Conference Paper

Requirements for Smart Grid simulation tools

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Abstract

Due to the ongoing changes in the power systems and their evolution towards Smart Grids they will become tremendously complex. Those systems will contain many different components and actors that are connected among each other and located on different technological as well as conceptual levels. Analyzing the influences and impacts of new components or changes of parameters becomes more and more challenging. For that reason the importance of simulation is continuously increasing. However, Smart Grids impose new requirements on supporting tools that today's technologies are no longer suitable for. In this paper such requirements from selected Smart Grid use cases and projects are analyzed and discussed.

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This paper describes a co-simulation framework for analyzing the interactions between advanced power systems and the digital communication networks that are used to monitor and control those systems. This analysis capability is critical to the successful design, verification, and operation of such systems as both the influences from each side will be considered. The framework, named VPNET, harnesses two tools - the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) for dynamic simulation of the multi-physics power system and OPNET for realistic representation of the communications network, including a wide range of protocols. Each part of the VPNET co-simulation framework is explained in detail, including strengths, weaknesses and challenges. The capabilities of VPNET are illustrated through a case study.
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Autonomous power systems for villages and regions exploiting local renewable energy sources has a large potential with many sites throughout the world where such systems will provide energy at lower costs than conventional diesel-only systems. The system configurations of these systems will often be complex due to the mix of generation and desire to optimise the utilisation of the renewable energy potential. It involves the control of systems with large amounts intermittent power production, interaction with conventional types of generation and often also control of the consumption and energy storage. During the feasibility, design and evaluation phases of projects that implement such systems it is essential to be able to reliably assess the technical performance of the system. The simulation package, IPSYS, has been developed as tool for analysing such systems. The emphasis has been the ability to calculate the performance in terms of e.g. fuel consumption as well as the active and reactive power flows and grid voltage levels. IPSYS also includes modelling of thermal systems that can have waste heat as input and thermal desalination units as output and a freshwater balance where the freshwater is produced by the thermal units or by electrical driven units to meet a certain demand. Another key feature of IPSYS is the modelling of the supervisory control of the complete system. IPSYS allows for very flexible modelling of the supervisory system controller. IPSYS has been developed to allow time steps down to few seconds in order to allow accurate modelling of the control of the system. The component models can also supply many signals that the controllers can access and new components or modification of existing components are easily included in the package. This is combined with the feature that change of controller modules is done in the setup files. This means that the package does not need to be recompiled in order to include new controllers. The paper will present a simple case illustrating the main features of IPSYS (multi bus bars, multi domains, multi controllers). It will further show results from a large simulation case that is currently being used to investigate and compare the performance of IPSYS with other simulation packages.
Article
Co-Simulation is a general approach to simulate coupled technical systems. In a master-slave concept the slaves simulate sub-problems whereas the master is responsible for both coordinating the overall simu-lation as well as transferring data. To unify the inter-face between master and slave the FMI for Co-Simulation was developed. Using FMI a master was implemented with simple and advanced algorithms which can be applied depending on the properties of the involved slave simulators. The master was tested amongst others by coupling with SimulationX.
Article
The implementation of highly realistic real-time, massive, online, multi-time frame simulations is proposed as a means for building a common vision of smart grid functions among politicians, regulators, managers, operators, engineers, and technicians. These massive simulations will include hundreds of participants that play roles of reliability coordinators, transmission operators, distribution operators, power plant operators, and substation operators. These highly visible drills can demonstrate how the new smart grid systems, people, and processes can all work together economically and reliably. The industry, especially smart grid system designers, can get feedback from low cost, safe, and easily configurable simulations instead of waiting for expensive and hardwired deployments. Direct load control of millions of customer appliances is identified as a silver bullet to build self-healing and maximal flow smart grids that can accommodate large penetrations of intermittent wind and solar generation and rapid load growth due to plug-in electric vehicles. The paper recommends that up to 50% of load be controlled with minimal inconvenience to customers to potentially enhance angle, voltage, frequency, and thermal stability. An expert operator decision model is described with a view to helping system developers build operator-centered and friendly smart grid control systems.
Article
Industrialization and economic development have historically been associated with man's ability to harness natural energy resources to improve his condition. Based on this definition, two industrial revolutions occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries, where natural resources such as coal (first revolution) and petroleum (second revolution) were widely exploited to produce levels of energy far beyond what could be achieved by human or animal muscle power. Furthermore, modern power distribution systems made abundant energy reliably available and relatively independent from the plant location. More than two centuries of past industrialization exploited nonrenewable energy resources, however, often with undesirable side effects such as pollution and other damage to the natural environment. In the second half of the 20th century, extraction of energy from nuclear processes grew in popularity, relieving some demands on limited fossil fuel reserves, but at the same time, raising safety and political problems. Meeting the global demand for energy is now the key challenge to sustained industrialization.
Article
Exciting yet challenging times lie ahead. The electrical power industry is undergoing rapid change. The rising cost of energy, the mass electrification of everyday life, and climate change are the major drivers that will determine the speed at which such transformations will occur. Regardless of how quickly various utilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree onthe inevitability of this massive transformation. It is a move that will not only affect their business processes but also their organization and technologies.
Conference Paper
Providing, operating and maintaining the infrastructure for continuously growing and changing electric energy systems are the technological key challenges for our society in the next years and decades. Multi-Agent Systems represent a promising approach able to realize/implement the above described functionalities and services in a power distribution network. In this paper, we present an automation agent approach and the related system architecture for handling such dynamic networks. On the one side, an agent provides monitoring and diagnostics abilities required for the robust functioning of components in the distributed environment. On the other side, to coordinate energy consumption, keep nodal voltages within predefined bounds and avoid overstressing of equipment, the system also provides anticipation services. Monitoring customer demands and applying statistical methods incorporated as behaviors in the related agents, the system is able to forecast network behavior and optimize its performance. Moreover, due to its vital importance, the system offers to the human user a complete overview of the agent's activities as well as a possibility to supervise its actions through an adequate Human Machine Interface (HMI). The presented approach is currently in the development phase and will be tested in the AIT power distribution laboratory.
Communication Infrastructure for the Smart Grid: A Co-Simulation Based Study on Techniques to Improve the Power Transmission System Functions with Efficient Data Networks
  • H Lin
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EcoGrid EU: From Design to Implementation
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Simulation of a Smart Grid City with Software Agents Communication Infrastructure for the Smart Grid: A Co- Simulation Based Study on Techniques to Improve the Power Transmission System Functions with Efficient Data Networks
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