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Echolocation calls identified as searching calls of Tadarida teniotis were recorded at two sites in the forested mountainous part of the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine, in September 2009. Description of the records is given and possible occurrence of T. teniotis in Crimea is discussed.
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Lynx, n. s. (Praha), 40: 115–126 (2009). ISSN 0024–7774
Does Tadarida teniotis really occur in Crimea? (Chiroptera: Molossidae)
Vyskytuje sa Tadarida teniotis skutočne na Kryme? (Chiroptera: Molossidae)
Marcel UHRIN1,4, Suren GAZARYAN2 & Petr BENDA3,4
1 Slovak Bat Conservation Society, B. Němcovej 141/5, SK–050 01 Revúca, Slovakia;
2 Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories, Kabardino-Balkarian Scientic Center of the Russian
Academy of Science, Nalchik 360000, Russia;
3 Department of Zoology, National Museum (Natural History), Václavské nám. 68, CZ–115 79 Praha 1,
Czech Republic;
4 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Viničná 7, CZ–128 44 Praha 2,
Czech Republic
received on 20 December 2009
Abstract. Echolocation calls identied as searching calls of Tadarida teniotis were recorded at two sites
in the forested mountainous part of the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine, in September 2009. Description of
the records is given and possible occurrence of T. teniotis in Crimea is discussed.
Key words. Tadarida, echolocation, distribution, Crimea, Ukraine.
The European free-tailed bat, Tadarida teniotis (Ranesque, 1814), is a true Mediterranean bat
species and the only representative of the family Molossidae Gervais, 1856 in Europe as well as in
the Mediterranean parts of Africa and the Middle East (CORBET 1978, HORÁČEK et al. 2000).
Whereas the southern margin of distribution range of T. teniotis in the western Palaearctic is
clearly limited by severe arid habitats of the Sahara and Arabian deserts (AELLEN 1966, HARRISON
& BATES 1991, IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ 2004), the northern margin of its range seems to be un-
stable, similarly as the climate in the northern regions of the Mediterranean zone. Based on the
records published – fundamentally reviewed by AELLEN (1966) – IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ (2004)
described the northern margin of regular distribution of T. teniotis in Europe go to from the
Pyrenees (Port d’Aula) and southernmost France (Pont du Gard) along the Rhone valley (Pont
d’Arc; Le Marais) to southern Switzerland (Sankt-Gotthard-Pass; Bellinzona), northeastern Italy
(Val-Lagarina), and coastal Croatia (Split) to Macedonia (Markova Kula; Demir Kapija) and
Bulgaria (Sandanski; Rodopy Mts.). This line was more or less accepted by subsequent authors
(DIETZ et al. 2007, AULAGNIER et al. 2008, GRIMMBERGER et al. 2009). However, several known
occurrence points lie northwards of the line demarcated by IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ (2004); the
Channel Island of Jersey, the town of Basel and the peninsula of Crimea. Although the latter
authors doubted occurrence in the Atlantic island of Madeira indicated by DOBSON (1878), they
accepted the (northernmost) record from Jersey published also by DOBSON (1878) as well as the
record from Crimea taken from AELLEN (1966).
The record from Basel (NW Switzerland) was published by SCHNEIDER (1871) and for a long
time it represented northernmost known point of T. teniotis occurrence in mainland Europe.
This record has been exceeded only recently by the nding of a handicapped Tadarida male
in Stuttgart, SW Germany (ANONYMUS 1992, 1993). Anyway, both these records from regions
north of the Alps as well as from Jersey are considered as accidental strays (ANONYMUS 1992,
The occurrence of T. teniotis in Crimea represents the northernmost occurrence spot of the
species in the portion of Europe east of the Alps (KOCK & NADER 1984, see also BENDA et al.
2003 and CIECHANOWSKI et al. 2005). This occurrence was considered real and mentioned without
any notes and/or doubts by LANZA (1959), AELLEN (1966), KOCK & NADER (1984) and IBÁÑEZ
& PÉREZ-JORDÁ (2004). The only individual of T. teniotis from Crimea was reported by JENTINK
(1888: 202). Among eight specimens of Nyctinomus cestonii [= Tadarida teniotis] coming
from Dalmatia and Egypt, he also mentioned a specimen with a note: “Femelle semi-adulte. La
Crimée.”. SATUNIN (1914: 44) mentioned, most probably based on the JENTINK’s (1888) report,
the Crimean occurrence of T. teniotis as follows: “A doubtful report exists about nding of this
[free-tailed] bat on the southern coast of Crimea.” [translated from Russian]. Later on, OGNEV
(1927: 157) referred: “In Satunin’s ‘Conspectus Mammalium Imperii Rosici’ (1914, p. 44) is a
doubtful indication that a bat of the genus Nyctinomus [= Tadarida] inhabits the southern coast of
Crimea. Surely this can be only N. teniotis Ranesque, a species of the Mediterranean subregion.”
OGNEV (1928) in his famous book repeated exactly the words from SATUNIN (1914) concerning
doubts about the (JENTINK’s?) report of T. teniotis from Crimea. These three very short notes
by SATUNIN and OGNEV are the only published reports of East-European authors related to the
occurrence of this species in Crimea. However, presence of T. teniotis was not mentioned in the
Fig. 1. Karstic depression near Pčelinoe covered by pastures and forest patches and surrounded by limestone
slopes. The site of evidence of the echolocation calls of Tadarida teniotis (photo by Zdeňka BENDOVÁ).
