the effect of other regular drugs such as analgesics. Caffeine trials have determined a lack of association with the prevention of AD and related dementia, but others showed the potential benefits of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption (131). New studies testing the potential uses of caffeinated products for symptomatology control or prevention of AD will continue over the next few years. ...
Article
Significance: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death, but some sources put it as third, following heart disease and cancer. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic approaches to treat or slow the progression of chronic neurodegeneration. In addition to the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau, AD patients show progressive neuronal loss and neuronal death, also high oxidative stress that correlates with abnormal levels or overload of brain metals. RECENT ADVANCES. Several promising compounds targeting oxidative stress, redox metals, and neuronal death are under preclinical or clinical evaluation as an alternative or complementary therapeutic strategy in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we present a general analysis and overview, discuss limitations and suggest potential directions for these treatments for AD and related dementia. Critical issues: Most of the disease-modifying therapeutic strategies for AD under evaluation in clinical trials have focused on components of the amyloid cascade, including antibodies to reduce levels of amyloid-β and tau, as well as inhibitors of secretases. Unfortunately, several of the amyloid-focused therapeutics have failed the clinical outcomes or presented side effects, and numerous clinical trials of compounds have been halted, reducing realistic options for the development of effective AD treatments. Future directions: The focus of research on AD and related dementias is shifting to alternative or innovative areas, such as ApoE, lipids, synapses, oxidative stress, cell death mechanisms, neuroimmunology, and neuroinflammation, as well as brain metabolism and bioenergetics.
... This indicates that moderate consumption of caffeine can affect cognition [8]. Coffee and tea consumption has been studied extensively to determine the long-term effects of consumption and the associations with numerous diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia [9][10][11][12]. Most previous studies have also only used behavioral performance and self-reported measures to understand the effects of consumption on cognition. ...
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Coffee and tea are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been consumed for more than a thousand years. They have become an integral part of the day for many consumers and may aid not only increased social interactions but also productivity. However, there is no conclusive evidence of their comparative effect on cognitive ability. This study investigated the impact of tea and coffee products on cognitive performance in typical office work-related tasks using brain, body, and behavioral measures. In a controlled multi-day study, we explored the effects of both traditional and cognition-enhancing hot beverages through task performance and self-reported measures. A total of 120 participants completed three work-related tasks from different cognitive domains and consumed either a traditional or cognition-enhancing hot beverage. During the study, we measured brain activity in the prefrontal cortex using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as well as arousal from skin conductance through electrodermal activity (EDA) while participants completed cognitive tasks and consumed the beverages. Neural efficiency was used to evaluate cognitive performance in the tasks. Neural efficiency was calculated from a composite score of behavioral efficiency and cognitive effort, and emotional arousal was estimated from EDA activity. Results indicated that for different cognitive domains, the enhanced hot beverages showed improved neural efficiency over that of a traditional hot beverage. This is the first study to assess the impact of both traditional and cognition-enhancing drinks using a multimodal approach for workplace-related assignments.
Article
Our present knowledge about the efficacy of tea consumption in improving age-related cognitive disorders is incomplete since previous epidemiological studies provide inconsistent evidence. This unified systematic review and meta-analysis based on updated epidemiological cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evidence aimed to overcome the limitations of previous reviews by examining the efficacy of distinct types of tea consumption. PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE were searched up to May 20, 2022, and 23 cohorts and 12 cross-sectional studies were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to obtain pooled RRs or mean differences with 95% CIs. The pooled RRs of the highest versus lowest tea consumption categories were 0.81 (95% CIs: 0.75-0.88) and 0.69 (95% CIs: 0.61-0.77), respectively. The pooled mean difference of four included RCTs revealed a beneficial effect of tea on cognitive dysfunction (MMSE ES: 1.03; 95% CI, 0.14-1.92). Subgroup analyses further demonstrated that green and black tea intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive disorders in eastern countries, especially in women. The evidence quality was generally low to moderate. The present review provides insight into whether habitual tea consumption can be an effective approach against age-related neurodegenerative cognitive disorders and summarizes potential mechanisms based on currently published literature.
