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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Orientation and Achievements in L2 of Arab Learners of English, French and German: A Study from Jordan

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to explore Jordanian undergraduate students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and instrumental and integrative orientations toward learning English, French, and German as foreign languages. The paper also reflects on how subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations relate to orientations and examines possible inter-relationships between these constructs and student achievement in English, French, and German classes. In the study, 166 students majoring in English, French, or German at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University completed a questionnaire (mainly adapted from Noels, Pelletier, Clement, & Vallerand, 2000) designed to investigate the abovementioned constructs. The results showed, contrary to expectations, no significant correlations among orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and achievement. These findings were not in line with previous research findings, which have shown a correlation between orientation and achievement (i.e., Gardner, 1985) and between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and achievement (i.e., Noels et al., 2000). In addition, significant differences were found among the three groups of students in terms of instrumental orientation, amotivation, and external regulation. Other interesting results were also found regarding the constructs. Possible implications and recommendations from these findings are discussed. Keywords: self-determination theory, foreign languages, orientations, Arab learners

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... Some researchers have discussed the complexity of motivation as a critical construct in research, knowledge, and education. Kreishan and Al-Dhaimat (2013) state that motivation is a complex construct, and it cannot be studied unless viewed through different components. These components can be further studied to establish their link with motivation and their effects on second language learning. ...
... Hence, it can be said that what is motivating for an American or a European learner may not be the same for a Saudi or a Pakistani learner. Kreishan and Al-Dhaimat (2013) critically reviewed different studies (Dodick, 1996;Richard-Armato, 1998;Coleman, 1995;Svans, 1987) and concluded that cultures differ in nature and react differently towards the target language. It is, therefore, essential to study motivation considering the educational and cultural contexts of that population. ...
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I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Ever since the early days of its existence, the field of psychology has been trying to achieve two different and somewhat contradictory objectives: to understand the general principles of the human mind and to explore the uniqueness of the individual mind. The latter direction has formed an independent subdiscipline within the field, usually referred to as individual difference (ID) research. IDs are a prominent feature of SLA because a great deal of the variation in language learning outcomes is attributable, either directly or indirectly, to various learner characteristics. This paper first provides an overview of the five most important ID variables (personality, aptitude, motivation, learning styles and learning strategies) and then concludes by describing certain common themes in contemporary ID research.
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Previous studies have found that motivation, and in particular integrative motivation, is an essential factor in the acquisition of a second language. In the present study of the acquisition of Norwegian by foreign students at the University of Bergen, Norway, a questionnaire assessing motivation was presented to 167 foreign students enrolled in classes of “Norwegian for foreign students”, a short time before the examination in Norwegian, Level 2. European and American students were found to be more integratively motivated than the Middle Eastern, African and Asian students, who were found to be more instrumentally motivated than the Western students. Moreover, a significant difference in means of grades was recorded; Europeans having the best and Asian students the poorest grades. In the total group a weak positive correlation between integrative motivation and language proficiency, and a negative correlation between instrumental motivation and grades were found. However, when motivation and grades were analyzed within each group, no positive correlation between grades and integrative motivation was found. When ‘cultural distance’ was entered into a multiple regression analysis, in addition to the two motivation variables, the results indicated that the motivation variables explained very little of the variance in language proficiency. The best predictor of variance in groups of students with various language and cultural backgrounds was ‘cultural distance’.
Article
This study investigates the components of motivation in foreign-language learning (FLL)–which involves learning the target language in institutional/academic settings without regularly interacting with the target language community. It was assumed that the results obtained from second-language acquisition (SLA) contexts–those in which the target language is learned at least partly embedded in the host environment–are not directly applicable to FLL situations. Therefore a motivational questionnaire was developed and administered to 134 learners of English in Hungary, a typical European FLL environment, with the aim of defining the relevance and characteristics of integrativeness and instrumentality in FLL, as well as to locate other motivational components. Based upon the results, a motivational construct was postulated consisting of (1) an Instrumental Motivational Subsystem, (2) an Integrative Motivational Subsystem, which is a multifaceted cluster with four dimensions, (3) Need for Ach evement, and (4) Attributions about Past Failures. The results also indicated that in mastering an intermediate target language proficiency, the Instrumental Motivational Subsystem and Need for Achievement especially, play a significant role, whereas the desire to go beyond this level is associated with integrative motives.
Article
Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991), when applied to the realm of education, is concerned primarily with promoting in students an interest in learning, a valuing of education, and a confidence in their own capacities and attributes. These outcomes are manifestations of being intrinsically motivated and internalizing values and regulatory processes. Research suggests that these processes result in high-quality learning and conceptual understanding, as well as enhanced personal growth and adjustment. In this article we also describe social-contextual factors that nurture intrinsic motivation and promote internalization, leading to the desired educational outcomes.
Article
Studies comparing the relative effectiveness of different orientations to second language acquisition have obtained contradictory results. In the present study, these contradictions are traced to ambiguities pertaining to the definition of orientations and to the influence of the milieu on the acquisition process. This study assessed the influence of ethnicity (French vs. English), milieu (unicultural vs. multicultural). and target second language (French or English vs. Spanish) on the emergence of orientations. The subjects were 871 grade I 1 students distributed in eight groups obtained by permutations of the above t h m factors. The ratings given to 37 reasons for learning the target language were factor analyzed separately for each sample, thus generating eight six-factor structures. The 48 factors were then correlated and factor analyzed in order to delineate clusters of orientations which would be common to all samples or to subsets of the samples. The results show that instrumental, friendship, travel, and knowledge orientations were common to all groups, while five orientations resulted from specific combinations of ethnicity and target language, on the one hand, and milieu, on the other hand. These results arediscussed with respect to the influence of the learning context on orientations and in terms of their implications for further studies.
Article
"Montreal high school students studying French as a second language completed a battery of tests including measures of linguistic aptitude, verbal intelligence, and various attitudinal and motivational characteristics. Analysis of the intercorrelations of these tests yielded two orthogonal factors equally related to ratings of achievement in French: a "linguistic aptitude" and a "motivational" factor. It was also found that maximum prediction of success in second-language acquisition was obtained from tests of: verbal intelligence, intensity of motivation to learn the other language, students' purposes in studying that language, and one index of linguistic aptitude." From Psyc Abstracts 36:05:5KL66G. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Pedagogy in Malaysian primary and secondary schools: From theory to practice
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New orientations in language learning motivation: Towards a model of intrinsic, extrinsic and integrative orientations
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Language Education and society in a changing world
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