Obr. 1. Krasová depresia pri dedine Pčelinoe s mozaikou pasienkov a lesov obklopená vápencovými
svahmi. Lokalita záznamu echolokačných signálov Tadarida teniotis (foto Zdeňka BENDOVÁ).
rst survey of the regional bat fauna (BRAUNER” 1912), and no record or museum specimen from
Crimea or Ukraine was referred by later Ukrainian and Russian authors (KUZÂKIN 1950, 1965,
ABELÈNCEV & POPOV 1956, STRELKOV 1962, 1981, DULICKIJ 1974, 2001a, b, KONSTANTINOV et al.
& KOVALENKO 2003, ŠEVČENKO & ZOLOTUHINA 2005, GODLEVSKAÂ et al. 2009, etc.).
Anyway, the occurrence of T. teniotis in Crimea is well conceivable from the biogeographical
point of view. The species inhabits the Caucasus – a biogeographical region continuing southeast
to the Crimean mountain range. Two sites of T. teniotis records are known from the northern
slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mts.; KORNEEV & MARISOVA (1950) reported a record of a male
from the Berezovaâ river canyon (43° 52’ N, 42° 42’ E) near Kislovodsk made in July 1948. A co-
lony of ca. 10 individuals of T. teniotis was discovered in a small cave in the Čerek river canyon
(43° 15’ N, 43° 20’ E) ca. 30 km SW of Nalčik on 21 August 1960 (TEMBOTOV & ŠABAEV 1962)
and a juvenile male was found at the same site on 23 September 2005 (GAZARÂN & TEMBOTOVA
2007). Several records of T. teniotis are known also from Transcaucasia (KUZÂKIN 1950, 1965;
E. YAVRUYAN ad verb.) as well as from the Pontic region of Turkey (BENDA & HORÁČEK 1998).
Results of a bat research carried out in Crimea in the last years (KONSTANTINOV et al. 1976,
PETRUŠENKO 2001, GODLEVSKAÂ 2003, GODLEVSKAÂ et al. 2009) did not bring any signs of occur-
rence of Tadarida teniotis. However, during a recent eld trip to Crimea we recorded several call
sequences which could suggest presence of T. teniotis in this southernmost part of Ukraine.
Bat calls were recorded during a two-week (10–23 September 2009) eld trip carried out mainly in the
forested mountain portion of the Crimean Peninsula (Krymskye gory Mts.). Acoustic recordings were
made using the portable ultrasound detectors D240x (Pettersson Elektronik AB, Uppsala, Sweden). De-
tectors were set on the time-expansion mode and were connected to Sony MD Walkman MZ-NH600 or
to Edirol R-09 (Roland Corp., Japan) recorders. Altogether, 257 sequences with bat calls were recorded
in the eld.
The recordings were analysed with the software BatSound 3.0 (Pettersson Elektronik AB, Uppsala,
Sweden). The sampling frequency of 22,050 samples/s with 16 bits/sample and expansion factor 10 were
used. Using Edirol, time-expanded sequences were digitised at the sampling rate 48 kHz with 16-bit preci-
sion and saved as *wav les. A 512 pt. FFT with Hanning window was used for analyses and oscilograms,
power spectra and spectrograms were evaluated. For echolocation calls, the following parameters of the
call were measured: total pulse duration (D), start frequency (SF), end frequency (EF; both SF and EF at
–40 dB below the peak power spectral intensity), frequency of maximum energy (Fmax) and inter-pulse
interval (IPI, the time between two consecutive calls). The measured parameters of potential Tadarida
teniotis calls were compared with the published data concerning this species (e.g., ZBINDEN & ZINGG 1986,
ZINGG 1990, RUSSO & JONES 2002, OBRIST et al. 2004, BAYEFSKY-ANAND et al. 2008).
In total, among more than 250 bat call sequences, eight call sequences (23 сalls), were considered as
possible Tadarida teniotis calls.
1. Pčelinoe [Пчелиное], pastures and a small lake ca. 3 km E of the village (Belogorsk [Белогорск]
Dist.), 44° 56’ N, 34° 35’ E, 460 m a. s. l. (Fig. 1), 19 September 2009, one call sequence of one individual
recorded, two calls analysed.
The site is situated in a large karstic depression surrounded by a range of limestone slopes without vege-
tation cover on the top (Fig. 1). The main habitat types include pastures and deciduous forests (composed
mainly of Carpinus sp.), on the bottom of the depression the pastures are alternated with various lines of
bushes and trees (e.g., Juglans regia, Crataegus sp., Rosa sp., Betula sp., Populus sp., etc.). Bats were
recorded in the surroundings of a small articial pond, from the southern side surrounded by a dense forest
and from the northern side by a pasture lined by hedgerows and other higher vegetation lines. The lake is
ca. 50×40 m in size, its littoral vegetation is composed of Typha sp., Phragmites sp. and manifold bush.
At minimum, tens of individuals belonging to six bat species were recorded at this site between 8.30
and 9.30 pm. No voices of the European free-tailed bat audible by a naked ear were recognised, the calls
were found only during the analysis of the recordings. Among call sequences of Nyctalus noctula, Epte-
sicus serotinus, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. nathusii / P. kuhlii (see some of sequences
in Fig. 2) only two calls of T. teniotis with non-linear FM-QCF structure could be detected and measured
(Fig. 2). The parameters of these two calls are as follows: D=21.4 and 25.0 ms; SF=16.1 and 13.5 kHz;
EF=11.8 and 11.7 kHz, Fmax=12.8 and 11.9 kHz, and IPI=653 ms.
