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Unsuccessful attempts to replicate effects of self control operations and glucose on ego-depletion pose an interesting research question that demands explanation

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... Despite the large number of studies assessing the ego-depletion model of self-control and its link to glucose, a recent meta-analysis correcting for small study effects revealed little evidence that self-control relies upon a limited resource [25]. Further, there are a growing number of studies that have failed to find support for the link between self-control and blood glucose, complicating the story of a simple physiological mechanism underlying self-control (e.g., [26][27][28][29][30]). Relatedly, attempts to shed light on the mechanisms underlying self-control in distantly-and closely-related species have yielded contradictory findings. ...
... However, accumulation performance of these monkeys did not differ between glucose conditions. These results are consistent with assessments of potential depletion effects that do not report an impact of glucose on self-control performance [26][27][28][29][30]. ...
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The ego-depletion hypothesis states that self-control diminishes over time and with exertion. Accordingly, the glucose hypothesis attributes this depletion of self-control resources to decreases in blood glucose levels. Research has led to mixed findings among humans and nonhuman animals, with limited evidence for such a link between glucose and self-control among closely-related nonhuman primate species, but some evidence from more distantly related species (e.g., honeybees and dogs). We tested this hypothesis in capuchin monkeys by manipulating the sugar content of a calorie-matched breakfast meal following a nocturnal fast, and then presenting each monkey with the accumulation self-control task. Monkeys were presented with food items one-by-one until the subject retrieved and ate the accumulating items, which required continual inhibition of food retrieval in the face of an increasingly desirable reward. Results indicated no relationship between self-control performance on the accumulation task and glucose ingestion levels following a fast. These results do not provide support for the glucose hypothesis of self-control among capuchin monkeys within the presented paradigm. Further research assessing self-control and its physiological correlates among closely- and distantly-related species is warranted to shed light on the mechanisms underlying self-control behavior.
... Based upon the strength model, theory-building papers have reviewed prior literature , discussed potential costs and implications of self-control failure Baumeister & Alquist, 2009), and argued for synergies between social and cognitive neuroscience research to continue to advance the ego depletion literature (Berkman & Miller-Ziegler, 2012;Brass, Lynn, Demanet, & Rigoni, 2013;Hofmann, Schmeichel, & Baddeley, 2012). While there have been recent discussions regarding glucose's role in depletion (Beedie & Lane, 2012;Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2014a, 2014b and effect sizes (Carter & McCullough, 2014;Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2014), overwhelming support has been provided for the strength model of self-control. Although a more mechanistic, ''process-model'' of depletion has been recently proposed (Inzlicht & Schmeichel, 2012), it has yet to receive empirical support. ...
... Possible indication that the depletion effect may not be statistically significant from zero. Chatzisarantis and Hagger (2014a) To discuss the conflicting findings on glucose's role in restoring self-control resources. ...
Article
In this paper, I synthesize the prior psychology literature on ego depletion and apply this literature to an auditing setting. Ego depletion refers to a reduced desire or ability to use self-control in task performance due to using self-control on prior tasks. I focus on the likely causes and consequences of depletion in an auditing setting, as well as means of mitigating depletion and recovering self-control resources. While ego depletion theory is prevalent in the psychology literature, little is known about whether or how ego depletion affects professionals on meaningful task performance. As a result, this synthesis is aimed at stimulating future ego depletion research in accounting, and specifically auditing, by surveying existing literature and applying this literature to an auditing setting. Further, I develop 13 questions for future research to investigate. My synthesis reveals that ego depletion likely has a pervasive effect in an auditing setting, and can hinder auditors' judgment and decision-making (JDM) quality. Therefore, this synthesis helps to provide a greater understanding of the impact of auditing tasks on individuals, and refines both auditor JDM and ego depletion theories.
... However, changes in glucose cannot be easily integrated with the fact that expectancies also affect self-control outcomes. The biological account also leaves little room for motivation in depletion (Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2015). ...
