ArticlePDF Available

Antimicrobial activity of frankincense of Boswellia serrata



This work describes the in-vitro screening of anti microbial activity of frankincense of Boswellia serrata. Different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg /ml) was evaluated for the investigation of antimicrobial efficacy using Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia) and Gram negative (E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris) microbes. Inhibition halos were evaluated and compared with antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (5µg/ml) as positive control. DMSO was used as a negative control. Results demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity. In this assay, extracts of frankincense showed antimicrobial activity comparable with standard and can be used in combating the bacterial infested diseases caused by the studied bacterial strains.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(10) 1095-1101
Original Research Article
Antimicrobial activity of frankincense of Boswellia serrata
Shaik Mannur Ismail1, Sudheer Aluru2, KRS Sambasivarao1 and Bhaskar Matcha2*
1Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, India
2Division of Animal Biotechnology, Department of Zoology, S.V University, Tirupati, India
*Corresponding author
Plant antimicrobials tender prospective
agent to deal with the hazard of biological
warfare (Gibbons, 2008). Consideration to
the sighting of novel plant antimicrobials
must be paid in this new era of
chemotherapeutic healing of infection by
using plant-derived principles and on
discovery of new antiinfective agents
(Cowan, 1999). Herbal preparations can
supplement other systems of medicine for
the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria
(Archana and Abraham, 2011). In fact,
efforts are going on to identify and isolate
secondary metabolites from plants as
prospective modulators of bacterial
resistance (Stavri et al., 2007).
Taxonomic status of Boswellia serrata
Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr.
(Burseraceae) is a deciduous moderate to large
sized branching tree that grows abundantly in
the seshachalam hill valleys.The
morphological characters have crown
spreading and flat, bark greenish, ashy grey,
ex-foliating in thin flakes. Leaves apically
clustered, imparipinnate. Leaflets 14-26, thin-
coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, entire or
crenate, obtuse or subacute, secondary nerves
more than 16 pairs. Flowers pinkish white, in
little branched panicles. Sepals and petals 5-7
each. Stamens 10-16, inserted below disc;
disc annular. Ovary 3-locular; ovules 2 per
locule, pendulous. Fruits trigonous, brown,
pyrenes 3, heart shaped, each one seeded.
International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 3 Number 10 (2014) pp. 1095-1101
This work describes the in-vitro screening of anti microbial activity of frankincense
of Boswellia serrata. Different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg /ml) was
evaluated for the investigation of antimicrobial efficacy using Gram positive
(Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia) and Gram
negative (E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris) microbes. Inhibition halos were evaluated and
compared with antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (5µg/ml) as positive control. DMSO was
used as a negative control. Results demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity.
In this assay, extracts of frankincense showed antimicrobial activity comparable
with standard and can be used in combating the bacterial infested diseases caused
by the studied bacterial strains.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(10) 1095-1101
B. glabra Roxb., B. serrata Roxb. var.
glabra (Roxb.) Benn. are the synonyms. B.
serrata vernacularly (Telugu) known as
Guggilum, Anduga, Dhupamu,
Guggiladhpuam. Commonly known as
Salai, White dammar, ‘Indian olibanum’,
‘Indian frankincense’, dhup and salai or
salai guggul(Siddiqui, 2011).
Distributed commonly in lower hill slopes of
Tirumala and Talakona of Seshachalam hill
ranges. Flowering and Fruiting occurs in the
season of March-August. Traditional usage
of Gum is diuretic, diarrhoea, dysentery,
stomachic, cardiac diseases, cough,
haemorrhage, dyspnoea, polyuria,
leucorrhoea, oligospermia, urinary troubles,
piles, ulcers, burns (Madhava chetty et al.,
When incisions are made in the trunks of the
Boswellia serrata trees to produce exuded
gum (Oleo gum-resin), which appears as milk
like resin. The resin hardens (solidification)
into orange-brown gum resin known as
frankincense or olibanum. There are numerous
species and varieties of frankincense trees,
including Boswellia serrata in India.
