ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Study design: Randomized control trial Objectives: To assess the added effect of core strengthening on performance within young competitive swimmers. Background: There have been studies in the past which evaluated efficacy of various exercise protocols in improving performance in young competitive swimmers. This improvement was expressed in terms of changes in the values of sprint time and stroking characteristics. The need of the hour has favored us answer this research question regarding the efficiency of core strengthening program in improving the performing in the young competitive swimmers. Methods: 60 young competitive swimmers (mean±SD, Age 14.2 ± 1.49) participated in the study of both sexes divided in two groups. (N=60, n1= 30, n2= 30). Outcome measures were evaluated before and after 6 weeks of an additional core strengthening. Repeated measures ANOVA, Friedman test, Unpaired t- test and Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze their performance. Results: Significant differences between values of outcome measures were noted between experimental and control group at p< 0.05. Conclusion: Added core muscle strengthening enhanced the performance in young competitive swimmers projected as significant improvements in 50m freestyle sprint time, velocity and stroke index. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 1b.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
The Effect of Core Strengthening on Performance of
Young Competitive Swimmers
Dr. Dnyanesh Patil1, Dr. Shivani Chowdhury Salian2, Dr. Sujata Yardi3
1Assistant Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, D.Y. Patil University, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India
2Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, D.Y. Patil University, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India
3Advisor, Department of Physiotherapy, D.Y. Patil University, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India
Abstract: Study design: Randomized control trial Objectives: To assess the added effect of core strengthening on performance within
young competitive swimmers. Background: There have been studies in the past which evaluated efficacy of various exercise protocols in
improving performance in young competitive swimmers. This improvement was expressed in terms of changes in the values of sprint
time and stroking characteristics. The need of the hour has favored us answer this research question regarding the efficiency of core
strengthening program in improving the performing in the young competitive swimmers. Methods: 60 young competitive swimmers
(mean±SD, Age 14.2 ± 1.49) participated in the study of both sexes divided in two groups. (N= 60, n1= 30, n2= 30). Outcome measures
were evaluated before and after 6 weeks of an additional core strengthening. Repeated measures ANOVA, Friedman test, Unpaired t-
test and Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze their performance. Results: Significant differences between values of outcome
measures were noted between experimental and control group at p < 0.05. Conclusion: Added core muscle strengthening enhanced the
performance in young competitive swimmers projected as significant improvements in 50m freestyle sprint time, velocity and stroke
index. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 1b.
Keywords: Freestyle swimmers, Stroke Index, Stroke Length, Stroke Rate, Swim velocity.
1. Introduction
The objective of competitive swimming is to cover a given
distance in water in the least possible time2, 17. Performance
in swimming depends on generating propelling power and
minimizing the resistance to movement in water17, 25.
Excelling in swimming records requires the swimmers to be
more specific and rigorous in their training regime which
has improved over the years garnering more support from
sport science20, 28. Dry land training is an integral part of the
training program for swimmers currently on the basis of
evidence substantiated through research work19,26. Many
studies have not been able to draw fulfilling conclusions as
regards the relationship between improvements of strength
on dry land and performance of swimmers in water19.
Studies in the past have inferred that dry land strength
training lack the positive transfer between dry land gains and
swimming propulsive force due specificity of training27.
Maintaining a streamlined body position and balance is one
of the critical factors in improving the efficiency of a
swimmer’s performance, which in turn depends on the
strength of the core muscles23. Unlike other ground based
sports swimming has no ground pushing back to limit the
way in which the body can move and adjust the center of
gravity to maintain balance, and therefore the core muscles
have to be as strong as possible to carry out similar functions
of balance and movement in water 13, 23.
Studies have also proven that there is a strong positive
correlation between core muscles strength, buoyancy and
finally swimming performance. Where sport specific skills
are concerned, an athlete’s core acts as a foundation of
movement generation and power production leading to an
improvement in the performance4,8,16. A strong core enables
an athlete to execute more efficient and swift body
movements thereby leading to a better force distribution
from the fully developed core to the upper and lower body
region16. In swimming the extremities which connect to the
lumbar spine are responsible for propelling the body through
water. A strong core will enable more energy to be
transferred from the core to pull and keep the components of
the stroke. A weak core will leak out more energy, resulting
in less powerful and kick and hence it is important to
develop a strong core in swimming13.
However there is little evidence proving that the core muscle
strength would be translated into improving the performance
of swim time at large26. Regardless of the amount of strength
a young athlete possesses in the upper and lower limbs, a
weak core will ultimately decrease the total amount of
power that can be accumulated4,11.
Specific body composition and proportions in adolescent
individuals affects the performance in swimming12,17. It is
believed that rigorous swimming training must begin before
puberty to make successful swimming champs10,17. Studies
correlating swimming performance with physical traits and
physical capacity in young swimmers are extremely
limited15,19. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find the
effect of core training on the performance of young
competitive swimmers. We hypothesized that core
strengthening exercise program when added to the routine
swim training program for swimmers brings about positive
changes in the performance of young competitive swimmers.
2. Methods
2.1 Study subjects
Seventy nine swimmers were assessed for eligibility (n=79),
out of which 19 swimmers did not met the inclusion criteria.
Sixty (n=60) competitive swimmers were selected for the
Paper ID: 02014789
2470
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
study in the age group of 14-18 for boys and 12-18 years for
girls. The Demographic information of competitive
swimmers with mean ± SD is shown in Table 1. The
subjects included for this study were young competitive
level swimmers who have participated in any competition of
minimum school or club level swimmers between the ages,
Girls 12-18, boys 14-18 who have been trained or coached
for at least two years. Subjects with back pain in last six
months, cardiovascular or neurological problems, giddiness
or balance disorder or subjects undergoing any core training
or strength training were excluded.
2.2 Test procedures
Prior to testing, all subjects were informed about the nature
and course of the study and written assent was given
followed by the parents giving their consent to allow their
ward to participate in this study. The research proposal was
approved by the ethics committee of D Y Patil University,
Navi Mumbai. The subjects were assigned randomly to one
of the two groups, for allocation of participants a computer
generated randomly selected subset of subjects was used
(http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/randomize1.cfm).
Group 1: Experimental Group
Group 2: Control Group
All subjects became familiar with the testing procedures that
took place approximately one week prior to session. During
the pretest session, each subject received instructions from a
therapist that explained and demonstrated proper execution
of each exercise.
2.3 Outcome Measures
2.3.1 Swimming performance
Time taken to complete 50m distance. It was determined by
using a stopwatch. All the swimmers performed maximal
freestyle 50m over a 25m swimming pool.
2.3.2 Functional Core Muscle Strength Performance
18: For assessment specific motion patterns and quality of
movement is done. The Core Muscle Strength Test was used
to monitor the athlete's core strength. To undertake this test
the subject requires a flat surface or a mat to support the
elbows and arms and a stopwatch (FIGURE 2). If the
subject is unable to hold any of these positions then the test
is to be stopped. This Test is conducted by keeping the mat
to support the elbows and arms to begin with the plank test
position. Once the correct position is assumed the tester
starts the stop watch.