Chapter
Self-control all too often fails. Despite people’s best intentions and considerable negative outcomes, people often nd themselves at the losing end of resisting temptation, combating urges, and changing their behavior. One reason for these failures may be that exerting self-control depletes a limited resource (ego depletion) that is necessary for the success of self-control. Hence, after exerting self-control, individuals are less able resist temptations, ght urges, or stop a behavior that results in a loss of self-control. This chapter reviews the evidence for this theory in a wide variety of domains and examines what behaviors appear to deplete ego strength and how depletion affects behavior. A comprehensive theory that examines how depletion operates is put forth and used to examine some factors that might moderate the depletion effect.
... Carter et al. 2015), questioning its validity, despite the decades of various laboratory and field measures, with participants of all differing ages, and in laboratories from all around the world. After some failures in being able to replicate ED effect (Lange and Eggert 2014;Xu et al. 2014;Lurquin et al. 2016), and some published opinion papers questioning its validity and "demanding" further explanation (Lange 2015;Chatzisarantis and Hagger 2015), Hagger et al. (2016) headed a multi-laboratory preregistered replication report (RRR) of the ED effect with 23 laboratories from around the world that found the ED effect to be virtually nonexistent. Lurquin and Miyake (2017) identify a lack of a concrete operational definition of "self-control" and a lack of empirically validated self-control tasks as some of the issues with ED research. ...
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For most, the transition from high school to university marks the simultaneous transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood. Many studies have discussed the degradation of health throughout this time period and identified the increased chance of this cohort engaging in risky or unhealthy behavior. Ego depletion may provide a useful tool for beginning the exploration of this transition and its challenges. This systematic review intends to identify the studies over the last 5 years that have focused on the effect of ego depletion on cognitive and emotional variables with university students. The systematic search resulted in 48 studies from which to draw data and revealed that undergraduate university students are susceptible to the ego depletion effect (92% significant), and that it pervades across wide variety of cognitive and emotional variables such as self-control, prospective memory, and anxiety. These studies could yield suggestions for future planning of advisor–student relationships, peer-to-peer assistance programs, and many other useful avenues for easing the early years of university.
... First, both Study 1 and Study 2 observed the hypothesized effect using different behavioral measures. Furthermore, the link between ego-depletion and sugar consumption currently appears controversial due to several failed replications (Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2015;Lange & Eggert, 2014;Vadillo, Gold, & Osman, 2016). Our results support the findings of these replication studies, as indicated by the null main effects of the depletion manipulation on both measures of sugar consumption. ...
Article
Changing attitudes does not necessarily involve the same psychological processes as changing behavior, yet social psychology is only just beginning to identify the different mechanisms involved. We contribute to this understanding by showing that the moderators of attitude change are not necessarily the moderators of behavior change. The results of three studies (Ns = 98, 104, 137) employing an ego depletion manipulation indicate that although people are more likely to agree with a persuasive message when executive control is reduced they are not more likely to change their behavior. Rather, attitudes became less correlated with behaviors after persuasion. Moreover, in Study 3, we provide an explanation for this phenomenon: People are more likely to agree with a persuasive message when depleted but are also more likely to fall back on habits that may conflict with their new evaluations. A mini meta-analysis of the data indicated that ego-depletion had a medium effect size on the difference between attitude change and behavior change, N = 339, ¯d = -0.51, 95%CI [-0.72, -0.29]. Jointly, these studies suggest an integrative, resource-based explanation to attitude-behavior discrepancies subsequent to persuasion.
... The first model argues that self-regulation depends in part on glucose and that temporary reductions in self-regulatory ability are mediated by temporary depletions of circulating or focal brain glucose (Gailliot & Baumeister, 2007). Although this model has been challenged (i.e., Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2013;Job, Walton, Bernecker, & Dweck, 2013;Molden et al., 2012), some of its tenants may hold up to criticism (Baumeister, 2014;Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2015; although see Baumeister & Vohs, 2016;Dang, 2016;Hagger et al., 2016). The second noteworthy biologically informed model of self-regulation posits that the glucocorticoid hormone cortisol, which is released during stress, alters brain function in ways that may impair self-regulation (Blair et al., 2011;Raio, Orederu, Palazzolo, Shurick, & Phelps, 2013;cf., Shields, Bonner, & Moons, 2015). ...