The resins of Boswellia serrata have been
used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
and other inflammatory diseases (Banno,
2006) such as Crohn's disease (Langmead,
2006) in traditional medicine of many
countries. The anti-inflammatory activity has
been attributing to the resin's ability in
regulating immune cytokines
production (Chevrier, 2005) and leukocyte
infiltration (Sharma et al., 1988; Singh and
Atal, 1986).
Fig.1 A. Flowering and Fruiting of Boswellia serrata B. Tree Habitat
C. Crude Frankincense resin
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(10) 1095-1101
Boswellia serrata extract also exhibits anti-
bacterial and anti-fungal activities
(Weckesser,2007). Additionally, extracts
from Boswellia species gum resins might
possess anti-cancer activities, based on their
anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities
in rat astrocytoma cell lines and Clinically,
extract from the resin reduces the
peritumoral edema in glioblastoma
patients (Winking, 2000) and in human
leukemia cell lines (Hostanska, 2002), as
well as their anti-carcinogenic activity in
chemically induced mouse skin cancer
models (Huang, 2000). The pharmacological
characteristics and clinical efficacy
of Boswellia serrata have been studied, with
research published and systematically
reviewed in the medical literature (Ernst,
2008). These results suggest that
frankincense resin contains active
ingredients that modulate important
biological activities. B. serrata flowers and
leaves showed significant antibacterial
activity (Mohammed Aman et al., 2010). In
addition B. serrata has versatile
pharmacological activities (Arshiya Sultana
et al., 2013).
However, there are no enough scientific
reports to support these supposed
antimicrobial activity. The present
investigation was undertaken which deals
with the evaluation of antimicrobial activity
of frankincense resin extract of Boswellia
Materials and Methods
The crude gum is collected and processed.
The collected material is dried under shade
and made into powder and subjected to hot
percolation by using soxhlet apparatus with
water. The extract was filtered using
Whatsman-No. 1 filter paper and the
extraction procedure were repeated three
times. The filtrate was used for the
biological assay.
Clinical isolates of Gram positive (Bacillus
subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and
Streptococcus pneumonia) and Gram
negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella
pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus
vulgaris,) authentic bacterial strains were
used in the study which are procured from
Institute of Microbial Technology
(IMTECH), Chandigarh. The stock culture
are maintained at Division of Animal
Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara
University. All the microorganisms were
maintained at 4°C on nutrient agar slants.
Preparation of the Bacterial Suspension
The turbidity of each of the bacterial
suspension was prepared to match to a 0.5
McFarland standard (1.5x108 CFU/ml).
Measure the turbidity with the aid of a
spectrophotometer at an optical density
0.08-0.13 and turbid suspension at 625 nm
as per Bauer-Kirby Method (1966).
Determination of antimicrobial activity
Culture of the bacterial organism was
aseptically introduced and evenly spread
using sterile ‘L’ rod on the surface of sterile
Mueller Hinton agar (M173/M1084,
HiMedia) plates. The agar disc diffusion test
is the most convenient and widely used
method for routine antimicrobial
susceptibility testing according to CLSI
(Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute;
formerly NCCLS). 25 µL of different
concentrations (25, 50,75,100 mg/ml) of the
resin coarse powder extract were added on
Whatman No. 1 filter paper disc (6mm) and
was inoculated with a loopful of the test
organism previously diluted to 0.5
McFarland turbidity standards seeded on the
medium. The experiment was run in
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(10) 1095-1101
triplicate for each extract and each organism
tested. The plates were incubated at 37°C
for 24 hours and the zones of inhibition were
measured in millimeters using a calibrated
instrument like zone scale (HiMedia).
DMSO was used as a negative control.
These inoculated tubes were then incubated
Control experiments comprising inoculums
without the extract were set up.
Determination of MIC
The determination of the MIC was done
with different dose levels of (25, 50, 75
and100 mg/ml) of extract. The procedure
was repeated on all the test organisms using
the standard antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (5
µg/mL Disc, Himedia, Mumbai, India).
The statistical analysis was undertaken using
t-test in SPSS statistics software (Version
20, IBM Corporation, New York, USA),
considered significant when p≤0.05.