Figure 2: Functional Core Muscle Strength Performance
2.3.3 Stroke rate
The time required to perform 3 stroke cycles was measured
and then used to calculate Stroke Rate
SR= 60 × 3/tSR (SR- Stroke Rate, tSR- time taken of 3
cycles)
2.3.4 Stroke length
The stroke length or distance per stroke was calculated by
dividing the velocity by the stroke rate expressed in m.cycle
V = S/t (V- Velocity, S, Distance, t- time)
SL = V × 60/SR (SL- Stroke Length) 3
The velocity was recorded as distance divided by time taken
to complete the race.
2.3.5 Stroke index
The stroke index (SI) was defined by Costill et.al (1985) as
the product of average velocity and stroke length and they
considered it a valid indicator of swimming efficiency. The
resulting units were m2 * (s.cycle)-1
SI= V × SL (SI- Stroke Index) 3
2.4 Training Protocol
After the completion of all baseline measurements the
subjects age and sex matched swimmers were selected and
randomly assigned to each of both groups. Experimental
group (Group 1) received core training along with the
routine swimming training. All the group 1 participants were
trained for 3 times a week for six weeks. Outcomes
measures of both groups were collected after every 2 week
until their end of training after 6 weeks. Six exercises were
performed in one session as shown in
Paper ID: 02014789
2471
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Figure 3, 4 and 5: The duration of the each session lasted for 30 minutes to 1 hour.
3. Statistical Analysis
Data was analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Means ±SD were
calculated for each variable. Baseline outcome variables
were analyzed after six weeks using a repeated measure
analysis of variance for 50 m freestyle sprint time, stroke
rate, stroke length, swim velocity, and stroke index and
Independent student’s t- test for comparison within the
groups and between two groups respectively. Similarly
Friedmann test for functional core muscle strength test for
comparison within groups and Mann Whitney U test for
comparison between the two groups. Statistical significance
was set at p.05. A Bonferroni correction for multiple
comparisons was used for post hoc analysis. All data are
presented as Mean ±SD.
Paper ID: 02014789
2472
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Table 1: Demographic Information of the Subjects enrolled in the study
Descriptive Statistics*
Group 1 Group 2
M (n=19) F (n=11) M (n=19) F (n=11)
Age 14.7 ± 1.29 13.4 ± 1.50 14.7 ± 1.29 13.4 ± 1.50
BMI 19.97 ± 5.04 21.03 ± 3.08 21.4 ± 2.59 19.78 ± 2.01
Abbreviations: BMI, Body Mass Index; n, Number of
subjects
*Data presented as Mean ± SD
Paper ID: 02014789
2473
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Table 2: Mean (± SD) of 50 m Freestyle Sprint time, Stroke Rate, Stroke Length, Velocity, Stroke Index for pre test and post
test & percentage change at the end of training from baseline
Table 2 Descriptive statistics for 5m freestyle sprint time, Stroke Rate, Stroke Length, Swim Velocity
& Stroke index‡ , Percentage change at the end of training from baseline
Assessment Pre test Post test %
change
2
n
d
week 4t
h
week 6t
h
week
50 m freestyle
sprint time Group 1 36.74 (6.76) 36.50 (6.81) 36.18 (6.62)* 35.71 (6.52)*† 2.8
Group 2 35.76 (4.12) 35.24 (4.49) 35.30 (4.30) 35.33 (4.43) 1.2
SR Group 1 63.48 (11.28) 62.86 (10.07) 62.69 (10.13) 62.49 (9.23) 1.55
Group 2 64.50 (9.91) 64.67 (9.11) 63.91 (8.71) 63.70 (7.87) 1.24
SL Group 1 1.37 (0.37) 1.39 (0.35) 1.41 (0.38) 1.43 (0.37) 4.37
Group 2 1.35 (0.28) 1.35 (0.26) 1.37 (0.26)* 1.38 (0.26)* 2.22
v Group 1 1.40 (0.22) 1.41 (0.23) 1.42 (0.23) 1.44(0.23)* 2.85
Group 2 1.42 (0.16) 1.43 (0.16) 1.43 (0.16) 1.44 (0.18) 1.40
SI Group 1 2.0 (0.84) 2.05 (0.84) 2.08 (0.85) 2.14(0.88)* 7
Group 2 1.94 (0.59) 1.97 (0.58) 1.99 (0.58) 2.03. (0.62) 4.63
Abbreviations: SR- Stroke Rate; SL- Stroke Length; SI- Stroke Index; v- swim velocity
Group 1: Core training group; Group 2: Control Group
*significant difference within group between pre and post test by comparing mean differences at p<0.05;
†: significant difference between groups by comparing mean difference at p<0.05
‡: Values are in Mean (±SD)
Table 3: Mean (± SD) of Functional Core Strength for pre test and post test & percentage change at the end of training from
baseline
Table 3 Comparison of Pre test and Post test of Functional Core strength in swimmers
Assessment Pre test Post test % change
2
n
d
week 4t
h
week 6t
h
week
Functional Core
strength Group 1 0.67 (0.76) 0.76 (0.57) 1.73 (1.17)* 2.53 (1.33)*† 73.51
Group 2 0.67 (0.59) 0.90 (0.73) 0.86 (0.73) 1.03 (0.83) 34.95
*significant difference within group between pre and post test at p<0.05;
†: significant difference between groups at p<0.05
4. Results
This study enrolled a total of sixty young competitive
swimmers. At the baseline there were no significant
differences between the groups in age, BMI, or any of the
outcome measures.
Demographics of each group are provided in TABLE 1. The
mean (±SD) for all outcome measures 50m freestyle sprint
time, Stroke Rate, Stroke Length, Swim velocity, Stroke
Index are summarized in TABLE 2 and Functional Core
Muscle strength test TABLE 3
Repeated measures ANOVA analysis of 50 m freestyle
sprint time showed significant changes in group 1 (p <.05) at
the end of fourth and sixth week of training. No differences
were found in group 2 (p>.05). Post hoc comparison within
groups demonstrated a significant difference between
baseline and post fourth and sixth week of training.
Comparison between group 1 and group 2 for swimming
performance using independent student t-test showed
significant changes at the end of training period (p>.05). No
significant differences were obtained between baseline and
at the end of training for Stroke Rate and Stroke Length
(p>.05). However the percentage difference between
baseline readings to Post training sixth week reported 1.55%
as compared to 1.24% improvement in control group, and
for Stroke Length 4.37% improvements in experimental
group & 2.22% control Group as shown in TABLE 2.
A significant difference was obtained between baseline and
post sixth week of training of Swim velocity and Stroke
Index (p<.05). Post hoc comparison demonstrated significant
improvements in swim velocity and stroke index at the end
of training. Improvements were shown in the fourth week
alone. No significant differences were observed between the
groups for swim velocity and stroke index.
A non parametric Friedman’s test revealed a statistical
significant difference of functional core muscle strength in
group 1 (Chi square (3) = 69.191, p<.05). Subsequent Mann
Whitney U test showed a significant difference between the
groups (p<.05).
5. Discussion
We hypothesized that a combined swimming with additional
core training would improve the swimming performance in
young competitive swimmers.
