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UDC 595.786:591.3(477)
THE CHORIONIC SCULPTURE OF THE EGGS OF SOME
NOCTUINAE (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE) FROM UKRAINE
I. V. Dolinskaya1Yu. N. Geryak2
1Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine,
B. Chmielnicki str, 15, Kyiv, 01601 Ukraine
E-mail: dd8v@mail.ru
2State Natural History Museum NAS of Ukraine,
Teatralna str., 18, Lviv, 79008 Ukraine
E-mail: entomobelka@ukr.net
Received 14 March 2010
Accepted 13 September 2010
The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of Some Noctuinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine.
Dolinskaya I. V., Geryak Yu. A. — Descriptions and scanning electron microphotographs of the eggs
of 10 species from 7 genera of the subfamily Noctuinae occurring in Ukraine are provided. The
diagnostic characters of the genera and species are selected.
Key words: Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae egg, description, diagnostic characters, scanning
electron microscopy.
Ñêóëüïòóðà õîðèîíà ÿèö íåêîòîðûõ ñîâîê ïîäñåìåéñòâà Noctuinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) ôàóíû
Óêðàèíû. Äîëèíñêàÿ È. Â., Ãåðÿê Þ. Í. — Ñ ïîìîùüþ ñêàíèðóþùåãî ýëåêòðîííîãî
ìèêðîñêîïà èçó÷åíû è ïðîèëëþñòðèðîâàíû ÿéöà 10 âèäîâ èç 7 ðîäîâ ïîäñåìåéñòâà Noctuinae,
âñòðå÷àþùèõñÿ â Óêðàèíå. Âûäåëåíû äèàãíîñòè÷åñêèå ïðèçíàêè äëÿ ðîäîâ è âèäîâ.
Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, ÿéöî, îïèñàíèå, äèàãíîñòè÷åñêèå
ïðèçíàêè, ñêàíèðóþùèé ýëåêòðîííûé ìèêðîñêîï.
Introduction
Noctuid moths are the largest family of Lepidoptera, with 648 species occurring in Ukraine. The
subfamily Noctuinae includes 110 species of 35 genera (Klyuchko et al., 2001). The adult stage is well-
studied, so the modern systematics of the family is based mainly on this stage. Immature stages and the eggs
particularly have got less attention. Nevertheless, morphological structures of the chorion can be successfully
used for taxonomic purposes. So far, the egg chorion in family Noctuidae was insufficiently examined.
Detailed line drawings illustrating the eggs of 51 European species of the subfamily Noctuinae were published
by E. H. Döring (1955). A more thorough examination of the chorionic structure can be achieved with the
use of SEM. E. Salkeld (1975, 1976, 1977, 1984) in her monumental series of Canadian Noctuids illustrated
the eggs of 29 species of the subfamily Noctuinae. H. E. Hinton (1981) illustrated the eggs of 3 European
Noctuinae species. The eggs of 3 Chilean species of Noctuinae were described and illustrated by Angulo,
Olivares (1991).
Material and Methods
This work is based on the original material collected by the authors in Ukraine. The eggs were obtained
from females captured in the field. The eggs were examined with the use of scanning electron microscopy
(SEM). Both dry egg chorions that were collected after hatching and fresh specimens fixed with alcohol. Eggs
of some species (Noctua pronuba Linnaeus, Noctua fimbriata Schreber and Noctua interposita Hübner)
withdrawn from abdomen of dry females were examined.
The Noctuinae species were identified by Dr. A. Matov (Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia)
and Dr. Yu. Budashkin (Karadag Nature Reserve, Crimea, Ukraine).
The systematic arrangement follows Fibiger, Hacker (2004).
Terminology of the eggs according to E. Salkeld (1984).
Vestnik zoologii, 44(5): 421–432, 2010
Description
Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea Kozhanchikov, 1930
Egg subspherical (fig. 1), diameter 0.8 mm (n = 4). Egg pale citron colour.
Chorion white, translucent.