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Article
Self-regulation is a fundamental human process that refers to multiple complex methods by which individuals pursue goals in the face of distractions. Whereas superior self-regulation predicts better academic achievement, relationship quality, financial and career success, and lifespan health, poor self-regulation increases a person's risk for negative outcomes in each of these domains and can ultimately presage early mortality. Given its centrality to understanding the human condition, a large body of research has examined cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of self-regulation. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to specific biologic processes that may underlie self-regulation. We address this latter issue in the present review by examining the growing body of research showing that components of the immune system involved in inflammation can alter neural, cognitive, and motivational processes that lead to impaired self-regulation and poor health. Based on these findings, we propose an integrated, multilevel model that describes how inflammation may cause widespread biobehavioral alterations that promote self-regulatory failure. This immunologic model of self-regulatory failure has implications for understanding how biological and behavioral factors interact to influence self-regulation. The model also suggests new ways of reducing disease risk and enhancing human potential by targeting inflammatory processes that affect self-regulation.
... The sequential-task paradigm, while elegant, has inherent problems. A critical assumption of the paradigm is that participants exert sufficient effort to deplete their self-control resources on the first self-control task (Chatzisarantis and Hagger, 2015b) and there has been little attention paid to ascertaining participants' level of exertion during the first task beyond subjective assessments of effort and fatigue (Chatzisarantis and Hagger, 2015a). If participants do not engage in effortful self-control on the first task, it is unlikely that they will be sufficiently depleted to show decrements in performance on subsequent tasks, leading to null or greatly reduced ego-depletion effect. ...
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Article
Self-control is defined as individuals' capacity to alter, modify, change, or override impulses, desires, and habitual responses (Baumeister, 2002; Muraven et al., 2005). Capacity for self-control is important and adaptive. Without it, we would be “slaves” to habits and impulses and unable to engage in sustained, goal-directed behavior. Loss of self-control has been shown to be related to numerous maladaptive health, social, and economic outcomes (Baumeister, 2002). Contemporary theories indicate that human capacity for self-control is limited (Baumeister et al., 1998). According to the strength model of self-control, performance on tasks requiring self-control draws energy from a general, unitary, and limited “internal” resource (Baumeister et al., 1998; Muraven et al., 1998). Because this resource is finite, the model predicts that engaging in tasks requiring self-control would lead to the depletion of the resource and reduced performance on subsequent self-control tasks. The state of self-control resource depletion is termed “ego-depletion.”
... In fact there is some dispute as to the precise nature of the resource and provide alternative explanations (Beedie & Lane, 2011;Inzlicht & Schmeichel, 2012;Inzlicht, Schmeichel, & Macrae, 2014) or debate whether it is an effect at all (Carter & McCullough, 2013b;Carter & McCullough, 2014;Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2014b). Others have contended that it has a physiological analog (Gailliot et al., 2007), while others dispute this and indicate that the effect may be perceptual (Carter & McCullough, 2013a;Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2015a, 2015bHagger & Chatzisarantis, 2013;Lange, 2015;Lange & Eggert, 2014). Moreover, some have conceptualised it as a set of beliefs (Job, Dweck, & Walton, 2010), motivation (Muraven & Slessareva, 2003), or capacity for resource allocation (Beedie & Lane, 2011;Inzlicht & Schmeichel, 2012). ...
... To the extent that experimental participants' performance on the second self-control task is impaired, we have sharp confirmation of the ego-depletion effect. Research has supported the ego-depletion effect across multiple studies and has shown that the depletion effect occurs for tasks in multiple domains of self-control indicating that the resource is a unitary, generalized effect rather one that is confined to particular tasks [63,70,[81][82][83]. ...
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BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption on single occasions among undergraduate students is a major health issue as research has shown this pattern of drinking to be related to maladaptive health and psychosocial outcomes. Brief, theory-based interventions targeting motivation and self-control as behavior-change techniques have been identified as effective means to reduce alcohol consumption, but few studies have examined the interactive effects of these components. The aim of the present study is to develop a brief theory-based intervention using motivational and self-control intervention techniques to reduce alcohol consumption in undergraduate students.