5.1 50 m Freestyle sprint time
The results show that the group 1 improved significantly
(p=.000) at the end of training while no change occurred in
group 2. Both the groups improved their performances in 50
m freestyle swim timings but the experimental group gained
statistically significant higher values than the control group
at the end of training (p <.05). In a previous study dry land
strength training did not reflect the transfer of strength gains
Paper ID: 02014789
2474
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
into the swim time28. On the other hand another study
reported enhanced core stability, which did not transfer into
improvement of swimming performance24.
In this study as expected the specific, scheduled and
composite core strength training exercises does definitely
lead to a greater significant improvement in the sprint time
for 50m freestyle swimming. The liable explanation to this
could be higher demand on motor system and increased
muscle activity by the core muscles which maintained the
streamlined posture required while swimming and thus
producing powerful movement efficiently, thus improving
the swim time.
If the pelvis is unstable the swimmer will not be able to
generate maximum power with each kick and stroke thereby
increasing the swim time. When the abdominal muscles are
not strong enough to balance on water, the trunk tends to sag
down laying extra kinematics causing an increased drag
which demands on the structure of upper and lower limbs to
maintain the state of equilibrium5
In comparison of both the groups of this study, the group 1
showed the improvement in performance at the end of fourth
week, thus signifying the importance of core strength
training in improving the timed performance of young
swimmers.
5.2 Stroke Rate, Stroke Length and Swim Velocity
As per statistical analysis there was lack of improvement in
performances of stroke rate and stroke length at the end of 6
weeks of core training period in group1, but there was
statistically significant difference in stroke index at the end
of sixth week (p=.010) and swimming velocity improved as
early as at the end of fourth week (p=.000), however, group
2 showed an improvement in swim velocity only at the end
of 6th week (p=.003).
This study showed a non significant decrease in stroke rate
(average 0.08 stroke min-1) after 6 weeks of core training.
Many studies have identified stroke rate and stroke length as
a factor of swimming performance and it is associated with
muscular power14
Increased velocity is accounted for by an increased stroke
length and decreased stroke rate, and increase in speed can
also be obtained by increased stroke length with no change
in stroke rate in freestyle swimmers6,7. One study found out
that the velocity changes varied between slower and longer
competitors, but did not show any changes as far as stroke
rate and stroke length were concerned. Also another study
reported that stroking parameters for short distance events
do not have same influence on anthropometric
characteristics22. There could be a probable association
which needs further research between waist hip ratio and the
stroke rate and stroke length. According to our observations
females having wider pelvis spend few extra fraction of
seconds in “turning time”. This definitely warrants evidence.
Stroke index improved in group 1 as it’s related to velocity
and SL, velocity is significantly improved but not SL; so the
stroke index value showed changes because of the
significant change in velocity30. The swimming velocity
represents the product of SR and SL, therefore in order to
keep a given velocity; the swimmers generally adopt a
combination of SR and SL, which they consider to be the
most efficient. Elite swimmers adopt a different combination
of these parameters in relation to less experienced ones,
being the fact that possibly one of the factors determines
their higher performance level leading to direct changes in
SI9. Concerning regarding SI, which is according to the
studies in the literature which suggest a relationship between
SI and swimming technical skill and that faster swimmers
have higher SI values21.
5.3 Core Strength
This study showed significant increase in functional core
muscle strength at the sixth week (p>.000) which was
projected as a significant rise in their performance. Core
strengthening leads to an improvement in the stability
around the lumbar spine bringing about the biomechanical
change enabling a swimmer to move more swiftly in water
in an efficient manner. If these elements are not maintained,
then resistive forces at the extremities will increase and
stroke technique will break down, leading to an inefficient
stroke. In our study we have seen increased core strength of
a swimmer which has improved the ability to maintain
efficient technique thorough out the entire race.
Research stating whether there are any benefits of specific
core stability or core strength exercises in activating muscles
is limited and conflicting because of the wide variety of data
collection methods, exercise techniques and subjects used
for analysis. There is not one single exercise that activates
and challenges all of the core muscles; therefore, a
combination of exercises is required to result in core
stability and strength enhancements in an individual1,15.
When designing a strength program for competitive
swimmers, we have taken into consideration of exercises
that involve movements that are specific to swimming while
challenging the core musculature.
Studies attempting to determine an effect of core
strength/stability on athletic performance little support had
been identified for a relation to performance17. In this study
it was made sure that the swimmers perform more functional
activity for assessing functional core strength. Many sport-
specific training program’s fail to include low load motor
control training, which has been identified as an essential
part of core strength training and improving core stability15.
Therefore, by performing a well structured and functional
program using both low and high load training,
improvements should be attained in all the processes
contributing to core stability and core strength, thus
positively impacting sporting performance15.
This study showed swim specific exercises lead to an
improving the performance in swim time with the
improvement in core strength evaluated by Functional Core
Muscle Strength Performance test. Margins for improvement
in subjects are relatively small for highly conditioned group
of athletes. Using a homogenous group of athletes, however,
does enable a high level of sensitivity for any improvements
to be observed following an intervention program29.
Paper ID: 02014789
2475
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
In summary this study suggest that six weeks of core
training significantly improves core muscle strength, 50m
freestyle sprint time and stroke index with no variations in
stroke rate, and stroke length. Nevertheless the improvement
in the group 1 was nearly double as compared with the
improvements seen in the group 2. Therefore adding specific
exercises to a swimmers strength training program will
generally increase the speed and power of a swim stroke and
tremendously affect the improvement with respect to swim
time.
6. Conclusion
Six week core strengthening with routine swimming is
sufficient to improve the 50m freestyle swim performance in
time, swim velocity and stroke index much earlier than the
group which did not undergo core training program.
However six week of core training was not enough to
improve the stroke rate and stroke length for 50 m distance
in young competitive swimmers.
7. Scope of Future Research
Majority of this research demonstrate the effects of short
term core strengthening on sprinting performances. Owing
to the current popularity in young individuals for strength
and conditioning programs, additional long term
strengthening trials should be undertaken to investigate on
the stroking characteristics and performances. Also a new
paradigm is necessary for highly trained individuals to
develop different types of core strength training in to
maximize the performances. Inference of this Study can be
implemented in young Swimmers to improve their sprinting
performance.
8. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the swimmers who
dedicated their time and energy to participate in this study.
The authors also thank to DY Patil Sports Academy, Nerul
and Fr Agnel’s Sports complex, Vashi for their assistance
and cooperation in the completion of this study.
References
[1] Akuthota V, Nadler SF. Core Strengthening. Arch Phy
med Rehabil; 2004;85(1): S86-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.apmr.2003.12.005
[2] Barbosa T, Keskinen KL, Fernandes R et al. Energy
cost and intracyclic variation of the velocity of the
centre of mass in butterfly stroke. Eur J Appl Physiol
2005;93:519-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-
004-1251-x
[3] Bielec G, Makar P. Variability in swimmers’ individual
kinematics parameters versus training loads. Biol
Sport.2010;27:143-147.
[4] Bott C, Farmer L B. H. K. Maximizing core strength
and stability training for kayakers. Human Motion Inc.