2. Partizanskoe [Партизанское], above the Avunda [Авунда] creek (Âlta [Ялта] Dist.), 44° 33’ N,
34° 15’ E, 435 m a. s. l. (Fig. 3), 16 September 2009, seven call sequences of 1–2 individuals were re-
corded and analysed.
The locality is situated in an old-growth beech forest in the creek canyon. From 8.30 to 10.30 pm, bat or
bats which emitted the calls, ew several times above the forest canopy. The calls were well audible by
a naked ear and in the heterodyne mode of the bat detector. The recorded calls had only CF structures with
the following parameters: D=210.0–341.0 ms (n=6, mean=272.50 ms), SF=10.7–12.2 kHz (mean=11.43);
EF=11.8–16.0 kHz (mean=13.36), Fmax=11.9–12.4 kHz (mean=12.44 kHz), IPI=780–950 ms (Fig. 4).
Along with the above mentioned calls, echolocation and social calls of Rhinolophus hipposideros, Pi-
Fig. 2. Spectrogram of echolocation calls of bats recorded above a small articial lake at Pčelinoe, 19 Sep-
tember 2009 (1 – Tadarida teniotis, 2 – Nyctalus noctula, 3 – Eptesicus serotinus, 4 – Hypsugo savii). The
smaller gure (above left) shows power spectrum of the rst pulse of T. teniotis call.
Obr. 2. Spektrogram echolokačných signálov netopierov zaznamenaných nad umelým jazierkom pri osade
Pčelinoe, 19. september 2009 (1 – Tadarida teniotis, 2 – Nyctalus noctula, 3 – Eptesicus serotinus, 4 – Hy-
psugo savii). Na malom obrázku vľavo hore je zobrazené spektrum energií prvého výkriku T. teniotis.
Fig. 3. Limestone walls above the Avunda creek canyon at Partizanskoe. The site of evidence of the
echolocation calls of (perhaps) Tadarida teniotis (photo by Suren GAZARYAN).
Obr. 3. Vápencové steny nad kaňonom potoka Avunda pri dedine Partizanskoje. Lokalita záznamu echo-
lokačných signálov (azda) Tadarida teniotis (foto Suren GAZARJAN).
Fig. 4. Spectrogram of echolocation calls of cf. Tadarida teniotis recorded at the Avunda creek near Par-
tizanskoe on 16 September 2009.
Obr. 4. Spektrogram echolokačných signálov cf. Tadarida teniotis zaznamenaných pri potoku Avunda
blízko osady Partizanskoe 16. septembra 2009.
pistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus were recorded in this
The call recorded near Pčelinoe could represent an evidence of Tadarida teniotis in Crimea
– despite the fact that only two particular calls were detected and analysed. The measured
parameters of these calls lie within the variation ranges evidenced in the European range of T.
teniotis (ZBINDEN & ZINGG 1986, ZINGG 1990, OBRIST et al. 2004). The values of pulse duration
are near the range maximum described by RUSSO & JONES (2002) and/or BAYEFSKY-ANAND et
al. (2008), all other parameter values from the Crimean recordings conform to the measure
ranges given by the latter and former authors. Similar call patterns as we found in the Crimean
recordings were also reported from T. teniotis calls recorded in the Middle East (Sinai, Israel,
Syria; ULANOVSKY et al. 2004, BENDA et al. 2006, 2008, BAYEFSKY-ANAND et al. 2008).
When only the values of the frequency of maximum energy are considered, the calls recorded
in Crimea could be theoretically confused with the territorial or social calls of Eptesicus nilssonii
(Keyserling et Blasius, 1839), Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus, 1758 and/or Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl,
1817) (see AHLÉN & BAAGØE 1999, PFALZER & KUSCH 2003, AHLÉN 2004, and VON HELVERSEN
& VON HELVERSEN 1994). While Eptesicus nilssonii has never been recorded in Crimea and this
region is far outside its distribution range (see e.g., RYDELL 1993), the latter two species are
common bats in the Peninsula, at least seasonally (unpubl. observations of the authors). The
“advertising songs” of Nyctalus leisleri are usually displayed from one site (perch), which
is most usually situated on the bark of a tree trunk (VON HELVERSEN & VON HELVERSEN 1994).
However, the Crimean T. teniotis calls were recorded among numerous bats of several species
ying above the surface of a small lake and were well distinguishable from their calls (Nycta-
lus noctula (Schreber, 1774), Eptesicus serotinus (Schreber, 1774), Hypsugo savii (Bonaparte,
1837); see Fig. 2). Additionally, the general pattern of these T. teniotis signals, mainly their pulse
durations, inter-pulse interval, frequencies of maximum energy and also the lack of harmonics
can be well distinguished from all the mentioned species. In conclusion, the parameters of the
respective calls recorded at Pčelinoe fall well into the ranges of the parameters given for various
Mediterranean populations of T. teniotis and hardly give other identication alternative.