This paper aims to study how to promote creative idea diffusion by using multiple channels. A variety of main communication channels, which are face to face communication channel at work, online communication channel in enterprise social media and electronic communication channel in non-working time, are considered. We propose an idea diffusion model in a multiplex network with the three channels. Furthermore, the threshold R0 of idea diffusion is obtained. If R0<1, we can conclude that the free equilibrium without an idea in the multiplex network composed of the three channels is globally asymptotically stable; if R0>1, we prove that the creative idea spreads continuously in this system. Numerical simulations show that the speed of diffusion is fast and the scope of diffusion is wide among individuals when the average times of communication by using any of three channels in unit time are basically the same. If individuals communicate the creative idea only by using one or two online channels and ignore the offline communication channel at work, the diffusion of this creative idea is likely to be seriously hindered.
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Numerous studies confirm the so-called ego depletion effect (i.e., self-control is impaired after an initial unrelated self-control task). There are also many studies on the moderators of the effect. During recent years, the criticism on this limited-resource approach to willpower has increased, and alternative models have been developed. I argue that the existing models cannot explain the variety of results found in the ego depletion literature (e.g., the vicarious depletion effect). Therefore, I sought a theoretical explanation that incorporates many of the findings, and, thus, I introduce the schema model of self-control. It is characterized by several mediating paths, with each having specific moderators. Referring to related schema conceptions already existing in the literature (i.e., illness schemas and emotion schemas), I posit that the processes that cause ego depletion effects occur around the activation of the fatigue/decreased vitality schema. This schema becomes activated via the registration of behavioral and physiological changes related to exercising self-control. The activation of the fatigue/vitality schema should instigate the motivation to conserve energy and, therefore, cause reduced effort and decreased performance in a subsequent self-control task. The moderators (e.g., energy supply) should influence the (non)activation of the fatigue/vitality schema or its consequences.
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Objectives: Completion of a task requiring self-control may negatively impact on subsequent self regulatory efforts. This study explored a) whether this effect occurs during a well-practiced endurance task, b) the potential for glucose supplementation to moderate this effect, and c) whether this effect differed over time. Method: Fourteen trained cyclists completed four simulated 16 km time trials on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Prior to each time trial, participants completed a congruent Stroop task or an incongruent Stroop task that required self-control. They also received either a glucose-based drink or placebo. Participants' performance time and heart rate were recorded throughout the time trials. Results: Multilevel growth curve analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction between self-control, glucose, and time (b = -0.91; p = 0.02). When participants did not exert self-control (congruent Stroop) or consume glucose (placebo drink) they were slowest during the early stages of the time trial but quickest over the full distance. No differences were found in heart rate across the four conditions. Conclusions: Findings suggest that pacing may explain why self-control exertion interferes with endurance performance. Moreover, the debate revolving around depletion of self-control must consider that any observed effects may be dependent on the timing of performance inspection. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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According to the resource-depletion model, self-control is a limited resource that is depleted after a period of exertion. Evidence consistent with this model indicates that self-control relies on glucose metabolism and glucose supplementation to depleted individuals replenishes self-control resources. In five experiments, we tested an alternative hypothesis that glucose in the oral cavity counteracts the deleterious effects of self-control depletion. We predicted a glucose mouth rinse, as opposed to an artificially sweetened placebo rinse, would lead to better self-control after depletion. In Studies 1 to 3, participants engaging in a depleting task performed significantly better on a subsequent self-control task after receiving a glucose mouth rinse, as opposed to participants rinsing with a placebo. Studies 4 and 5 replicated these findings and demonstrated that the glucose mouth rinse had no effect on self-control in nondepleted participants. Results are consistent with a neural rather than metabolic mechanism for the effect of glucose supplementation on self-control.
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The sweet taste of success. The presence of glucose in the oral cavity moderates the depletion of self-control resources
  • M S Hagger
  • N L D Chatzisarantis
Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2013). The sweet taste of success. The presence of glucose in the oral cavity moderates the depletion of self-control resources. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 27-41. doi:10.1177/ 0146167212459912.