Result and Discussion
In this study the resin extract of
commercially available Boswellia serrata
powder was evaluated for their antimicrobial
activity. Preliminary antimicrobial screening
assay of commercially available Boswellia
serrata gave relatively wide inhibition zone
against the test strains. Minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) is defined as the lowest
concentration that will inhibit the growth of
a test organism over a defined interval
related to the organism’s growth rate, most
commonly 18-24h (Turnidge et al., 2003).
The zone size is inversely proportional to
the minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC). The MIC values revealed different
activities against the eight tested bacteria at
the concentrations 10, 25, 50, 100mg/ml
(Table-1). All the bacterial strains were
compared with Ciprofloxacin under the
same experimental conditions.
The highest antimicrobial activity was
observed on E. coli with zone of inhibition
as 21.87±0.98 and the lowest effect was on
E. aerogenes with a zone of inhibition of
11.67±1.00 mm. Whereas, Standard showed
highest activity against E.aerogenes
(30.27±1) and lowest activity against S.
pneumoniae (20.07±0.74). The order of
inhibitory activity of extract against
different organisms is: E. coli> S. aureus>
B. subtilis> S. typhi> K. pneumoniae> S.
pneumoniae> E. aerogenes> P. vulgaris.
The order of inhibitory activity of standard
against different organisms are summarized
as P. vulgaris> E.coli> S. aureus> E.
aerogenes> P. aureginosa> B. subtilis> K.
pneumonia (Graph-1). This shows that the
studied Boswellia serrata frankincense
extract mostly exhibited bacteriostatic
Extract inhibitory activity was statistically
compared to the inhibitory activity of
standard and observed that extract inhibitory
activity on the microbes has significantly
lower activity than the standard (P≤0.01,
Disc diffusion test is a qualitative test
method. The recommended medium for disc
diffusion testing is Mueller-Hinton agar
(MH; Himedia, Mumbai, India) (CLSI,
2012). This medium demonstrates good
batch-to-batch reproducibility, and supports
the growth of most non fastidious bacterial
pathogens (Jorgensen and Turnidge, 2003).
Well-variant of the diffusion method was
more sensitive and best conditions for the
determination of minimal inhibitory
concentration (Valgas et al., 2007).
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) used as solvent
for natural as well as synthetic antibacterial
compounds (Wadhwani et al., 2009;
Houghton and Raman, 1998).
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(10) 1095-1101
Graph.1 Antimicrobial efficacy of Boswellia serrata frankincense resin
extract against selected bacterial pathogens
Values are the Mean ± SD; Astringent indicate level of significance (**=p≤0.01, ***=p≤0.001)
Table.1 Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC)
S. No
G+ / G-
I = 25mg/ml; II =50 mg/ml; III =75 mg/ml; IV =100 mg /ml,*=MIC, - = No growth, + =
Moderate growth, ++ =Dense growth, G+ = Gram Positive bacteria, G- = Gram Negative bacteria,
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(10) 1095-1101
However, exclusive focus on individual
biochemical targets neglects the fact that
strong synergy of multiple constituents in a
crude drug may prove more potent and
effective than any single purified compound,
or that interactions of co-occurring
phytochemicals may help nullify the toxic
effects of individual constituents. So while it
is important to understand the active agents
within medicinal plants, it should also be
with caution that we extract and use
constituents in isolation. In this study the
Boswellia extract have shown greater
antimicrobial activity which may explain
anonymous claim on the topical use of
Boswellia serrata frankincense for microbial
In Conclusion, the screening of
antimicrobial activity performed on resin
fractions of 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/ml of
Boswellia serrata, traditionally important
medicinal plant proved to be a bacteriostatic
agent. The current work will provide new
reference data for the drug development and
possesses the ability to inhibit pathogenic
bacteria. Further studies should be done on
fractionation and identification of bioactive
constituents which are responsible for
antibacterial activity.
Archana S. and Abraham J (2011).
Comparative analysis of antimicrobial
activity of leaf extracts from fresh
green tea, commercial green tea and
black tea on pathogens. J. Appl
Pharma Sci. 1(8): 149-152.
Arshiya Sultana, Khaleeq Ur Rahman, AR.
Padmaja, Shafeeq Ur Rahman (2013).