Interpretation of the recording of a call sequence made above the Avunda creek near Par-
tizanskoe is rather difcult. These calls have a linear character with clear constant frequency
(CF) pulse and with very long duration. The frequency of maximum energy in these calls was
11.9–12.4 kHz. Such echolocation pattern has not been described for T. teniotis calls from any
region within its distribution range (e.g., ZBINDEN & ZINGG 1986, RUSSO & JONES 2002, BAYEF-
SKY-ANAND et al. 2008, BENDA et al. 2008) and the oscilogram and spectrogram of these calls
give a picture rather similar to those of some representatives of grasshoppers (see e.g., RAGGE
& REYNOLDS 1998). On the other hand, the calls were clearly audible directly in the eld from
a fast-ying object, and in the heterodyne mode of the bat detector they had the patterns (e.g.
loud and sharp sounds) described by AHLÉN (1990) and/or BARATAUD (1996). There are no other
bat species in Crimea, which could emit similarly strong audible calls at these frequencies. Only
OBRIST et al. (2004) showed among echolocation call variations also examples of very narrow-
-band, (quasi-)constant frequency vocalizations in e.g. Pipistrellus spp., Vespertilio murinus
and also in T. teniotis which are similar to our recordings.
The presented recordings, at least that made at Pčelinoe, seem to be good evidence of the
presence of Tadarida teniotis in Crimea. It is the rst direct record of the species in the Peninsula
as well as in Ukraine and gives credit to the only available previous report by JENTINK (1888),
considered doubtful by most of Ukrainian and Russian authors (see Introduction). Although
the Crimean records of T. teniotis could seem to be exceptions from their extreme rarity, there
are good conditions for the occurrence of this bat in southern Crimea. The climatic, vegetation
and faunal zoning traditionally include southern parts of the Peninsula – coastal areas and
coastwise mountain ranges – into the Pontic province of the Mediterranean arboreal zoogeo-
graphic zone (SEDLAG & WEINERT 1987, BLONDEL & ARONSON 1999). This relatively narrow strip
of Mediterranean habitats in southern Crimea continues from Pontic and Colchic regions of
that province adjacent to the eastern shore of the Black Sea, where T. teniotis is already a well
known inhabitant (see Introduction); the Crimean localities lie at the distance of ca. 650 km
from the closest Caucasian site near Kislovodsk. The steep limestone mountain ranges along the
southern shore of Crimea could undoubtedly provide adequate roosting opportunities for this bat
(cf. ARLETTAZ 1990, IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ 2004; Fig. 3). At least Rhinolophus ferrumequinum
(Schreber, 1774), Myotis emarginatus (Geoffroy, 1806), Miniopterus schreibersii (Kuhl, 1817),
and Hypsugo savii (Bonaparte, 1837) represent true Mediterranean elements in the Crimean
bat fauna (DULICKIJ 2001a, b, GODLEVSKAÂ et al. 2009); records of these bats are reported only
from the mountainous southern part of Crimea where they also reach the northern margins of
their distribution ranges in the broader region of easternmost Europe (see e.g. CORBET 1978). T.
teniotis, another typical Mediterranean element among European bats, could nd natural limits
of its northern distribution in eastern Europe just in southern Crimea, which however, is not the
northernmost point within its whole range (see Introduction).
Although the occurrence of T. teniotis in Crimea seems to be well veritable from the ecolo-
gical and biogeographical points of view, it is rather impossible to consider it regular. The real
regular distribution of T. teniotis, known from southern European countries and from many
Mediterranean islands (see the reviews by IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ 2004 and BENDA et al. 2009),
is well detectable both with the help of bat detectors and by a naked ear only after a very short
eld exploration in quite different landscape types. On the other hand, in the Mediterranean
habitats of the Levant (Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon), T. teniotis is considered to represent a regu-
lar inhabitant of the region but its evidence is rather scarce when compared to the abundace
of records in the European thermo-Mediterranean zone (see BENDA et al. 2006, 2007, 2009,
HORÁČEK et al. 2008). Anyway, based on our eld experience, in these countries of the eastern
Mediterranean, T. teniotis can be detected in suitable habitats with certain luck regularly during
every research trip. However, no evidence of T. teniotis existence was available in Crimea in
the last 120 years.
Thus, we consider the occurrence of T. teniotis in Crimea rather temporal and its records as
evidences of strays from a region of known (regular) occurrence and repeated records, most
probably from the Caucasian region. T. teniotis is a strong and fast yer, certainly able to make
long-distance migrations within and from areas of its regular occurrence in the thermo-Me-
diterranean zone. The habitats where the records were made, a forested mountain valley and
a plateau covered with a mosaic of pastures, light forests and lakes, are not the most typical
foraging areas of the species (IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ 2004). On the other hand, the species
shows individual variation in foraging habits (RUSSO & JONES 2003, MARQUES et al. 2004) and
our (probably) accidental recordings cannot indicate a different preference under the Crimean
conditions (Figs. 1, 3).
Anyway, although the occurrence of the European free-tailed bat, Tadarida teniotis, in south-
ern Crimea is very likely, it should be veried by further eld studies and by catching of an
individual. An eventual genetic analysis of such specimen could indicate its geographic origin,
i.e. from a Caucasian, Turkish, Balkan or indigenous population, and also elucidate our records
as well as the JENTINK’s (1888) nding.