2008
[5] Chek P. Swiss Ball Training For Swimmers. C.H.E.K
Institute in San Diego, California
[6] Craig AB Jr, Pendergast DR. Relationships of stroke
rate distance per stroke and velocity in swimming. Med
Sci Sports. 1979;11:278-83.,
[7] Craig AB Jr, Skehan PL, Pawelczyk JA, et al. Velocity,
stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite
swimming competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
1985,17;6; 625-634.
[8] Damsgaard R, Bencke J, Matthiesen G, Petersen JH,
Muller J. Body proportions, body composition and
pubertal development of children in competitive sports.
Scand J Med Sci Sports 2001;11: 54–60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-
0838.2001.011001054.x
[9] Dekerle J, Nesi X, Lefevre T, et al. Stroking parameters
in front crawl swimming and maximal lactate steady
state speed. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26:1: 53-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-817854.
[10] Erlandson, M.C. et al. Growth and maturation of
adolescent female gymnasts, swimmers, and tennis
players. Med Sci Sports Exerc.2008;40:1: 34-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3181596678
[11] Fekete, M. Periodized strength training for sprint
kayaking/canoeing. Toronto Island Canoe Club,
Toronto. 1998.
[12] Geladas ND, Nassis GP, Pavlicevic S. Somatic and
physical traits affecting sprint swimming performance
in young swimmers. Int J Sports Med 2005;26:139–44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-817862
[13] Grif Fig: Strength training for swimmers: Training the
core, Natl. Str. Cond. Assoc. J.2005;27:2: 40-42.
[14] Hellard P, Dekerle. J et.al. Kinematic measures and
stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers
in the four swimming techniques: Athens 2004 Olympic
Semi-finalist and French National 2004 Championship
semi-finalists. J. Sports Sci. 2008;26:1: 35-46
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410701332515.
[15] Hibbs AE, Thompson KG, French D, Wrigley A, Spears
I. Optimizing performance by improving core stability
and core strength. Sports Med. 2008; 38:12: 995-1008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838120-00004.
[16] Kibler WB, Press J, Sciascia A. The Role of Core
Stability in Athletic Function, Sports medicine 2006:36:
189-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-
200636030-00001
[17]
ätt E, Jürimäe J, Haljaste K, et al. Physical Development
and Swimming Performance during Biological
Maturation in Young Female Swimmers. Coll.
Antropol, 2009;33: 117-122.
[18] Mackenzie B. 101 performance evaluation tests, in
Brian Mackenzie, eds. 2005
[19] Martens J, Einarsson Ingi, Schnizer Nama et al. Lower
trunk muscle activity during front crawl swimming in a
single leg amputee. Portuguese Journal of Sport
Sciences, 2011;11: 751-754.
[20] Morouço P. Force production in Tethered Swimming
and its relationship with performance. A new approach
to evaluate the anaerobic capacity of swimmers?
[thesis]. University of Porto, Faculty of sport, Portugal.
2009
[21] Pelarigo, Jailton Gregório et al. Technical Indexes
Corresponding to the critical Speed and the maximal
Speed of 30 minutes in swimmers with different aerobic
Paper ID: 02014789
2476
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
performance levels. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2007; 13:3:
148-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-
86922007000300004.
[22] Pelaya P, Sidney M, Kherif T et.al stroking
characteristics in freestyle swimming and relationships
with anthropometric characteristics, jr of applied
biomechanics, 1996, 12; 197-206.
[23] Salo Dave, Riewald S.A. Training for Core Stability. In
Complete Conditioning for Swimming. 2008: 87-110.
Available at: www.HumanKinteics.com.
[24] Scibek J.S. The effect of core stabilization training on
functional performance in swimming. [Thesis],
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 2001.
[25] SchneiderP, Meyer F. Anthropometric and muscle
strength evaluation in prepubescent and pubescent
swimmer boys and girls. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2005;
11: 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-
86922005000400001.
[26] Strass D. Effects of maximal strength training on sprint
performance of competitive swimmers. In: Swimming
Science V. Eds: Ungerechts, B.E., Wilke, K. and
Reischle, K. Spon Press, London. 1988; 149-156.
[27] Tanaka H, Costill DL, Thomas R, Fink WJ, Widrick JJ.
Dry-land resistance training for competitive swimming.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993; 25: 952-959.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199308000-00011
[28] Toussaint H.M. Analysis of front-crawl swimming
performance factors using the MAD-system: science
meets practice. In: P. Hellard, M. Sidney, C. Fauquet &
D. Lehénaff (eds.), Proceedings First international
symposium sciences and practices in swimming,
France: atlantica. 2006: 51-57.
[29] Tse MA, McManus AM, Masters RS. Development and
validation of a core endurance intervention program:
implications for performance in college-age rowers. J
Strength Cond Res; 2005;19 :547-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200508000-00011
[30] Willardson, J.M. Brief Review Core Stability Training:
Applications To Sports Conditioning Programs. J
Strength Cond Res, 2007; 21: 979-985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200708000-00054
Authors Profile
Dr. Dnyanesh Patil (P.T): Assistant Professor,
Department of Physiotherapy, D.Y Patil University,
Nerul, Navi Mumbai. BPTh, MPT (Sports). Working
sports Physiotherapist aiming towards developing
sports performances and rehabilitation. Research
interest in the field of Sports, Especially in swimming.
Dr. Shivani Chowdhury Salian (P.T): Professor,
Department of Physiotherapy, D.Y Patil University,
Nerul, Navi Mumbai. She is a Research Scholar
pursuing at the same university. She also a qualified
Professional in Clinical trial Management. She also
achieved the Fellowship of the Academy of General Education.
She is a Executive Committee Member of Mumbai Branch of IAP
and Life Member of IAP. She also has designed instruments like
Vaginal Electrode, Perineometer, Pelvic Inclinometer, Pelvic Floor
Exerciser. Published and presented research papers in different
areas of specialties in physiotherapy. Her areas of Special Interest
includes Women’s Health and Geriatrics. Ante-natal, Post-natal,
and Gynaecological Conditions, Occupational and Environmental
Medicine, Exercise Physiology and Sports.
Dr. Sujata Yardi (P.T) is Advisor, Department of
Physiotherapy, D Y Patil University, Nerul, Navi
Mumbai. Former Dean, Professor and Director of the
same Department. She is having 44 years of vast
experience in the field of Physiotherapy. She has
Published and Presented numerous Research papers. She also has
conducted workshops on various topics like EMG and NCV
studies, Update on Electrotherapeutics, Vestibular Rehabilitation,
BPPV, Recent Trends in Electrotherapy practice, and Recent
Advances in Electrotherapy. She also has received Fellowship
Award from IAP in the year 2010. Her areas of Special Interest
includes Pulmonary and Cardiac Rehabilitation, Orthopaedic
Rehabilitation, Adult Neuro-Rehabilitation, EMG and NC studies
Paper ID: 02014789
2477
... 1) Categorization of athletes. Among the 16 documents, there were three articles on football players (Bavli & Koç, 2018;Ahmed et al., 2021;Mahmoud, 2021); three articles on handball players (Manchado et al., 2017;Akçinar & Macit, 2020;Mahmoud, 2021); two articles on basketball players (Dogan & Savaş, 2021;Şahiner & Koca, 2021); one article on swimmers (Patil et al., 2012); and the remaining seven articles were on dance (Watson et al., 2017), Karat (Kamal, 2015), Muay Thai (Lee & McGill, 2017), gymnasts (Abuwarda, 2014), volleyball (Yapıcı, 2019), badminton (Hassan, 2017) and golf (Weston et al., 2013). 2) Number, gender, and age. ...