Boswellia serrata Roxb. A Traditional
Herb with Versatile Pharmacological
Activity: A Review. IJPSR. 4(6):
Banno N, Akihisa T, Yasukawa K, Tokuda
H, Tabata K, Nakamura Y, Nishimura
R, Kimura Y, Suzuki T (2006): Anti-
inflammatory activities of the
triterpene acids from the resin of
Boswellia carteri. J.
Ethnopharmacol. 107:249-253.
Bauer, Kirby, Sherris, Turck (1966),
Antibiotic susceptibility testing by
standard single disc diffusion method.
Am. J. Clin. Path. 45: 493.
Chevrier MR, Ryan AE, Lee DY, Zhongze
M, Wu-Yan Z, Via CS
(2005). Boswellia carterii extract
inhibits TH1 cytokines and promotes
TH2 cytokines in vitro. Clin Diag Lab
Immunol. 12:575-580.
CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards
Institute) (2012). Performance
standards for antimicrobial
susceptibility testing. National
Committee for Clinical Laboratory
Standards, Wayne, Pa.
Cowan M (1999). Plant products as
antimicrobial agents. Clinical Micro
Rev12 (4):564- 582.
Ernst E (2008). Frankincense: systematic
review. BMJ. 337:a2813.
Gibbons S (2008). Phytochemicals for
bacterial resistance-Strengths,
weaknesses and opportunities. Planta
Medica. 74:594602.
Hostanska K, Daum G, Saller R
(2002). Cytostatic and apoptosis-
inducing activity of boswellic acids
toward malignant cell lines in vitro.
Anticancer Res. 22:2853-2862.
Houghton P and Raman A (1998).
Laboratory handbook for the
fractionation of natural extracts.
Chapman and Hall. Pp.1-199.
Huang MT, Badmaev V, Ding Y, Liu Y, Xie
JG, Ho CT (2000). Anti-tumor and
anti-carcinogenic activities of
triterpenoid, β-boswellic acid.
BioFactors. 13:225-230.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(10) 1095-1101
Jorgensen J and Turnidge J (2003).
Susceptibility test methods: Dilution
and disk diffusion methods. Manual
Clinical Microbiology. 1:1108-1127.
Langmead L and Rampton DS (2006).
Complementary and alternative
therapies for inflammatory bowel
disease. Aliment Pharmacol
Ther, 23:341-349.
Madhava Chetty, Sivaji K, Tualsi Rao K
(2013). Flowering plants of Chittoor
district. Student offset Printers,
Tirupati. 4:61.
Mohammed Aman, Ravishankar Rai V,
Pradeepa V. Samaga (2010).
Antimicrobial and Phytochemical
Screening of Boswellia serrata Roxb.,
Rhus mysorensis Heyne, Strychnos
potatorum Linn. F. and Schefflera
stellata Gaertn. Medicinal and
Aromatic Plant Science and
Biotechnology. 4(1):69-72.
Sharma ML, Khajuria A, Kaul A, Singh S,
Singh GB, Atal CK (1988). Effect of
salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata on
cellular and humoral immune
responses and leucocyte migration.
Agents Actions. 24:161-164.
Siddiqui MZ (2011). Boswellia serrata: A
Potential Anti-inflammatory Agent:
An Overview Indian J Pharm Sci.
73(3): 255261.
Singh GB and Atal CK
(1986). Pharmacology of an extract of
salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a
new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
agent. Agents Actions 18:407-412.
Stavri M., Piddock, LJV, Gibbon S (2007).
Bacterial efflux pump inhibitors from
natural sources. J. Antimicrob.
Chemother. 59:12471260.
Turnidge J, Ferraro M, Jorgensen J (2003).
Susceptibility test methods: General
considerations. In: Manual Clinical
Valgas C, de Souza SM, Smânia EFA,
Smânia A (2007). Screening methods
to determine antibacterial activity of
natural products. Brazilian Journal of
Microbiology. 38:369-380.
Wadhwani T, Desai K, Patel D, Lawani D,
Bahaley P, Joshi P, Kothari V (2009).
Effect of various solvents on bacterial
growth in context of determining MIC
of various antimicrobials. The Internet
J of Microbiol. 7(1):1937-8289.