We thank our wives, Zdeňka BENDOVÁ and Janina GAZARYAN, for their patience and for logistic support
in the eld. Wea are grateful to Dieter KOCK (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) and Peter KAŇUCH (Zvolen,
Slovakia) for providing us with literature. For consultations of the bat recordings we thank Danilo RUS-
SO (Napoli, Italy), Radek LUČAN (Praha, Czech Republic), Tomáš BARTONIČKA (Brno, Czech Republic)
and Martin CEĽUCH (Bardejov, Slovakia). The eld work was supported by grants of the Czech Science
Foundation (# 206/02/0888), the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic (# MK00002327201) and the
Russian Fund for Basic Research (# 07-04-01215).
Dosiaľ jediným publikovaným údajom o výskyte Tadarida teniotis na Kryme (Ukrajina) bol údaj JENTIN-
KA (1888), ktorý v katalógu svojho múzea uvádza aj jedinca Nyctinomus cestonii [= Tadarida teniotis]
s poznámkou “Femelle semi-adulte. La Crimée.”. Kým viacerí autori zo západnej Európy považovali
výskyt T. teniotis na Kryme za reálny a bez pochybností (napr. LANZA 1959, AELLEN 1966, KOCK & NADER
1984, IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ 2004), SATUNIN (1914) a OGNEV (1927, 1928) údaj spochybňovali a výskyt T.
teniotis v oblasti sa nespomína v žiadnej inej práci ukrajinských alebo ruských autorov (napr. BRAUNER
1912, KUZÂKIN 1950, 1965, ABELÈNCEV & POPOV 1956, STRELKOV 1962, 1981, DULICKIJ 1974, 2001a, b,
DULICKIJ & KOVALENKO 2003, ŠEVČENKO & ZOLOTUHINA 2005, GODLEVSKAÂ et al. 2009, atď.). V príspevku
sa opisujú a diskutujú echolokačné signály netopierov zaznamenané detektormi a neskôr po akustickej
analýze identikované ako signály Tadarida teniotis. Signály boli nahrané v hornatej a prevažne lesnatej
časti polostrova Krym v septembri 2009 na dvoch lokalitách (Pčelinoe, okres Belogorsk a Partizanskoe,
o. Jalta). Kým signály nahrané u Partizanskeho majú atypické parametre, signály z Pčelineho svojimi
parametrami plne zodpovedajú charakteristikám zaznamenaným u T. teniotis v rôznych častiach jej areálu
(napr. ZBINDEN & ZINGG 1986, ZINGG 1990, RUSSO & JONES 2002, OBRIST et al. 2004, ULANOVSKY et al.
2004, BENDA et al. 2006, 2008, BAYEFSKY-ANAND et al. 2008) a postačujú na druhovú identikáciu. Keďže
prezentované údaje predstavujú prvý údaj o výskyte T. teniotis na Kryme po 120 rokoch od publikovania
jediného údaju, výskyt druhu je v budúcnosti potrebné overiť aj odchytom netopiera samotného.
До настоящего времени единственным опубликованным свидетельством обитания широкоухого
складчатогуба (Tadarida teniotis) в Крыму было указание Eнтинка (JENTINK 1888), который
среди восьми экземпляров Nyctinomus cestonii [= T. teniotis] из Далматии и Египта описывает
один экземпляр с примечанием “Femelle semi-adulte. La Crimée” [самка полувзрослая, Крым].
Западноевропейские авторы признают реальность данной находки без каких-либо оговорок
(напр., LANZA 1959, AELLEN 1966, KOCK & NADER 1984, IBÁÑEZ & PÉREZ-JORDÁ 2004). В то же время,
кроме САТУНИНА (SATUNIN 1914) и ОГНЕВА (OGNEV 1927, 1928), другие украинские и российские
исследователи не указывают на обитание Tadarida teniotis в Крыму (напр. BRAUNER” 1912, KUZÂKIN
1950, 1965, ABELÈNCEV & POPOV 1956, STRELKOV 1962, 1981, DULICKIJ 1974, 2001a, b, KONSTANTINOV et
LENKO 2003, ŠEVČENKO & ZOLOTUHINA 2005, GODLEVSKAÂ et al. 2009, и др.). В представленной работе
описываются и обсуждаются эхолокационные сигналы, зарегистрированные с помощью детекторов
ультразвука, которые по результатам акустического анализа, могут принадлежать T. teniotis. Сигналы
были записаны в сентябре 2009 года, в двух точках в лесном поясе горного Крыма (с. Пчелиное в
окр. пос. Белогорск и над р. Авунда в окр. пос. Партизанское неподалеку от г. Ялта). Хотя сигналы
из окр. пос. Партизанское имеют нетипичную для T. teniotis структуру, сигналы из Пчелиного по
своим параметрам полностью соответствуют описанным из других частей ареала (ZBINDEN & ZINGG
1986, ZINGG 1990, RUSSO & JONES 2002, OBRIST et al. 2004, ULANOVSKY et al. 2004, BENDA et al. 2006,
2008, BAYEFSKY-ANAND et al. 2008) и не могут быть отнесены к другим видам рукокрылых. В то же
время, приведенное спустя 120 лет после первой находки новое свидетельство обитания T. teniotis
в Крыму должно быть подтверждено поимкой хотя бы одного животного.
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... По поводу фаунистического статуса широкоухого складчатогуба. В недавно вышедшей статье (Uhrin et al., 2009) сами авторы отмечают, что их свидетельство обитания Tadarida teniotis в Крыму приведено спустя 120 лет после первой находки и, конечно, оно должно быть подтверждено коллекционным экземпляром. Такого же мнения придерживаются и многие другие зоологи. ...