Article
The aim of this study was to explore urine caffeine metabolites in relation to cognitive performance among 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants aged ≥60 years. We hypothesized that urine caffeine metabolites were positively associated with cognition in older adults. Caffeine and 14 of its metabolites were quantified in urine by use of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem quadruple mass spectrometry with stable isotope labeled internal standards. Cognitive assessment was based on scores from the word learning and recall modules. Participants were categorized based on the quartiles of caffeine and its metabolites level. The association between caffeine metabolites and each cognitive dimension was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis in adjusted models. Stratification analyses by gender were also performed. For CERAD test, there was a significant association between 1-methyluric acid (OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.92), 7-methylxanthine(OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.89), theophylline (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.92), as well as paraxanthine (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.88) and cognitive function. For animal fluency test, there was a positive association between theophylline (TP) (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.89) and cognitive function. The trend that the risk of low cognitive function decreased with increasing concentration of 1-methylxanthine (P trend=0.0229) was also observed. Furthermore, the same trend existed for 3-methylxanthine (p trend = 0.0375) in men. In conclusion, there was a significant positive association between urine caffeine metabolites and cognitive performance in older adults, particularly for theophylline, paraxanthine and caffeine; and the association might be dependent on gender.
Article
Coffee is a popular beverage, and it contains caffeine, a psychoactive substance. Consuming coffee may reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the association between the reduced risk of developing AD and the consumption of coffee is controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review and quantitative synthesis meta-analysis that included dose-response analysis on the relationship between the consumption of coffee and the risk of developing AD. Based on PRISMA guidelines, we analysed standard databases of journals published between January 1999 and May 2020. We included the two population-based cohort studies and one case-control study. All studies included looked at the association between consuming many cups of coffee, the amount of coffee consumed in milligrams per day and the risk of developing AD. The systematic literature review and meta-analysis had 1670 participants with follow-up years that ranged from 5 to 21. The consumption of moderate or 3-5 cups per day reduces the risk of developing AD. The pooled relative risk and 95% confidence interval of the 3 included studies were 0.63 (0.3, 1.54). Dose-response curve analysis appears to be U-shaped. The results of the forest plot showed that there is low heterogeneity between the studies. Plotting the funnel plot and the Galbraith plot demonstrated publication bias of the three included studies. More prospective and long-term studies have to be conducted in other countries to determine the exact risk of developing AD.
Article
Natural products have significantly contributed to drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Caffeine is one of the well‐known central nervous system(CNS)‐active natural products. Besides its CNS stimulant properties, it is a mild inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and possesses memory‐enhancing properties. The present work aimed to improve the AChE inhibition activity of the caffeine. The rationally designed caffeine‐based triazoles were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for cholinesterase and β‐site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme‐1 (BACE‐1) inhibitory activities. The attachment of triazole to the caffeine enhances its AChE inhibition activity from half‐maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 129 µM to 0.49 µM (derivative, 6l). The caffeine core interacts with the peripheral anionic site, whereas the benzyl triazole occupies the catalytic anionic site located at the bottom of the active site gorge. The structure–activity relationship revealed that the four‐atom ester linker is superior to shorter linkers for connecting the caffeine core to the triazole. The 2,6‐difluorobenzyl triazole‐linked caffeine derivative, 6d, exhibits dual inhibition of AChE and BACE‐1 with IC50 values of 1.43 and 10.9 µM, respectively. The derivative 6d inhibits AChE via a mixed‐type mode with an inhibition rate constant (Ki) value of 2.35 μM, which was corroborated by docking studies. The triazole 6d has an acceptable stability profile in human liver microsomes (t1/2 = 54 min) and was found to possess CNS permeability when evaluated using the parallel artificial membrane permeability blood–brain barrier assay. The results presented herein warrant investigating caffeine‐based triazoles in preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease.
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Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, usually associated with old age. With the increasing geriatric population throughout the world, it will pose a great socio-economic burden on the healthcare system and the caregivers. The clinically approved drugs for management of this disease include cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine. But these drugs modulate only the symptoms of this disease rather than addressing the underlying pathology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover new therapeutic agents which, coupled with effective diagnostics, can prove effective in therapeutic management of this disease. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors represent an emerging class of drugs with several isoforms reported to play a crucial role in the pathology of this disease. This review discusses various phosphodiesterase inhibitors which are in preclinical and clinical studies along with physicochemical properties that impact CNS penetration and subsequent efficacy.