Weckesser S, Engel K, Simon-Haarhaus B,
Wittmer A, Pelz K, Schempp CM
(2007). Screening of plant extracts for
antimicrobial activity against bacteria
and yeasts with dermatological
relevance. Phytomedicine. 14:508-
Winking M, Sarikaya S, Rahmanian A,
Jodicke A, Boker DK
(2000). Boswellic acids inhibit glioma
growth: a new treatment option? J
Neurooncol. 46:97-103.
... It has been well-established that AKBA has anti-bacterial and antifungal activity [13]. However, the exact mechanism of antimicrobial action is not clearly established, as multiple studies have contradicting conclusions based on Gram stain, as inactivation does not seem to correlate with Gram status [14][15][16]. ...
... Interestingly, AKBA completely inhibited the growth of A. muciniphila at all concentrations tested, but had no effect on Bifidobacterium. AKBA has been used as an antimicrobial in different applications (skin, nails, and teeth) [14][15][16]. However, the exact mechanism of antimicrobial action of AKBA is not well characterized. ...
... However, the exact mechanism of antimicrobial action of AKBA is not well characterized. Seeing as A. muciniphila is Gram negative (inhibited) and Bifidobacterium is Gram positive (not inhibited), one could suspect that Gram status may influence sensitivity to AKBA; however, previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of AKBA on an array of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi [14][15][16]. In this study, we found the bacterial load of a stool culture to be significantly lowered with the addition of AKBA. ...
Full-text available
Boswellia serrata, commonly known as frankincense, has been used for centuries as a natural anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial remedy for many illnesses. However, the effect of the bioactive ingredient of it, 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-b-boswellic acid (AKBA), on both the gut microbiome and blood metabolites, is not known. In this study, we observe the effect of this isolated active ingredient orally on both male and female mice. Gut microbiota and blood metabolites were determined at the beginning and end of a 14-day consumption period. AKBA significantly decreased gut bacterial richness in male mice, and had no effect on female mice. Akkermansia muciniphila, associated with weight loss and anti-inflammation, was found to be significantly increased in both male and female mice, along with an increase in Bifidobacterium in female mice. Akkermansia muciniphila and Bifidobacterium were plated on media containing varying levels of AKBA (0%, 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1%). All concentrations of AKBA completely inhibited growth of Akkermansia muciniphila but had no effect on Bifidobacterium. Several blood metabolites differed with AKBA between both males and females. These results show the potential benefits of dietary Boswellia serrata on the modulation of gut microbiome composition, along with differences between sexes.
... On the other hand, Hamidpour et al (2013) showed that, the activity of Frankincense (boswellic acids) has been found to have antimicrobial activities against various microorganisms such as fungi, and gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. Ismail et al (2014) reported that, frankincense has significant antimicrobial activity. In this assay, extracts of frankincense showed antimicrobial activity comparable with standard and can be used in combating the bacterial infested diseases caused by many bacterial strains. ...
... Moreover, the tested fungicide (dithane M45) was the highest effective in decreasing turcicum leaf blight (TLB) disease severity comparing with the new natural substance (Frankincense at 300 ppm) and untreated once. These results in the same line with which reported by Hamidpour et al (2013) and Ismail et al (2014) which showed that, the activity of Frankincense (boswellic acids) has been found to have antimicrobial activities against various microorganisms such as fungi, and gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. frankincense have significant antimicrobial activity. ...