Characteristics. Egg marked on two thirds surfaces by arquate cells. Cells
mainly tetragonal, wide and shot, with concave floors. Cell walls broad, clearly
expressed. Cells arranged by regular radial lines. The quantity of lines increases to egg
base. Aeropyles very small, poorly expressed. All cells weakly pebbled (fig. 2).
Micropylar area clearly expressed, represented by 1 row of long and narrow polygonal
cells. Rosette elevated, with 17–20 petalled cells (fig. 3). Chorion weakly pebbled
everywhere, pebbles more distinct in area of cell walls.
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layered, clusters on 4–7 eggs.
Euxoa nigricans (Linnaeus, 1761)
Egg subspherical (fig. 4). height 0.5 mm, diameter 0.7–0.75 mm (n = 5). Egg pale
yellow. Chorion. white, translucent.
Characteristics. Egg marked on anterior quarter of egg by concave cells and
smoothed on the remaining surface, looks like a hardly noticeable cells (fig. 5). Cell
walls thin, slightly expressed. Aeropyles small, slightly expressed at walls junctions
(fig. 6). Cells arranged by regular radial lines. The quantity of lines increases to egg
base. Micropylar area clearly expressed, represented by 1–2 rows of long and narrow
polygonal cells. Rosette with 12–16 petalled cells (fig. 7). Central portion of rosette like
small depression. Chorion wrinkled everywhere.
Oviposition. Eggs laid as one-layered line bands, where they tightly pressed one
to other.
Agrotis exclamationis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Egg subspherical (fig. 8), height 0.5 mm, diameter 0.85 mm (n = 3). Egg pale yel-
low. As egg develops, it becomes with brownish tinge. Then at micropylar area of egg
appears vinous spot and the same stripe on perimeter apical part of egg. Before cater-
pillar emergence egg becoming taupe. Chorion white, translucent.
Characteristics. Chorion faintly ridged. Egg marked on two thirds surfaces.
14–15 of the 43–46 shallow elevated and difficult-to-count longitudinal, broad ridges
radiate from pointed outer ends of micropylar cells. Walls concave, columnar cells nar-
row. Aeropyles clearly expressed at walls junctions (fig. 9). Micropylar area represent-
ed by 1 row of indistinct, long, narrow and pointed cells. Rosette slightly elevated, with
12–15 petalled cells (fig. 10). Central portion of rosette like a small round depression
with 5–6 micropylar openings. Chorion (except for cells micropylar area) sharply wrin-
kled.
Oviposition. Eggs laid as one-layered line bands, where they tightly pressed one
to other.
Axylia putris (Linnaeus, 1761)
Egg subspherical (fig. 11), height 0.45 mm, diameter 0.6–0.65 mm (n = 6). Egg
pale yellow. As egg develops, it becomes pale pink and then cream coloured with brown
stripe on perimeter subapical part of egg and the same spot in micropylar area. Before
caterpillar emergence egg becoming taupe with black spot at apical part of egg. Chorion
white, translucent.
Characteristics. Chorion ridged. Egg marked on two thirds surfaces. 10–11 of
the 33–38 moderately broad, elevated, longitudinal ridges radiate from micropylar area.
422 I. V. Dolinskaya, Yu. N. Geryak
423
The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of some Noctuinae…
Walls of concave, columnar cells moderately broad. Aeropyles clearly expressed at walls
junctions. (fig. 12). Micropylar area clearly expressed, represented by 1 row of polygo-
nal cells. Rosette with 9–10 petalled cells (fig. 13). Central portion of rosette like a
small round depression with 5 micropylar openings. Chorion weakly wrinkled every-
where.
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters where they pressed one to
another.
Ochropleura plecta (Linnaeus, 1761)
Egg subspherical (fig. 14), height 0.5 mm, diameter 0.75–0.8 mm (n = 6). Egg
pale citron colour. As egg develops at micropylar area of egg appears pink spot and the
same interrupted stripe on perimeter apical part of egg. Before caterpillar emergence
egg becoming pale brown. Chorion white, translucent.