... As for frequency, only three studies did not report the training frequency (Kamal, 2015;Lee & McGill, 2017;Yapıcı, 2019). The frequency in other 13 studies was from 2 to 5 times a week (Patil et al., 2012;Weston et al., 2013;Abuwarda, 2014;Hassan, 2017;Manchado et al., 2017;Watson et al., 2017;Bavli & Koç, 2018;Mahmoud, 2018;Akçinar & Macit, 2020;Ahmed et al., 2021;Dogan & Savaş, 2021;Mahmoud, 2021;Şahiner & Koca, 2021). Table 4 shows the detailed classification of sports. ...
... Among 60 young swimmers aged 12-18 years, only one study examined the effect of core training on performance in a speed sport (Patil et al., 2012). During the experiment, five indicators were evaluated: stroke rate, length, stroke index, swing velocity, as well as the 50 m freestyle swim. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aims to present a critical review of the existing literature on the effect of core training on athletes’ skill performance, and to provide recommendations and suggest future research directions for both coaches and researchers. Methods: The data in this study were reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We collected studies in the literature using prominent academic and scientific databases such as Ebscohost, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Only 16 of the 119 studies met all of the inclusion criteria, and were thus included in the systematic review. Each study’s quality was determined using the PEDro scale. The scoring of 16 studies ranges from 2 to 5. Results: Core training could potentially improve skill performance among football, handball, basketball, swimming, dancing, Karate, Muay Thai, gymnasts, volleyball, badminton, and golf players. Conclusion: Compared with the traditional training methods, core training is a new strength training method. Strong core muscles function as hubs in the biological motor chain, which create a fulcrum for the four limbs’ strength and establish a channel for the cohesion, transmission, and integration of the upper and lower limbs. In other words, core training optimizes the transfer and overall control of motion and force to the terminal segment within athletic actions. Meanwhile, core training could increase stability and stiffness in the spine to reduce unrequired “energy leaks” and torso movement during the exertion of external loads. This mechanism could help athletes achieve better skill performance. Therefore, this review suggests that core training should be considered integrated into athletes’ daily training routines. Systematic Review Registration : [ https://inplasy.com/ ], identifier [INPLASY2021100013].
... Performance in swimming depends on producing propelling forces and reducing resistance to movement in the water [1]. Maintaining streamlined balance and body position is crucial in enhancing the proficiency of swimmers' performance, which depends on the strength of the core muscles [2]. Several studies recommended adding core strength training to be an integral part of swimming training to improve performance [2][3][4]. ...
... Maintaining streamlined balance and body position is crucial in enhancing the proficiency of swimmers' performance, which depends on the strength of the core muscles [2]. Several studies recommended adding core strength training to be an integral part of swimming training to improve performance [2][3][4]. Exercises to train core muscles can be exceptionally beneficial for sprint swimmers, allowing the effective transmission of force between the trunk and the upper and lower extremities to propel the body through the water, which leads to increased athletic performance and improved functional skills [5]. ...
... The enhancement of force production resulting from core training is achieved by improving neural adaptation, leading to faster nervous system activation, improved synchronisation of motor units, increased neural recruitment patterns, and lowered neural year. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) any previous injury of the shoulder or back muscles that could affect the training or measurement as reported by the participant, (2) any neurological or systemic disease as reported by the participant, (3) biomechanical abnormality of the participant that could affect the training and measurements, and (4) any medication that could affect performance. At baseline, the swimmers in both groups were performing a similar regular training program as they were enrolled under the same coach. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of core training in the swimming performance and neuromuscular properties of young swimmers. Methods: Eighteen healthy male swimmers (age: 13 ± 2 years, height: 159.6 ± 14.5 cm, weight: 48.7 ± 12.4 kg) were recruited from the Public Authority for Sports swimming pool in Dammam and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group performed a six-week core-training program consisting of seven exercises (three times/week) with regular swimming training. The control group maintained its regular training. Swimming performance and neuromuscular parameters were measured pre- and post-interventions. Results: The experimental group benefitted from the intervention in terms of the 50 m swim time (-1.4 s; 95% confidence interval -2.4 to -0.5) compared with the control group. The experimental group also showed improved swimming velocity (+0.1 m.s-1), stroke rate (-2.8 cycle.min-1), stroke length (+0.2 m.cycle-1), stroke index (+0.4 m2·s-1), total strokes (-2.9 strokes), and contraction time for erector spinae (ES; -1.5 ms), latissimus dorsi (LD; -7 ms), and external obliques (EO; -1.9 ms). Maximal displacement ES (DM-ES) (+3.3 mm), LD (0.5 mm), and EO (+2.2 mm) were compared with the baseline values for the experimental group, and TC-ES (5.8 ms), LD (3.7 ms), EO (2.5 ms), DM-ES (0.2 mm), LD (-4.1 mm), and EO (-1.0 mm) were compared with the baseline values for the control group. The intergroup comparison was statistically significant (p < 0.05; DM-ES p > 0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that a six-week core-training program with regular swimming training improved the neuromuscular properties and the 50 m freestyle swim performance of the experimental group compared with the control group.
... Despite the number of studies acknowledging the importance of TMT for sportspecific performance, the available evidence is inconclusive [16,17]. In golf [18] and handball the significant improvements in drive distance and throwing velocity were 4.8% and 4.9% after a TMT intervention, whereas no significant improvement was observed in swimming (50-m crawl time) [19,20] or rowing (e.g., 2000-m ergometer time) [17]. ...
... Therefore, these findings cannot be generalized to other populations, particularly highly trained and elite athletes. Furthermore, lack of homogeneity between TMT interventions in terms of weekly training frequency, length of each training session, and number of sets and repetitions [12,15,23] could explain the inconclusive findings in the literature [16][17][18][19][20]. In addition, debate as to whether TMT should be applied as an isolated modality or as part of compound, multi-joint training programs (e.g., those including deadlift, squat, bent-over row) is on-going. ...