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Studying the correlation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites and the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) biomarkers may offer a window to the alterations of the brain metabolome and unveil potential biological mechanisms underlying AD. In this analysis, 308 CSF metabolites from 338 individuals of Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention and Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were included in a principal component analysis (PCA). The resulted principal components (PCs) were tested for association with CSF total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), amyloid β 42 (Aβ42), and Aβ42/40 ratio using linear regression models. Significant PCs were further tested with other CSF NeuroToolKit (NTK) and imaging biomarkers. Using a Bonferroni corrected p <0.05, five PCs were significantly associated with CSF p-tau and t-tau and three PCs were significantly associated with CSF Aβ42. Pathway analysis suggested that these PCS were enriched in six pathways, including metabolism of caffeine and nicotinate and nicotinamide. This study provides evidence that CSF metabolites are associated with AD pathology through core AD biomarkers and other NTK markers and suggests potential pathways to follow up in future studies.
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Free- radicals (Oxygen and Nitrogen species) are formed in mitochondria during the oxidative phosphorylation. Their high reactivity, due to not-engaged electrons, leads to an increase of the oxidative stress. This condition affects above all the brain, that usually needs a large oxygen amount and in which there is the major possibility to accumulate “Reacting Species.” Antioxidant molecules are fundamental in limiting freeradical damage, in particular in the central nervous system: the oxidative stress, in fact, seems to worsen the course of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this review is to sum up natural antioxidant molecules with the greatest neuroprotective properties against free radical genesis, understanding their relationship with the Central Nervous System
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Nutraceuticals have been the focus of numerous research in recent years and accumulating data support their use for promoting some health benefits. Several nutraceuticals have been widely studied as supplements due to their functional properties ameliorating symptoms associated with neurological disorders, such as oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory states. This seems to be the case of some fruits and seeds from the Amazon Biome consumed since the Pre-Columbian period that could have potential beneficial impact on the human nervous system. The beneficial activities of these food sources are possibly related to a large number of bioactive molecules including polyphenols, carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and trace elements. In this context, this review compiled the research on six Amazonian fruits and seeds species and some of the major nutraceuticals found in their composition presenting brief mechanisms related to their protagonist action in improving inflammatory responses and neuroinflammation.
Chapter
Dementia is a chronic condition characterized by the decreased cognitive capacity, which is more severe than in case of normal aging. Cognitive impairment is a major social and economic problem of modern society, which affects about 47 million people worldwide. The first stage of dementia (mild cognitive impairment) is characterized by the decline of memory, executive function, attention, visuospatial skills and speech. Pathogenic links of cognitive impairment are represented by neuroinflammation, excessive amyloid-β protein deposition, oxidative stress, hyperphosphorylation etc. In the recent years, the interest in natural plant-derived compounds for the treatment of cognitive decline has increased. In this chapter, we summarize the available evidence supporting the benevolent action of some botanicals and phytochemicals on cognitive function. The most widely studied plants include Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and Camellia sinensis (green tea), but there also some other promising ones like guarana, grape, soy etc. These nutraceuticals mostly influence memory, learning and attention. At the moment it is quite difficult to make a definite conclusion on the effects of nutraceuticals on cognitive decline, because human trials show significant discrepancies. This underpins the need of future trials and scientific analysis.
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The last decide has witnessed a growing research interest in the role of dietary phytochemicals in influencing the gut microbiota. On the other hand, recent evidence reveals that dietary phytochemicals exhibit properties of preventing and tackling symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, which is a neurodegenerative disease that has also been linked with the status of the gut microbiota over the last decade. Till now, little serious discussions, however, have been made to link recent understanding of Alzheimer's disease, dietary phytochemicals and the gut microbiota together and to review the roles played by phytochemicals in gut dysbiosis induced pathologies of Alzheimer's disease. Deciphering these connections can provide insights into the development and future use of dietary phytochemicals as anti-Alzheimer drug candidates. This review aims at presenting latest evidence in the modulating role of phytochemicals in the gut microbiota and its relevance to Alzheimer's disease and summarizing the mechanisms behind the modulative activities. Limitations of current research in this field and potential directions will also be discussed for future research on dietary phytochemicals as anti-Alzheimer agents.
