Current NASA plans envision human beings returning to the Moon in 2018 and, once there, establishing a permanent outpost from which we may initiate a long-term effort to visit other planetary bodies in the Solar System. This will be a bold, risky, and costly journey, comparable to the Great Navigations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Therefore, it is important that all possible actions ... [Show full abstract] be taken to maximize the astronauts' safety and productivity. This can be achieved by deploying fleets of autonomous robots for mineral prospecting and mining, habitat construction, fuel production, inspection and maintenance, etc.; and by providing the humans with the capability to telesupervise the robots' operation and to teleoperate them whenever necessary or appropriate, all from a safe, "shirtsleeve" environment. This paper describes the authors' work in progress on the development of a Robot Supervision Architecture (RSA) for safe and efficient space exploration and operation. By combining the humans' advanced reasoning capabilities with the robots' suitability for harsh space environments, we will demonstrate significant productivity gains while reducing the amount of weight that must be lifted from Earth – and, therefore, cost.