... Twenty-four of the 31 included studies reported greater numbers of training sessions for the TMT group than the active controls [17-19, 38, 53-58, 60, 62-67, 69-74, 76]. Three studies reported similar weekly training sessions (i.e., training time for TMT replaced sport-specific training) [16,75,77], and four studies did not report the weekly number of training sessions [20,59,61,68]. The mean duration of TMT was 8.6 weeks (± 3.5; range 6-24) and mean weekly frequency was 3.1 sessions (± 0.8; range 2-5); mean total number of TMT sessions was 27.9 (± 17.0; range . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The role of trunk muscle training (TMT) for physical fitness (e.g., muscle power) and sport-specific performance measures (e.g., swimming time) in athletic populations has been extensively examined over the last decades. However, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of TMT on measures of physical fitness and sport-specific performance in young and adult athletes is lacking. Objective To aggregate the effects of TMT on measures of physical fitness and sport-specific performance in young and adult athletes and identify potential subject-related moderator variables (e.g., age, sex, expertise level) and training-related programming parameters (e.g., frequency, study length, session duration, and number of training sessions) for TMT effects. Data Sources A systematic literature search was conducted with PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus, with no date restrictions, up to June 2021. Study Eligibility Criteria Only controlled trials with baseline and follow-up measures were included if they examined the effects of TMT on at least one measure of physical fitness (e.g., maximal muscle strength, change-of-direction speed (CODS)/agility, linear sprint speed) and sport-specific performance (e.g., throwing velocity, swimming time) in young or adult competitive athletes at a regional, national, or international level. The expertise level was classified as either elite (competing at national and/or international level) or regional (i.e., recreational and sub-elite). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods The methodological quality of TMT studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A random-effects model was used to calculate weighted standardized mean differences (SMDs) between intervention and active control groups. Additionally, univariate sub-group analyses were independently computed for subject-related moderator variables and training-related programming parameters. Results Overall, 31 studies with 693 participants aged 11–37 years were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the included studies was 5 on the PEDro scale. In terms of physical fitness, there were significant, small-to-large effects of TMT on maximal muscle strength (SMD = 0.39), local muscular endurance (SMD = 1.29), lower limb muscle power (SMD = 0.30), linear sprint speed (SMD = 0.66), and CODS/agility (SMD = 0.70). Furthermore, a significant and moderate TMT effect was found for sport-specific performance (SMD = 0.64). Univariate sub-group analyses for subject-related moderator variables revealed significant effects of age on CODS/agility ( p = 0.04), with significantly large effects for children (SMD = 1.53, p = 0.002). Further, there was a significant effect of number of training sessions on muscle power and linear sprint speed ( p ≤ 0.03), with significant, small-to-large effects of TMT for > 18 sessions compared to ≤ 18 sessions (0.45 ≤ SMD ≤ 0.84, p ≤ 0.003). Additionally, session duration significantly modulated TMT effects on linear sprint speed, CODS/agility, and sport-specific performance ( p ≤ 0.05). TMT with session durations ≤ 30 min resulted in significant, large effects on linear sprint speed and CODS/agility (1.66 ≤ SMD ≤ 2.42, p ≤ 0.002), whereas session durations > 30 min resulted in significant, large effects on sport-specific performance (SMD = 1.22, p = 0.008). Conclusions Our findings indicate that TMT is an effective means to improve selected measures of physical fitness and sport-specific performance in young and adult athletes. Independent sub-group analyses suggest that TMT has the potential to improve CODS/agility, but only in children. Additionally, more (> 18) and/or shorter duration (≤ 30 min) TMT sessions appear to be more effective for improving lower limb muscle power, linear sprint speed, and CODS/agility in young or adult competitive athletes.
... The oldest study was published in 2006 (Girold et al., 2006) and the most updated studies were published in 2020 (Born et al., 2020;Karpiński et al., 2020). Among 15 articles, 10 articles investigated the effects on FC swimming (Amaro et al., 2017;Aspenes et al., 2009;Garrido et al., 2010b;Girold et al., 2006;Gourgoulis et al., 2019;Morais et al., 2018;Patil et al., 2014;Sadowski et al., 2012), while 4 articles investigated on starts (Bishop et al., 2009;Born et al., 2020;Rebutini et al., 2016;Rejman et al., 2017) and only 1 investigated on swimming, starts and turns performance (Karpiński et al., 2020). The intervention durations were varied, from 3 weeks to 34 weeks, mostly were applied for 6 weeks (Amaro et al., 2017;Born et al., 2020;Karpiński et al., 2020;Patil et al., 2014;Rejman et al., 2017;Sadowski et al., 2012). ...
... Among 15 articles, 10 articles investigated the effects on FC swimming (Amaro et al., 2017;Aspenes et al., 2009;Garrido et al., 2010b;Girold et al., 2006;Gourgoulis et al., 2019;Morais et al., 2018;Patil et al., 2014;Sadowski et al., 2012), while 4 articles investigated on starts (Bishop et al., 2009;Born et al., 2020;Rebutini et al., 2016;Rejman et al., 2017) and only 1 investigated on swimming, starts and turns performance (Karpiński et al., 2020). The intervention durations were varied, from 3 weeks to 34 weeks, mostly were applied for 6 weeks (Amaro et al., 2017;Born et al., 2020;Karpiński et al., 2020;Patil et al., 2014;Rejman et al., 2017;Sadowski et al., 2012). The characteristics and of all 15 studies were summarized in the Table 2 and Table 3. ...
... There were 10 articles implemented strength and resistance trainings (Amaro et al., 2017;Aspenes et al., 2009;Born et al., 2020;Garrido et al., 2010b;Girold et al., 2006;Gourgoulis et al., 2019;Morais et al., 2018;Sadowski et al., 2012), and 3 studies implemented plyometric trainings (Bishop et al., 2009;Rebutini et al., 2016;Rejman et al., 2017) as interventions respectively and only 2 articles have investigated the effects of core trainings (Karpiński et al., 2020;Patil et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this systematic review were to summarize and evaluate the effectiveness of strength and conditioning trainings on front crawl swimming, starts and turns performance with relevant biomechanical parameters. Four online databases including PudMed, ESCSOhost, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus were searched according to different combination of keywords. 954 articles were extracted from databases, and ultimately 15 articles were included in this study after removal of duplicate and articles screening according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were adopted when appropriate and Egger’s regression symmetry was adopted to assess the publication bias and the results were presented with forest plots and funnel plots respectively. Fifteen articles studied the effects of strength and resistance, core, and plyometric trainings. The quality of the investigation was assessed by the checklist developed by Downs and Black. Most of the investigations found out that training programs were beneficial to front crawl sprinting swimming performance, stroke biomechanics, force, and muscle strength. First, strength and resistance trainings and core trainings were effective on sprinting performance enhancement. Second, resistance trainings were found to have positive effects on stroke rate. Plyometric trainings were beneficial to start performance, while there was no sufficient evidence for confirming the positive improvement on turn biomechanical, also overall swimming performance, after weeks of plyometric trainings. Strength and Conditioning trainings are suggested to implement in regular training regime regarding to the positive effects on swimming performance, including starts, turns and front crawl swim, and relevant biomechanical parameters, instead of swimming training only. Further research with higher quality is recommended to conduct and more investigations on the training effects to other stroke styles are also suggested.
... Such a discrepancy may be explained by the physical impairment of the present participants, which may alter the whole-body stabilization strategy in terms of a different neuromuscular motor control compared with able-bodied individuals (Gołaś et al., 2017). Nevertheless, optimal trunk stability leads to a better force transmission from the center of the body to the extremities (Bliss & Teeple, 2005), and it is desirable for both able-bodied and Paralympic swimmers (Dingley, Pyne, Youngson, & Burkett, 2015;Iizuka et al., 2016;Patil et al., 2012;Weston et al., 2015). Accordingly, Dingley, Pyne, Youngson, and Burkett (2015) observed that 6 weeks of dryland training focused on strength, flexibility, and trunk control improved acceleration and time trial during the 50-m swimming performance. ...