... С. Газарян зарегистрировал в Крыму складчатогуба при работе с ультразвуковым детектором(Uhrin et al., 2009). Аналогичным образом зафиксирован в горном Крыму и мохноногий сыча О. Б. Переладовой, который до сих пор числится здесь фантомным видом из-за отсутствия коллекционного подтверждения. ...
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All available data for the period since 1816 concerning mammals of Crimea is analyzed. Four groups of species were distinguished: the fossil ones and 3 groups of recent mammals — endangered species, the ones that live, and "virtual" species. The data on the number of species is presented within the frames of systematic groups at the level of ranks. In real modern theriofauna there are 14 % species that appeared during XX century due to anthropogenic factor, and this process has a tendency to continuation. It is assumed that a part of virtual fauna can stop its growth.
... У номенклатурі Маркевича й Татарка родина Molossidae згадується під назвою «бульдогові летючі миші» (Маркевич, Татарко, 1983: 154). Нині назва актуалізована після вказівки для Криму тадариди європей ської, Tadarida teniotis (Uhrin et al., 2009), що належить до цієї родини. Нами запропонована українська назва родини «молосові» (з типовим родом молос, Molossus) (Загороднюк, Харчук, 2011). ...
... Найімовірніше «та дарида» походить від сицилійського і калабрійського діалектичного слова tadarida (з різними варіаціями), яким називають кажанів, незалежно від виду (Lina, 2016: 10). Ці кажани з роди ни молосових (Molossidae) останнім часом були вказані для території України за реєстрацією ультразвуків у Криму (Uhrin et al., 2009). Українська назва роду -недавня, авторами вперше вжита в огляді надвидових груп ссавців Європи (Загороднюк, Харчук, 2011). ...
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The Ukrainian Zoonymics and the Mutual Influence of Scientific and Vernacular Names of Mammals. — Zagorodniuk, I., Kharchuk, S. -- Analyzed here are the patterns of emergence of the Ukrainian mammalogical nomenclature of genus and species levels. Among the main directions of its development considered in the present paper is the involvement of Latin mammal names into the formation of their Ukrainian equivalents, in particular of taxa having ambiguous (including associative) names, as well as of still unnamed taxa. It is shown that adapted scientific names are effective for the Ukrainian zoological nomenclature in case of their phonetic similarity to the traditions of the Ukrainian language. Examples for such cases are derived Latin names which are masculine gender nouns of the II declension and feminine gender nouns of the I declension. It is also shown that the formation of scientific names by adapting of vernacular names is a promising direction of development of scientific nomenclature. Annotated checklists of names are represented for (a) adopted to Ukrainian Latin names, (b) translated into Ukrainian Latin names, and (c) derived from vernacular names as well. --- Українська зооніміка та взаємний вплив наукових і вернакулярних назв ссавців. — Загороднюк, І., Харчук, С. — Проаналізовано закономірності формування української теріологічної номенклатури родового та видового рівнів. З-поміж головних напрямів розвитку цього розділу зооніміки розгляда¬ється можливість залучення латинських назв ссавців до формування українських відповідників, зокрема й тих таксонів, які мають неоднозначні (у т. ч. й асоціативні) назви, а також неназваних дотепер таксонів. Показано, що адаптовані наукові назви ефективні для української зооніміки у випадку їхньої фонетичної подібності до традицій українського називницва. Прикладами є запозичені латинські й латинізовані назви, які є іменниками чоловічого роду II відміни та іменниками жіночого роду І відміни. Також показано, що формування наукових назв шляхом адаптації вернакулярних є перспективним напрямом розвитку наукової номенклатури. Представлено анотовані добірки назв, які є: а) українською адаптацією латини; б) українськими перекладами з латини; 3) назвами таксонів на основі вернакулярних назв.
... У номенклатурі Маркевича й Татарка родина Molossidae згадується під назвою «бульдогові летючі миші» (Маркевич, Татарко, 1983: 154). Нині назва актуалізована після вказівки для Криму тадариди європей­ ської, Tadarida teniotis ( Uhrin et al., 2009), що належить до цієї родини. Нами запропонована українська назва родини «молосові» (з типовим родом молос, Molossus) ( Загороднюк, Харчук, 2011). ...
... Найімовірніше «та­ дарида» походить від сицилійського і калабрійського діалектичного слова tadarida (з різними варіаціями), яким називають кажанів, незалежно від виду (Lina, 2016: 10). Ці кажани з роди­ ни молосових (Molossidae) останнім часом були вказані для території України за реєстрацією ультразвуків у Криму ( Uhrin et al., 2009). Українська назва роду-недавня, авторами вперше вжита в огляді надвидових груп ссавців Європи ( Загороднюк, Харчук, 2011). ...
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Проаналізовано закономірності формування української теріологічної номенклатури родового та видового рівнів. З-поміж головних напрямів розвитку цього розділу зооніміки розглядається можливість залучення латинських назв ссавців до формування українських відповідників, зокрема й тих таксонів, які мають неоднозначні (у т. ч. й асоціативні) назви, а також неназваних дотепер таксонів. Показано, що адаптовані наукові назви ефективні для української зооніміки у випадку їхньої фонетичної подібності до традицій українського називницва. Прикладами є запозичені латинські й латинізовані назви, які є іменниками чоловічого роду II відміни та іменниками жіночого роду І відміни. Також показано, що формування наукових назв шляхом адаптації вернакулярних є перспективним напрямом розвитку наукової номенклатури. Представлено анотовані добірки назв, які є: а) українською адаптацією латини; б) українськими перекладами з латини; 3) назвами таксонів на основі вернакулярних назв.