Characteristics. Chorion ridged Egg marked on two thirds surfaces. 27 broad,
elevated, longitudinal ridges radiate from micropylar area. Along all surface of ridges
densely placed aeropyles. Aeropyles sharply expressed, large, bordered by roller-like
edges (fig. 15). Walls of concave, columnar cells narrow. Micropylar area represented
by 1 row of polygonal cells. Rosette slightly elevated, with 14–15 petalled cells (fig. 16).
Central portion of rosette like a small round or oval depression with 5–6 micropylar
openings. Chorion weakly wrinkled everywhere.
Oviposition. 50 eggs were laid solitary.
Noctua pronuba (Linnaeus, 1758)
Egg subspherical, height 0.45 mm, diameter 0.5 mm (n = 2). Chorion white,
translucent.
Characteristics. Chorion ridged. Egg unmarked below equator and weakly
marked in micropylar area (fig. 17, 18). 39–43 moderately broad, elevated, longitudi-
nal ridges radiate from micropylar area. Transverse walls filiform, much less distinct
than ridges (fig. 19, 20). Columnar cells concave. Aeropyles bordered by roller-like
edges, clearly expressed at walls junctions. Micropylar area represented by 2 rows of
indistinct, long, narrow and pointed cells. Rosette slightly elevated, with 11–13 petalled
cells (fig. 21). Central portion of rosette with 4 micropylar openings. All cells (except
for cells rosette) clearly wrinkled.
Noctua fimbriata (Schreber, 1759)
Egg subspherical, height 0.4–0.5 mm, diameter 0.7–0.75 mm (n = 2). Chorion
white, translucent.
Characteristics. Chorion ridged. Egg marked on two thirds surfaces. 11 of the
35 moderately broad, elevated, longitudinal ridges radiate from micropylar area. Walls
of columnar cells narrower than ridges. Aeropyles weakly expressed at walls junctions
(fig. 22). Micropylar area represented by 1 row of indistinct, long, narrow and pointed
cells. Rosette slightly elevated, with 11–13 petalled cells (fig. 23). Chorion weakly wrin-
kled everywhere.
Noctua interposita (Hubner, 1790)
Egg subspherical (fig. 24), height 0.4–0.5 mm, diameter 0.6–0.7 mm (n = 1).
Characteristics. Chorion ridged. Egg marked on two thirds surfaces. Broad,
sharply elevated, longitudinal ridges radiate from micropylar area. Transverse walls less
distinct than ridges. Aeropyles weakly expressed at walls junctions (fig. 25). Micropylar
424 I. V. Dolinskaya, Yu. N. Geryak
Fig. 1–6. Eggs of Noctuidae: 1 — Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea; 2 — Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea; 3 —
Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea; 4 — Euxoa nigricans; 5 — Euxoa nigricans; 6 — Euxoa nigricans. Scales bars: 1,
3–5 — 100 µ; 2, 6, — 10 µ.
Ðèñ. 1–6. ßéöà Noctuidae: 1 — Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea; 2 —Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea; 3 — Dichagyris
vallesiaca crimea; 4 — Euxoa nigricans; 5 — Euxoa nigricans; 6 — Euxoa nigricans. Ìàñøòàáíûå ëèíåéêè:
1, 3–5 — 100 ìêì; 2, 6 — 10 ìêì.
425
The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of some Noctuinae…
Fig. 7–12. Eggs of Noctuidae: 7 — Euxoa nigricans; 8 — Agrotis exclamationis; 9 — Agrotis exclamationis;
10 — Agrotis exclamationis; 11 — Axylia putris; 12 — Axylia putris. Scale bars: 7, 9, 10, 12 — 10 µ; 8, 11
100 µ.
Ðèñ. 7–12. ßéöà Noctuidae: 7 — Euxoa nigricans; 8 — Agrotis exclamationis; 9 — Agrotis exclamationis; 10 —
Agrotis exclamationis; 11 — Axylia putris; 12 — Axylia putris. Ìàñøòàáíûå ëèíåéêè: 7, 9, 10, 12 — 10 ìêì;
8, 11 — 100 ìêì.