... Accordingly, Dingley, Pyne, Youngson, and Burkett (2015) observed that 6 weeks of dryland training focused on strength, flexibility, and trunk control improved acceleration and time trial during the 50-m swimming performance. Similarly, another study conducted on young able-bodied swimmers showed improvement in the 50-m sprint time performance after 6 weeks of trunk stability training (Patil et al., 2012). These findings provided evidence of the importance of trunk stability for better swimming efficiency, especially in Paralympic swimmers. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni-Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall's W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.
... In this line, a recent research indicated that implementing a core training protocol can improve the velocity achieved in the first 5 m subsequent to wall contact and; therefore, time to 5 m [24]. These effects might be related to the linearity of the posture during the glide, which depends on the orientation at push-off and adopting the streamlined position [23,46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Swimming coaches have prescribed dry-land training programs over the years to improve the overall swimming performance (starts, clean swimming, turns and finish). The main aim of the present systematic review was to examine the effects of dry-land strength and conditioning programs on swimming turns. Four online databases were scrutinised, data were extracted using the Preferred PRISMA guidelines and the PEDro scale was applied. A total of 1259 articles were retrieved from database searches. From the 19 studies which were full-text evaluated, six studies were included in the review process. The review indicated that plyometric, strength, ballistic and core training programs were implemented for improving swimming turn performance. Strength, ballistic and plyometric training focusing on neural enhancement seem to be effective for improving swimming turn performance. The data related to training of the core were not conclusive. Coaches should consider incorporating exercises focusing on improving the neuromuscular factor of the leg-extensor muscles into their daily dry-land training programs. More researches are needed to provide a better understanding of the training methods effects and training organisations for improving swimming turn performance.
... Unlike other ground based sports swimming has no ground pushing back to limit the way in which the body can move and adjust the centre of gravity to maintain balance, and therefore the core muscles have to be as strong as possible to carry out similar functions of balance and movement in water. (22) Studies show that the key to swimming fast, efficiently, and strong is to maximize balance in the water and minimize drag. While most of our weight is located in our hips and lower body, this often leads to a diagonal line in the water, meaning that athletes literally have to drag their body through the water. ...
Article
Background: Swimming can be defined as an activity in which a person practices a regulated Olympic sport in order to move as fast as possible through the water due to the propulsive forces generated by arm, leg, and body movements overcoming the resistance of water. Swimming is performed in either a supine or prone position with a bilaterally-symmetric motion and is influenced by buoyancy. In other words, it is nearly unaffected by gravity and requires the same muscle exertion of both the right and left extremities. Balance is considered to be an important component of motor performance tasks. It is controlled by the central nervous system with the help of input from the visual, tactile, proprioceptive and vestibular systems (5) Balance can be defined as a condition during which the body's center-of-gravity (COG) is maintained within its base of support (BOS). Methodology: In this study, 50 Competitive swimmers were included. 36 Male and 14 Female, with a mean age, height and weight of 22.68 years, 175.56 cm and 70.94 kg respectively. Each had a swimming career more than 5 years, Training at least 5 days a week for 2 hours or more with an average of 10.12 years, 5.54 days a week for 2.68 hour training sessions. Static Balance was assessed using Balance Error Scoring System where the subjects were asked to stand with their eyes closed for 20 seconds in 6 Different Positions and the number of errors made were noted. Dynamic Balance was assessed using Star Excursion Balance Test were, a Star was marked on the ground to have 8 directions. The subject stood in the center of the star and had to reach as far as they could in each direction. This distance from the middle to the point of contact of their toe was noted and relative distance was calculated using Limb Length. The Results of both the test was compared with the normal data present. Result: The result of the test done to evaluate static balance; BESS showed that out of 50 participants 19 had superior balance, 18 had above average balance and 13 had broadly normal balance and the errors on the firm surface and soft surface had a mean and standard deviation of 2 ± 1.12 and 4.1±1.31 respectively. On the other hand, the test done to evaluate dynamic balance; SEBT showed that in each direction on an average the swimmer could reach 119.21±8.39 % relative distance in each direction. Conclusion: Different tests were conducted in the study to understand if competitive swimmers are somehow weak in terms of static and dynamic balance. The entire study is based on the effectiveness of maintaining and enhancing the static and dynamic stability among the swimmers. This study concludes that competitive swimmers have Superior Static and Dynamic Balance because of strong core muscles used to keep their body streamlined during swimming and good flexibility and neuromuscular feedback. Key words: Balance, Swimmers, Star Excursion Balance test (SEBT), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS).
... The reason is that swimming does not have a foundation that can be used for the body to move forward and adjust the center of gravity to maintain the body. Thus, a swimmer is required to have a strong core muscle strength to be able to carry out the function of maintaining balance and efficient movement in water [5]. Studies have also proven that there is a strong positive correlation between core muscle strength, buoyancy, and swimming performance since the strength of the core muscles of a swimming athlete acts as a foundation to produce movement and power which leads to increased performance [6] [7]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Anatomik açıdan core, insan vücudunda gövde iskelet sistemi (toraks, columna vertebralis, pelvis) ile yumuşak dokularla (kıkırdak ve bağ dokular) koordinasyon içinde vücudun stabilitesini sağlayan ya da hareketlerde aktif rol alan kasların bütünü olarak ifade edilebilir (Samson ve ark., 2007). Türkçe için bu anatomik bölgeyi kapsayan bir kelime yoktur, onun yerine gövde stabilizasyonu terimi kullanılsa da, gövde sözcüğü daha geniş bir anatomik yapıyı ifade etmektedir. İngilizce yayınlanan kitapların birçoğunda kor egzersiz kavramı vücudun merkez noktası dokularını antrene eden gövde egzersizlerini kapsayarak ifade edilmektedir. (Sever, 2016)
Article
Full-text available
La fuerza muscular y la composición corporal son factores muy importantes para el desempeño deportivo. El objetivo de este estudio fué el de describir y comparar aspectos antropométricos y de la fuerza muscular isométrica e isocinética de chicos y chicas pre-púberes y púberes atleta de natación. Participaron 48 niños, saludables en entrenamiento deportivo competitivo de natación. De estos, 11 chicos eran pre-púberes (PP) y 16 púberes (PU) y 8 chicas eran PP y 13 PU. Los datos estudiados fueron peso corporal estatura, pliegues cutáneos y circunferencias. Un dinamómetro computarizado (Cybex Norm) fué utilizado para medir las fuerzas isocinética (60 e 90º.s-1) e isométrica (45 e 60º) de extención de rodilla (EJ) e isocinética (60 e 90º.s-1) e isométrica (60 e 90º) de flexión de codo (FC). Para tal efecto, el pico de cambio fue utilizado. No hubo diferencia en la fuerza muscular entre los chicos y las chicas PP. En el grupo PU, los chicos fueron más fuertes que las chicas en todos los tests de EJ y FC, siendo que esa diferencia persistió en casi todos los tests cuando corregido por el peso corporal (excepto los tests de EJ isométricos, donde las chicas PU y PP no se dieferenciaron). Estos resultados muestran un padrón de fuerza muscular en niños y adolescentes nadadores.