... Шакал -новый вселенец Крыма (подтверждено добытым экземпляром) 2 . Складчатогуб идентифицирован на основании детекторных наблюдений (Uhrin et al., 2009). Включать его в состав крымской фауны, по-видимому, преждевременно. ...
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В книге, подготовленной большим коллективом авторов, представлены материалы, свидетельствующие о высоком уровне биоразнообразия, видовом богатстве и уникальности природных комплексов Восточного Крыма. Обсуждается широкий круг вопросов сохранения природы региона. Предлагается наиболее эффективный путь их решения путем объединения объектов заповедного фонда и территорий с хорошо сохранившимися в естественном состоянии биоценозами в единую экологическую сеть. Представлен проект локальной экосети Восточного Крыма с подробным описанием ее компонентов — природных ядер и экологических коридоров. Отражены методические и организационные вопросы реализации данного проекта, включая проведение специального семинара «Заповедное дело в Крыму — 2010. Оценка состояния биоразнообразия и разработка проекта локальной экологической сети Восточного Крыма», некоторые аспекты работы которого также освещены в данной книге. Книга предназначена для специалистов в области охраны природы, экологов, биологов, учащихся и преподавателей, а также широкого круга любителей природы, жителей и гостей Крыма.
... г. Боржоми Грузии, и к северу рассматриваемого региона: на Северном Кавказе и в Крыму [7,20,21,22] , 1837), распространенный в западной части Черноморского побережья Турции, а также несколько южнее в окр. оз. ...
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Colchis is the most important refugium in Eurasia. There are 30 bat species in Colchis, belonging to 11 genera and 4 families. Study of bats distribution in the region showed that 17 species are widespread, some of them can be considered common here, and some even numerous, while others are known only from single fi nds. The number of species with very low frequency of occurrence is 13. Colchis is an optimum areal in the Caucasus for 5 species. Four species here have the northern border of distribution, one – the eastern, and 10 species – the southern. Bat fauna of Colchis, based on the arealogy of species, divided into three zoogeographical complex: the Euro-Mediterranean mesophilic – 17 species, the Boreal – 6 species, and the Mediterranean-Near Eastern – 7 species. In Colchis there is a coincidence of areas of wintering and breeding of migratory species of bats.
... 3.1.1. Suborder Vespertilionimorpha (Yangochiroptera) is presented by 2 families, Vespertilionidae (26 modern + 1 extinct + 1 phantom species) and Molossidae (only 1 phantom species, Tadarida teniotis, recorded in the Crimea: Uhrin et al., 2009). The family Vespertilionidae is the most abundant family of mammals in Ukraine in a whole. ...
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The species composition in the mammal fauna of Ukraine for the last three centuries has been analyzed. Estimates of species richness were presented for families, superfamilies, suborders and orders. The data were grouped into superorders: Glires (58 species, 52 of them in the modern fauna), Lipotyphla (14, 12), Chiroptera (29, 28), Ferae (23, 21), Ungulata (22, 18). The modern mammal fauna includes 131 species (among them 23 alien species); in addition, 15 species became extinct during the last 300 years. Thus, the complete list of Ukrainian mammal fauna (including extinct mammals) includes 146 species. There are also 9 “phantom” species which were not included in diversity indices or fauna changes calculations. The index of fauna changes (IFR) is 15.4 %; it has the maximum in Ungulata (42.9 %) and Ferae (23.5 %), and the minimum in Lipotyphla (7.1 %) and Chiroptera (5.6 %). The rates of fauna changes are increasing over time, and they reached the highest values in the last few decades.
... The four molossid species found in India are the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis (Rafines que, 1814); the Egyptian free-tailed bat Tadarida aegyptiaca (Geoffroy, 1818); the wrinkle-lipped free-tailed bat Chaerephon plicatus (Buchannan, 1800) and Otomops wroughtoni (Thomas, 1913) (Bates and Har rison, 1997). Except O. wroughtoni, the other spe cies are widespread, occurring across Europe, North and East Africa, Eurasia, the Middle East, and South to South-east Asia (Bates and Har rison, 1997; Fenton et al., 2002; Marques et al., 2004; Benda et al., 2006; Uhrin et al., 2009; Uttham machai, 2009). Within India, T. aegyptiaca is known from many locations but the other two species (C. ...
The Wroughton's free-tailed bat Otomops wroughtoni (Chiroptera: Molossidae) is a globally rare and data-deficient species. This species has been recorded only from four locations, in India and Cambodia, with the type locality in the Barapede caves, India. In this paper, we present an analysis of echolocation and social calls of O. wroughtoni from the Barapede caves. Echolocation calls of free-flying O. wroughtoni were narrowband and shallow frequency-modulated (shallow-FM), with peak frequency ranging between 14–17 kHz. Social call sequences of roosting O. wroughtoni showed five distinct signatures. Multivariate analyses of echolocation calls of O. wroughtoni and the other three molossid species found in India (Tadarida teniotis, T. aegyptiaca, Chaerephon plicatus), showed strong support for acoustic differentiation of these species. Our study will help identify probable occurrence of O. wroughtoni and the other species in unsurveyed areas through field acoustic surveys. It also proposes hypotheses about the ecology and foraging behaviour of O. wroughtoni that could be tested through further studies.