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Background and purpose: Four published quantitative systematic reviews showed conflicting results involving coffee consumption and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this meta-epidemiological meta-analysis (MEMA) was to evaluate the factors underlying the conflicting results and estimate the effect size and direction of the AD risk associated with coffee consumption in population-based cohort studies. Methods: The primary subjects of MEMA were derived from 3 cohort studies selected by the related systematic reviews. Additional studies involving the primary subjects were searched using citation discovery tools. Prospective cohort studies evaluating the association between coffee consumption and AD risk were selected. A fixed effects model was applied to estimate the summary relative risk (sRR) and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analysis was conducted according to the level of coffee consumption. Egger's test was used to evaluate publication bias. Results: Four cohort studies were finally selected. A total of 36,300 participants from Finland, Sweden, Germany, and the United States of America were selected. The sRR (and its 95% CI) (I-squared value) by highest-versus-lowest method was 0.98 (0.92-1.05) (0.0%). In addition, none of the results of subgroup analyses by the level of coffee consumption showed any statistical significance. Conclusions: This MEMA found that there was no association between coffee consumption and AD risk. Based on recent evidence suggesting that gene-environment interactions contribute to AD pathogenesis, it is necessary to conduct population-based cohort studies involving non-Caucasians.
Article
Background: Green tea has been widely recognized in ameliorating cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially the progression of cognitive dysfunction. But the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Objective: This study was designed to determine the role of green tea consumption in the association with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of ADs pathology and to ascertain whether specific population backgrounds showed the differences toward these relationships. Methods: Multivariate linear models analyzed the available data on CSF biomarkers and frequency of green tea consumption of 722 cognitively intact participants from the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and LifestylE (CABLE) database, and we additionally detected the interaction effects of tea consumption with APOEɛ4 status and gender using a two-way analysis of covariance. Results: Frequent green tea consumption was associated with a decreased level of CSF total-tau protein (t-tau) (p = 0.041) but not with the levels of CSF amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) and CSF phosphorylated tau. The more pronounced associations of green tea consumption with CSF t-tau (p = 0.007) and CSF t-tau/Aβ42 (p = 0.039) were observed in individuals aged 65 years or younger. Additionally, males with frequent green tea consumption had a significantly low level of CSF t-tau/Aβ42 and a modest trend toward decreased CSF t-tau. There were no interaction effects of green tea consumption with APOEɛ4 and gender. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings consolidated the favorable effects of green tea on the mitigation of AD risk. The constituents of green tea may improve abnormal tau metabolism and are promising targets in interventions and drug therapies.
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There is a large literature on the effects of caffeine on performance. Most of the studies have been conducted in the laboratory and further information is required on the effects of caffeine consumption on performance and safety at work. The present studies aimed to determine whether the level of caffeine consumption influenced changes in alertness and performance over the working day. Secondary analyses of a large epidemiological database were also conducted to examine associations between caffeine consumption and cognitive failures and accidents at work. In the first study 110 volunteers, all of whom were regular caffeine consumers, rated their alertness and carried out a simple reaction time task before and after work on a Monday and Friday. Caffeine consumption during the day was recorded and volunteers were sub-divided into low and high consumers on the basis of a median split (220 mg/day). The second study involved secondary analyses of a database formed by combining the Bristol Stress and Health at Work and Cardiff Health and Safety at Work studies. In the first analyses associations between caffeine consumption and frequency of cognitive failures were examined in a sample of 1253 white-collar workers. The second set of analyses examined associations between caffeine consumption and accidents at work in a sample of 1555 workers who were especially at risk of having an accident. The results from the first study showed that those who consumed higher levels of caffeine reported significantly greater increases in alertness over the working day and a significantly smaller slowing of reaction time. The results from the second study demonstrated significant associations between caffeine consumption and fewer cognitive failures and accidents at work. After controlling for possible confounding factors it was found that higher caffeine consumption was associated with about half the risk of frequent/very frequent cognitive failures and a similar reduction in risk for accidents at work. Overall, the results from the three analyses show that caffeine consumption may have benefits for performance and safety at work.