aize genotypes reactions against turcicum leaf blight (TLB) caused by Exserohilum turcicum showed high disease incidence in case of fertilized by fresh animal manure comparing with which fertilized by decomposing animal manure (5-6 weeks old) and control treatment (no fertilized manure). Moreover, the fertilized by fresh animal manure resulted in increased disease severity and decreased all tested yield characters and also decreased considerable grains components, indicating the complex danger of using fertilized by fresh animal manure. On the other hand, maize hybrids (SC10 and SC 176) were had suitable level of resistance to tested disease comparing with open pollinated variety (balady). The obtained results showed also that, turcicum leaf blight disease was recorded high disease severity, approximately because the climatic conditions were very suitable for development infection by TLB. Moreover, the obtained results also indicated high yield production (kg/2rows), high weight of 100 kernels, high germination %, high length of both of radical and plume cm as well as high length of plants, and high percent of grain components (oil %, carbohydrates%, fiber%, silica , phenols, protein %),all were obtained from plots which were fertilized by decomposing animal manure (5-6 weeks old) comparing with untreated control treatment, while, fertilized by fresh animal manure resulted in lowest values of all characters which mentioned above, with except of ash% and EC which were increased, indicating the considerable of fertilized by decomposing manure. Overall, this study recommended never use of fresh farmyard animal manure in fertilization of the soil. In the same respect, spraying of new natural substance extract which named Frankincense (Boswellia serrata) at 3000 ppm on maize plants 10 days after inoculation (45 days from sowing) resulted in decreasing of maize leaf blight disease severity and increasing of yield and their component. While, spraying by fungicide Dithane M45 was slightly high effective in decreasing diseases severity increasing yield and their components, comparing with Frankincense (Boswellia serrata) extract.
... It includes about 23 species that are widespread throughout the world. The plant produces a natural material called olibanum or frankincense, a milk-like resin that stiffens later to orange-brown gum resin 5,6 . Plant extracts such as Boswellia species were used for natural therapies and food preservation; they had antibacterial activity, anti-leukotriene, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and antifungal, and they were used as a fixative substance in soap and perfumes 7 . ...
Full-text available
The current study was designed to prospect the protective effect of alcoholic extract of Boswellia carterii in some physiological parameters and histopathological changes caused by amoebic infection experimentally of female rats; thirtytwo adult female rats were used. It was divided into four groups: the first group received physiological saline as the control group, the second group was infected experimentally with amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica), which was administrated (1 mL/Amoebic suspension /Animal /day) for 10 days, and the third and fourth groups treated with alcoholic extract of plant at (1 mL /animal/day) for one and two months respectively after amoebic infection was ten days. The results indicated a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in body weight and liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) of the amoebic group compared with the control group. In contrast, a significant increase (P≤0.05) in these parameters occurred by using alcohol extract of the plant compared with the infected group by amoeba. Also, the phagocytosis factor and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) were increased significantly (P≤0.05) when amoebic infection compared with the control group. That alcoholic extract caused a significant decline (P≤0.05) for natural levels in these parameters compared with the amoebic group. On the other hand, the present results reported that administering an alcoholic extract of Boswellia carterii caused improvement in the histopathological damage of the kidney and liver, which resulted from amoebic infection experimentally by Entamoeba histolytica. These histological changes in the kidney comprised fibrosis, inflammation, structural changes in glomeruli as absence, shrinkage and death of glomeruli, enlargement of Bowman's space, congestion and hemorrhage. While in livers, that included infiltration of inflammatory cells, enlargement of the sinusoid, congestion, and severe hemorrhage. Keywords: Boswellia carterii, Liver Enzymes, Kidney
... Isolates that cause human pyelonephritis also contain certain forms of lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharides at the same time that are immune to serum bactericide and attached to the uroepithelial cells (19). (20). ...
Full-text available
The Therapeutic, nephrotoxic, and histological effects of Boswellia carterii gum aqueous extract, the infected rats challenged with experimental Escherichia coli UTI. were treated with 500mg/kg/bid B. carterii gum aqueous extract and Ciprofloxacin suspension with 7.5 mg/kg/bid, orally administered twice a day for five days. The animals were sacrificed on six day to determine bacterial count in kidney homogenates. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase. Where also evaluated to determine the nephrotoxicity potential of the extract is measured spectrophotometrically. The results of the treatment in animal models for E. coli UTI showed that the B. carterii gum aqueous extract produce a reduction in the bacterial load in kidneys homogenates by 17.17% compared with ciprofloxacin 33.5%. Nephrotoxicity studies showed evidence of nephrotoxic effect as acid phosphatase was increased after the treatment with B. carterii gum aqueous extract. A renal histological analysis indicates little histological changes.
... Silver nanoparticles prepared from an aqueous extract of Boswellia act as an antimicrobial agent on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [140]. Other studies have also disclosed that frankincense gum resin is active against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Bacillus subtilis [141]. In addition, concentrations of α-pinene (38.41%) and myrcene (15.21%) have been reported in B. Serrata EO, whereas C. myrrha EO was distinguished by a high furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (17.65%) content, followed by curzerene (12.97%), β-element (12.70%), and germacrene-β (12.15%), having both antimicrobial and antifungal activities [142]. ...