Article
Full-text available
TANAKA, H., D. L. COSTILL, R. THOMAS, W. J. FINK, and J. J. WIDRICK. Dry-land resistance training for competitive swimming. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 952-959, 1993. To determine the value of dry-land resistance training on front crawl swimming performance, two groups of 12 intercollegiate male swimmers were equated based upon preswimming performance, swim power values, and stroke specialities. Throughout the 14 wk of their competitve swimming season, both swim training group (SWIM, N = 12) and combined swim and resistance training group (COMBO, N = 12) swam together 6 d a week. In addition, the COMBO engaged in a 8-wk resistance training program 3 d a week. The resistance training was intended to simulate the muscle and swimming actions employed during front crawl swimming. Both COMBO and SWIM had significant (P < 0.05) but similar power gains as measured on the biokinetic swim bench and during a tethered swim over the 14-wk period. No change in distance per stroke was observed throughout the course of this investigation. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the swim power and swimming performance tests. In this investigation, dry-land resistance training did not improve swimming performance despite the fact that the COMBO was able to increase the resistance used during strength training by 25-35%. The lack of a positive transfer between dry-land strength gains and swimming propulsive force may be due to the specificity of training. (C)1993The American College of Sports Medicine
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between velocity, stroke length, and stroke rate in freestyle competitive events in order to compare male and female swimmers' results and assess their relationships with anthropometric characteristics. Three hundred three male and 325 female swimmers of national and international levels were tested during competition. Solutions adopted in each freestyle event had specific characteristics affecting the stroke rate/stroke length ratio according to distance of the race. Differences in velocity between men and women primarily resulted from differences in stroke length. If the velocity and stroke rate/stroke length ratio depend on the distance swum and the sex of the swimmer, this survey shows the nondiscriminating aspect of anthropometric characteristics. Although swimmers achieved very similar velocity values with different combinations of stroke length and stroke rate, one must appreciate the average time and space characteristics currently used by the best male and female swimmers to optimize their performances.
Article
Competitive swimmers were asked to swim at a constant velocity (V) for short distances. They wore a collar to which was attached a fine non-elastic steel wire. The wire passed over two wheels of a device attached to one end of the pool. One wheel generated an impulse for every cm of forward movement and another wheel produced an electrical signal which was directly proportional to V. Measurements of distance and time were begun at definable points in the stroke cycle and were discontinued at the end of a predetermined number of strokes. In all of the four competitive strokes, front and back crawl, butterfly, and breaststroke, the V increased as a result of increasing the stroke rate (Ṡ) and decreasing the distance per stroke (d/S). In the front crawl, the male and female swimmers who achieved the fastest V had the longest d/S at slow Ṡ. The faster male swimmers also had greater percent decrease of the d/S at their maximal V than did the less skilled persons. The back crawl was similar to the front crawl except that maximal Ṡ and V were less. Increases of V of the butterfly were related almost entirely to increases in Ṡ. Except at the higest V, d/S was decreased somewhat. In the breaststroke increased V was also associated with increasing Ṡ, but the d/S decreased much more than in the other stroke styles. Fluctuations of velocity during the stroke cycle were least in the front and back crawl (± 15-20%) and greatest in the butterfly and breaststroke (+45-50%). The results were compared to the Ṡ observed and the values for V and d/S calculated for a large group of swimmers competing in the 1976 U.S. Olympic Trials. The implications of the findings for coaching swimmers are discussed.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a core endurance exercise protocol. Forty-five college-age rowers (age 21 +/- 1.0) were assigned to either a core training group [core group] (n = 25), which took part in a core endurance intervention exercise protocol, or to a control training group [control group] (n = 20), which was not given any specialized core training. Training took place 2 days per week for 8 weeks. Trunk endurance was assessed using flexion, extension, and side flexion tests, whereas a variety of functional performance measures were assessed (vertical jump, broad jump, shuttle run, 40-m sprint, overhead medicine ball throw, 2,000-m maximal rowing ergometer test). The results revealed significant improvement in the two side flexion tests for the core group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, significant differences were noted in the trunk extension test endurance times for the control group (p < 0.05), but not for the core group. No significant differences were found for any of the functional performance tests. In summary, the 8-week core endurance training program improved selected core endurance parameters in healthy young men, but the effectiveness of the core intervention on various functional performance aspects was not supported.
Article
In recent years, fitness practitioners have increasingly recommended core stability exercises in sports conditioning programs. Greater core stability may benefit sports performance by providing a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities. Traditional resistance exercises have been modified to emphasize core stability. Such modifications have included performing exercises on unstable rather than stable surfaces, performing exercises while standing rather than seated, performing exercises with free weights rather than machines, and performing exercises unilaterally rather than bilaterally. Despite the popularity of core stability training, relatively little scientific research has been conducted to demonstrate the benefits for healthy athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to critically examine core stability training and other issues related to this topic to determine useful applications for sports conditioning programs. Based on the current literature, prescription of core stability exercises should vary based on the phase of training and the health status of the athlete. During preseason and in-season mesocycles, free weight exercises performed while standing on a stable surface are recommended for increases in core strength and power. Free weight exercises performed in this manner are specific to the core stability requirements of sports-related skills due to moderate levels of instability and high levels of force production. Conversely, during postseason and off-season mesocycles, Swiss ball exercises involving isometric muscle actions, small loads, and long tension times are recommended for increases in core endurance. Furthermore, balance board and stability disc exercises, performed in conjunction with plyometric exercises, are recommended to improve proprioceptive and reactive capabilities, which may reduce the likelihood of lower extremity injuries.
Article
The mean velocity of 9 out of 10 women's events during the U.S. Olympic Swimming Trials was greater in 1984 as compared to 1976. Three of the 10 men's events showed improvement. In 9 out of these 12 events, the increased velocity was accounted for by increased distance per stroke (range, 4 to 16%), and in 8 there was also a decrease in stroke rate (range, - 3 to -13%). In the women's 100-m butterfly and 100-m backstroke, increased velocity was due solely to faster stroke rates. The finalists in each event were compared to those whose velocities were 3-7% slower. In almost all events and stroke styles, the finalists achieved greater distances per stroke than did the slower group. In the men's events increased distance per stroke was associated with decreased stroke rate, except in the backstroke, in which both were increased for the finalists. Although the faster women swimmers generally had greater distances per stroke,they were more dependent than men on faster stroke rates to achieve superiority. The profile of velocity for races of 200 m and longer indicated that as fatigue developed the distance per stroke decreased. The faster swimmers compensated for this change by maintaining or increasing stroke rate more than did their slower competitors. This study indicates that improvements and superiority in stroke mechanics are reflected in the stroke rate and distance per stroke used to swim a race. (C)1985The American College of Sports Medicine