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Background/objective: To conduct a systematic review of all studies to determine whether there is an association between the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and cognitive impairment. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of the major databases and hand-searched proceedings of major neurology, psychiatry, and dementia conferences through November 2012. Prospective cohort studies examining the MeDi with longitudinal follow-up of at least 1 year and reporting cognitive outcomes (mild cognitive impairment [MCI] or Alzheimer's disease [AD]) were included. The effect size was estimated as hazard-ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q-test and I2-statistic. Results: Out of the 664 studies screened, five studies met eligibility criteria. Higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with reduced risk of MCI and AD. The subjects in the highest MeDi tertile had 33% less risk (adjusted HR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55-0.81; p < 0.0001) of cognitive impairment (MCI or AD) as compared to the lowest MeDi score tertile. Among cognitively normal individuals, higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96; p = 0.02) and AD (HR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.89; p = 0.007). There was no significant heterogeneity in the analyses. Conclusions: While the overall number of studies is small, pooled results suggest that a higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with a reduced risk of developing MCI and AD, and a reduced risk of progressing from MCI to AD. Further prospective-cohort studies with longer follow-up and randomized controlled trials are warranted to consolidate the evidence. Systematic review registration number: PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013003868.
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Background Tea consumption has been reported to be associated with lowered risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and osteoporosis that cause functional disability, but its association with physical function has not been investigated directly. Objective We examined the association between tea consumption and performance in gait and balance, instrumental and basic activities of daily living (IADL and BADL) in a cross-sectional study of community-living older persons. Method Baseline data of 2398 adults aged ≥ 55 years in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies who completed self-reported current tea consumption, Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) of gait and balance, and self reports of BADL and IADL were analyzed. Results In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, education, housing type, co-morbidities, hospitalization, arthritis and hip fracture, GDS depression score, MMSE cognitive score, body mass index, creatinine, serum albumin, haemoglobin, physical activities score and coffee consumption, tea consumption was positively associated with better balance (β=0.06, p<0.01), gait (β=0.01, p=0.02), IADL (β=0.03, p=0.01) and BADL (β=0.01, p=0.05). Strongly positive associations were observed for black/oolong tea in multivariate analyses, and for green tea consumption only in univariate analysis, whereas coffee consumption was not associated at all. Conclusions Tea consumption was associated with better physical functional performances in community-living older adults.
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Background: Persons with vascular disorders are at higher risk of cognitive decline. Objective: To determine whether caffeine may be associated with cognitive decline reduction in elderly at high vascular risk. Methods: We included 2,475 women aged 65+ years in the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a randomized trial of antioxidants and B vitamins for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention. We ascertained regular caffeine intake at baseline (1995-1996) using a validated 116 item-food frequency questionnaire. From 1998-2000 to 2005-2006, we administered four telephone cognitive assessments at two-year intervals evaluating global cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency. The primary outcome was the change in global cognitive score, which was the average of the z-scores of all tests. We used generalized linear models for repeated measures that were adjusted for various sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors to evaluate the difference in cognitive decline rates across quintiles of caffeine intake. Results: We observed significantly slower rates of cognitive decline with increasing caffeine intake (p-trend = 0.02). The rate difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of usual caffeine intake (>371 versus <30 mg/day) was equivalent to that observed between those who were 7 years apart in age (p = 0.006). Consumption of caffeinated coffee was significantly related to slower cognitive decline (p-trend = 0.05), but not other caffeinated products (e.g., decaf, tea, cola, chocolate). We conducted interaction analyses and observed stronger associations in women assigned to vitamin B supplementation (p-interaction = 0.02). Conclusions: Caffeine intake was related to moderately better cognitive maintenance over 5 years in older women with vascular disorders.
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A systematic literature review of human studies relating caffeine or caffeine-rich beverages to cognitive decline reveals only 6 studies that have collected and analyzed cognition data in a prospective fashion that enables study of decline across the spectrum of cognition. These 6 studies, in general, evaluate cognitive function using the Mini Mental State Exam and base their beverage data on FFQs. Studies included in our review differed in their source populations, duration of study, and most dramatically in how their analyses were done, disallowing direct quantitative comparisons of their effect estimates. Only one of the studies reported on all 3 exposures, coffee, tea, and caffeine, making comparisons of findings across studies more difficult. However, in general, it can be stated that for all studies of tea and most studies of coffee and caffeine, the estimates of cognitive decline were lower among consumers, although there is a lack of a distinct dose response. Only a few measures showed a quantitative significance and, interestingly, studies indicate a stronger effect among women than men.
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Objective: We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design: population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants: 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements: Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results: Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= -0.12, P=0.02; "Time" was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion: Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese.