Full-text available
Organic materials have been the subject of numerous recent cosmetics studies. Plant extracts and/or plant-derived resources in the Middle East have significant potential in many cosmetic fields because they exhibit useful properties that promote the repair of cellular functions and improve skin conditions. Multiple organic substances from these resources have long-lasting environmental effects, extensive storage capacities, and affect human physiological activity. Recent studies have revealed that Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) and Boswellia serrata (frankincense) extracts can prevent aging, acne, and spots while enhancing skin moisture and suppleness. Given that myrrh and frankincense exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics that significantly improve human health, their utilization in various cosmetic products has received attention from global cosmetic corporations. This review details the bioactive compounds and cosmeceutical properties of myrrh and frankincense and their use in cosmetic formulations.
... Another study displayed the superior enrichment of Aflapin® by the acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid extract of B. serrata when compared to that of 5-Loxin®, which is capable of providing a better protection from the induced proteolytic degradation by inflammatory and facilitating the recovery of articular cartilage damage (Sengupta et al. 2010). The antimicrobial activity of resin B. serrata was evaluated and compared with Ciprofloxacin in the concentrations of 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/ml against eight Gram positive and negative bacteria (Ismail et al. 2014). ...
Full-text available
The emergence of pathogenic viruses is a worldwide frequent cause of diseases and, therefore, the design of treatments for viral infections stands as a significant research topic. Despite many efforts, the production of vaccines is faced with many obstacles and the high rate of viral resistance caused a severe reduction in the efficacy of antiviral drugs. However, the attempt of developing novel natural drugs, as well as the exertion of medicinal plants, may be an applicable solution for the treatment of viral diseases. Boswellia species exhibited a wide range of pharmacological activities in various conditions such as bronchial asthma, rheumatism, and Crohn’s illness. Additionally, pharmacological studies reported the observance of practical antiviral activities from different parts of this substance, especially the oleo-gum-resin. Therefore, this work provided an overview on the antiviral properties of Boswellia species and their potential therapeutic effects in the field of COVID-19 pandemic.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Concept and aims: Boswellia serrata (BS) is medicinal plant that was plant that was practiced in traditional medicine since long ago and it’s assumed that this plant is rich in polyphenols. This study was carried out in order to evaluate antioixidant and antibacterial potential of aqueous extract of Iranian Boswellia serrata resin. Methods: Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride assay were used In order to determine polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging. At lats, antibacterial activity of BS extract was investigated by disc diffusion method againts four strains of bacteria. Results: based on results, presence of considerable amount of polyphenols in the extract was confirmed followed by high potential in scavenging of DPPH free radical, dose-dependently. Also, it was showed that gram negative strains were more sensitive and gram positive strains showed more resistance toward BS extract. Conclusion: Boswellia serrata resin could be considered a valuable source of polyphenols and flavonoids and it could be used as a natural antioxidant in humans diet.
Full-text available
Use of plants in synthesis of nanoparticles is quite novel approach leading to 'green chemistry'. This green chemistry has many advantages such as, process scaling up, economic viability and safe way to produce nanoparticles. Now the study focused on the production, characterization, physical parameters and antimicrobial studies of silver nanoparticles using Ficus elastic rubra leaf extract under ambient conditions. In the present study, a broad peak appeared at 430nm, which indicates the uniform distribution and poly dispersion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) rose from the extract of Leaf concoction of Ficus elastic rubra. It serves as a potent antimicrobial agent against E.coli, Corynebacterium, S.aureus and P.aeruginosa exhibiting significant Pharmacological activity when compared to standard Drug Ciprofloxacin. In futureFicus elastic rubra nanoparticles may gain wide applications in medicine.
Two of the world’s most important and venerated essential oils are frankincense and myrrh, and these, together with gold, were the three famous gifts from the Magi to the infant Jesus, as written in Matthew 2:11. Frankincense aromatic resin has been used for centuries for ceremonial and religious purposes, in perfumes and incense as well as for medicinal purposes. The source of frankincense and its composition are discussed briefly together with its sociological importance over the centuries. Then the systemic and neurological health benefits attributed to frankincense are discussed in some detail. Finally, the mechanisms of action and the receptors that this essential oil activates to achieve its health benefits are reviewed.