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The distribution of the European Free-tailed Bat Tadarida teniotis extends from southern Europe and northern Africa to Myanmar. In India it is known only from Bihar, West Bengal and Kerala. This study records the species for the first time in the western Himalayan state of Uttarakhand. Echolocation calls were found to be higher in frequency and shorter in duration than reported in previous studies. Extensive acoustic surveys are recommended to assess the distribution of this species in India.
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The European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotisis distributed mainly in the southern part of Europe, with gaps in the currently known distribution range. During the 2014 bat detector survey in Friuli Venezia Giulia in Italy, the species was recorded for the first time in the region. It was observed at three sites in Laghetti delle Noghere Nature Reserve (ca.600 m from the border with Slovenia), where it was also feeding, and at a site near the border with the Veneto region. With these observations, the number of all recorded bat species in Friuli Venezia Giulia increased to 30. It remains to be answered with further studies, whether T. teniotisis a regular part of the regional fauna or an occasional vagrant only.
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Spectral and temporal features of echolocation calls emitted by 22 bat species from Italy (three rhinolophids, 18 vespertilionids and the molossid Tadarida teniotis) are described. Time-expanded recordings of calls from 950 bats of known identity were examined. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale and T. teniotis could be identified by measuring the call frequency of highest energy (FMAXE). Quadratic discriminant function analysis with cross-validation was applied to calls from the remaining 18 species. A function based on start frequency (SF), end frequency (EF), FMAXE and duration (D) provided a correct overall classification of approximately 82%. A classification model at genus level that also comprised middle frequency (MF) and inter-pulse interval (IPI) reached 94% correct classification. Two separate discriminant functions were devised for species emitting FM (frequency modulated) and FM/QCF calls (i.e. calls consisting of a frequency-modulated component followed by a terminal part whose frequency is almost constant) respectively. The former function included SF, EF, FMAXE and D and provided an overall classification rate of 71%; the latter comprised EF, MF, D and IPI, and reached 96%. The functions may be applied to bat habitat surveys in southern Italy since they cover most of the species occurring in the area.
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A complete list of all bat records so far available from Bulgaria was compiled from literary references and original data. It is supplemented with distribution maps and a brief summary of the distributional status of each species, tables of measurements of newly recorded bat specimens, and some ecological or taxonomic notes. In total, at least 32 species of bats have been recorded in 2127 localities in Bulgaria, viz., Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber, (79), Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus, 1758 (23), Eptesicus serotinus (Schreber, 1774) (79), E. nilssonii (Keyserling et Blasius, 1839) (1), Hypsugo savii (Bonaparte, 1837) (67), Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber, 1774) (28, plus 63 unspecified records of P. pipistrellus s. l.), P. pygmaeus (Leach, 1825) (1), P. nathusii (Keyserling et Blasius, 1839) (28), P. kuhlii (Kuhl, 1817) (9–10), Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774) (92), N. leisleri (Kuhl, 1817) (12–13), N. lasiopterus (Schreber, 1780) (11), Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774) (23), Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758) (28), P. austriacus (Fischer, 1829) (101), Miniopterus schreibersii (Kuhl, 1817) (174), and Tadarida teniotis (Rafinesque, 1814) (10). Several other species, such as Plecotus kolombatovici Đulić, 1980 and P. macrobullaris Kuzjakin, 1965, were recorded in closest neighbourhood of the Bulgarian territory and are looked upon as possible candidates for the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on structural differences in bat fauna, the territory of Bulgaria was subdivided into three major faunal regions: (I) Higher mountains (Balkan and Rila-Rhodopes Massifs and adjacent karstic regions, incl. the Mediterranean Struma and Mesta valleys), (II) Karstic lowlands and uplands (parts of Danubian and Upper Thracian Lowlands and the Eastern Balkan Mts.), and (III) the Black Sea region (incl. the Strandža Mts. and Ludogorie Plateau). Composition of the bat fauna shows a strong primary W-E gradient and then only a secondary N-S one.
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Echolocation sounds of the bat Tadarida teniotis were recorded in southern Switzerland. Bats hunting at low level over a village emitted single harmonic, narrowband FM-search pulses audible to the unaided ear. The signals covered a frequency band from 15 kHz to 9 kHz. The frequency of the amplitude maximum (mean value = 11.4 kHz) and the end frequency of the sweep (mean value = 10.7 kHz) were found to be useful for species identification in the field. The total signal duration varied from 8 to 27 ms (mean value =15 ms). The average interval between search pulses was 740 ms. On approaching prey, the sweep bandwidth of the signals was increased to 20 kHz and up to two more overlapping harmonics were introduced, increasing the overall bandwidth to more than 35 kHz. At the same time the modulation of the sweep was changed to linear period modulation. Intervals between pulses and pulse durations were reduced to end values of 7 and 2 ms respectively. Flying in a laboratory room, a male T. teniotis emitted short multiple-harmonic FM-pulses with a bandwidth of more than 100 kHz. The observed type of search pulse may be particularly suited for long range target detection, whereas approach pulses used when catching prey in the open, featuring a large duration x bandwidth product, may facilitate exact prey location while maintaining a good sensitivity of the system. Localities where T. teniotis has been found in Switzerland are referred to.