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Preventing or postponing the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and delaying or slowing its progression would lead to a consequent improvement of health status and quality of life in older age. Elevated saturated fatty acids could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Furthermore, at present, epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between fish consumption, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in particular, n-3 PUFA) and a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Poorer cognitive function and an increased risk of vascular dementia (VaD) were found to be associated with a lower consumption of milk or dairy products. However, the consumption of whole-fat dairy products may be associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Light-to-moderate alcohol use may be associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia and AD, while for VaD, cognitive decline and predementia syndromes, the current evidence is only suggestive of a protective effect. The limited epidemiological evidence available on fruit and vegetable consumption and cognition generally supports a protective role of these macronutrients against cognitive decline, dementia and AD. Only recently, higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet was associated with decreased cognitive decline, although the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) combines several foods, micro- and macro-nutrients already separately proposed as potential protective factors against dementia and predementia syndromes. In fact, recent prospective studies provided evidence that higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet could be associated with slower cognitive decline, reduced risk of progression from MCI to AD, reduced risk of AD and a decreased all-cause mortality in AD patients. These findings suggested that adherence to the MeDi may affect not only the risk of AD, but also of predementia syndromes and their progression to overt dementia. Based on the current evidence concerning these factors, no definitive dietary recommendations are possible. However, following dietary advice for lowering the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, high levels of consumption of fats from fish, vegetable oils, nonstarchy vegetables, low glycemic index fruits and a diet low in foods with added sugars and with moderate wine intake should be encouraged. Hopefully this will open new opportunities for the prevention and management of dementia and AD.
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Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.
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While animal data suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition, studies in humans remain inconsistent. We examined associations of coffee and caffeine intake in midlife with risk of dementia, its neuropathologic correlates, and cognitive impairment among 3494 men in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (mean age 52 at cohort entry, 1965-1968) examined for dementia in 1991-1993, including 418 decedents (1992-2004) who underwent brain autopsy. Caffeine intake was determined according to self-reported coffee, tea, and cola consumption at baseline. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), cognitive impairment (Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument score <74), and neuropathologic lesions at death (Alzheimer lesions, microvascular ischemic lesions, cortical Lewy bodies, hippocampal sclerosis, generalized atrophy), according to coffee and caffeine intake. Dementia was diagnosed in 226 men (including 118 AD, 80 VaD), and cognitive impairment in 347. There were no significant associations between coffee or caffeine intake and risk of cognitive impairment, overall dementia, AD, VaD, or moderate/high levels of the individual neuropathologic lesion types. However, men in the highest quartile of caffeine intake (>277.5 mg/d) were less likely than men in the lowest quartile (≤115.5 mg) to have any of the lesion types (adjusted-OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.89; p, trend = 0.04). Coffee and caffeine intake in midlife were not associated with cognitive impairment, dementia, or individual neuropathologic lesions, although higher caffeine intake was associated with a lower odds of having any of the lesion types at autopsy.
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The non-proteinic amino acid L-theanine and caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative, are naturally occurring ingredients in tea. The present study investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-theanine and 40 mg caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of young adults (n = 44). Cognitive performance, self-reported mood, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before L-theanine and caffeine administration (i.e. at baseline) and 20 min and 70 min thereafter. The combination of moderate levels of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness (both P < 0.01) and reduced self-reported tiredness (P < 0.05). There were no significant effects on other cognitive tasks, such as visual search, choice reaction times, or mental rotation. The present results suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive and memory deterioration, with an increasing prevalence in the industrialized countries and an extraordinary cost of caring for patients. Due to the limited information available on the exact pathophysiology of the disease, over the last years there have been extensive efforts on the identification of possible risk factors, but no conclusive data have been obtained. Some risk factors have been identified but no clear evidence on what is clearly associated with the occurrence and progression of AD are available, and in particular no effective preventive strategies have been found. One of the most intriguing and appealing lines of investigation is the association between lifestyle habits such as diet and dietary compounds and the occurrence of AD. In this review, we focus on studies that investigated the association between nutrition and AD, paying particular attention to the role of a dietary pattern such as a Mediterranean-like diet on the occurrence of such disease. Studies in support of Mediterranean diet as an optimal diet for prevention of cardiovascular and major chronic diseases has rapidly evolved. A recent meta-analysis from our group, comprising prospective studies that investigated the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status, showed a significant association between a greater adherence to Mediterranean diet and a reduced risk of major chronic degenerative diseases, including AD. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been extensively reported to be associated with a favorable health outcome and a better quality of life.