Full-text available
The emergence of new infectious diseases, the resurgence of several infections that appeared to have been controlled and the increase in bacterial resistance have created the necessity for studies directed towards the development of new antimicrobials. Considering the failure to acquire new molecules with antimicrobial properties from microorganisms, the optimization for screening methods used for the identification of antimicrobials from other natural sources is of great importance. The objective of this study was to evaluate technical variants used in screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Thus, a varied range of natural products of plant, fungi and lichen origin were tested against two bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, by two variants of the agar diffusion method (well and disc), two variants of the bioautographic method (direct and indirect) and by microdilution assay. We concluded that the well-variant of the diffusion method was more sensitive than the disc-variant, whilst the direct-variant of the bioautographic method exhibited a greater sensitivity if compared to indirect-variant. Bioautographic and diffusion techniques were found to have similar sensitivity; however the latter technique provided more suitable conditions for the microbial growth. In this study, we also discussed the best conditions for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration.
Full-text available
The resin of Boswellia species has been used as incense in religious and cultural ceremonies and in medicines since time immemorial. Boswellia serrata (Salai/Salai guggul), is a moderate to large sized branching tree of family Burseraceae (Genus Boswellia), grows in dry mountainous regions of India, Northern Africa and Middle East. Oleo gum-resin is tapped from the incision made on the trunk of the tree and is then stored in specially made bamboo basket for removal of oil content and getting the resin solidified. After processing, the gum-resin is then graded according to its flavour, colour, shape and size. In India, the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are the main source of Boswellia serrata. Regionally, it is also known by different names. The oleo gum-resins contain 30-60% resin, 5-10% essential oils, which are soluble in the organic solvents, and the rest is made up of polysaccharides. Gum-resin extracts of Boswellia serrata have been traditionally used in folk medicine for centuries to treat various chronic inflammatory diseases. The resinous part of Boswellia serrata possesses monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, tetracyclic triterpenic acids and four major pentacyclic triterpenic acids i.e. β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid, responsible for inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. Out of these four boswellic acids, acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid is the most potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme responsible for inflammation.
Medicinal plants have been a major source of therapeutic agents for alleviation and cure diseases. In the present investigation comparative analysis of antimicrobial activity of green tea Camellia sinensis fresh leaves, commercial green tea leaves and dust tea against enteropathogens and specific fungi were carried out. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Camellia sinensis was analyzed by using well diffusion method paper disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. Synergistic activity of green tea and commercial antibiotic chlorophenicol was analyzed. The allopathic antibacterial drugs are said to be costlier and have more side effects. Moreover multiple drug resistant strains are on the raise in this era and thus complicating treatment. On the other hand herbal preparations are comparatively cheaper and have lesser side effects. So, herbal preparations can supplement other systems of medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria and fungi.
Effect of alcoholic extract of salai guggal (AESG) was studied on cellular and humoral immune responses in mice and leucocyte migration in rats. Oral administration of AESG strongly inhibited the antibody production and cellular responses to sheep red blood cells in mice. It inhibited the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and reduced the volume of pleural exudate in carrageenan induced pleurisy in rats. It showed no cytotoxic effect.
Pharmacological evaluation of alcoholic extract of salai guggal (AESG) has been carried out in experimental animals. AESG displayed marked anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced oedema in rats and mice and dextran oedema in rats. It was equally effective in adrenalectomised rats. In formaldehyde and adjuvant arthritis, AESG produced prominent anti-arthritic activity but no significant effect was observed in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. It inhibited inflammation induced increase in serum transaminase levels and leucocyte counts but lacked any analgesic or anti-pyretic effects. The gestation period or parturition time in pregnant rats or onset time of castor oil-induced diarrhoea was unaffected by AESG and no significant effect was seen on cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous system functions. No ulcerogenic effects were found in the rat stomach. The oral and intraperitoneal LD50 was greater than 2 g/Kg in mice and rats.