426 I. V. Dolinskaya, Yu. N. Geryak
Fig. 13–18. Eggs of Noctuidae: 13 — Axylia putris; 14 — Ochropleura plecta; 15 — Ochropleura plecta; 16 —
Ochropleura plecta; 17 — Noctua pronuba; 18 —Noctua pronuba. Scale bars: 13, 15, 16 — 10 µ; 14, 18
100 µ.
Ðèñ. 13–18. ßéöà Noctuidae: 13 — Axylia putris; 14 — Ochropleura plecta; 15 — Ochropleura plecta; 16 —
Ochropleura plecta; 17 — Noctua pronuba; 18 — Noctua pronuba. Ìàñøòàáíûå ëèíåéêè: 13, 15, 16
10 ìêì; 14, 18 — 100 ìêì.
427
The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of some Noctuinae…
Fig. 19–24. Eggs of Noctuidae: 19 — Noctua pronuba; 20 — Noctua pronuba; 21 — Noctua pronuba; 22 —
Noctua fimbriata; 23 — Noctua fimbriata; 24 — Noctua interposita. Scale bars: 19—23 — 10 µ; 24 — 100 µ.
Ðèñ. 19–24. Eggs of Noctuidae: 19 — Noctua pronuba; 20 — Noctua pronuba; 21 — Noctua pronuba; 22 —
Noctua fimbriata; 23 — Noctua fimbriata; 24 — Noctua interposita. Ìàñøòàáíûå ëèíåéêè: 19—23 — 10 ìêì;
24 — 100 ìêì.
428 I. V. Dolinskaya, Yu. N. Geryak
Fig. 25–30. Eggs of Noctuidae: 25 — Noctua interposita; 26 — Noctua interposita; 27 — Xestia stigmatica ;
28 — Xestia stigmatica; 29 — Xestia stigmatica; 30 — Xestia stigmatica. Scale bars: 25, 26 — 10 µ; 27—30
100 µ.
Ðèñ. 25–30. ßéöà of Noctuidae: 25 — Noctua interposita; 26 — Noctua interposita; 27 — Xestia stigmatica;
28 — Xestia stigmatica; 29 — Xestia stigmatica; 30 — Xestia stigmatica. Ìàñøòàáíûå ëèíåéêè: 25, 26
10 ìêì; 27—30 — 100 ìêì.
area represented by 1 row of indistinct, long, narrow and pointed cells. Rosette slight-
ly elevated, with 7–9 petalled cells (fig. 26). Chorion weakly wrinkled everywhere.
Xestia stigmatica (Hubner, 1813)
Egg subspherical (fig. 27, 28), height 0.6–0.7 mm, diameter 0.9–1.0 mm (n = 6).
Egg pale pink. As the egg develops, it becomes pinkish-grey. Before caterpillar emer-
gence egg is becoming taupe. Chorion white, translucent.
Characteristics. Chorion ridged. Egg marked on two thirds surfaces. 11–12 of
the 29–33 sharply expressed, elevated, longitudinal ridges radiate from pointed outer
ends of micropylar cells. Longest ridges with high comb especially in anterior porti-
ons (fig. 29). Transverse walls less distinct and narrow than ridges. Aeropyles weakly ex-
pressed at walls junctions. Micropylar area represented by 1 row of indistinct, long, nar-
row and pointed cells. Rosette slightly elevated, with 11–16 petalled cells (fig. 30).
429
The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of some Noctuinae…
Fig. 31–34. Eggs of Noctuidae: 31 — Xestia stigmatica; 32 — Xestia c-nigrum; 33 — Xestia c-nigrum; 34 —
Xestia c-nigrum. Scale bars: 31, 33, 34 — 10 µ; 32 — 100µ.
Ðèñ. 31–34. ßéöà of Noctuidae: 31 — Xestia stigmatica; 32 — Xestia c-nigrum; 33 — Xestia c-nigrum; 34 —
Xestia c-nigrum. Ìàñøòàáíûå ëèíåéêè: 31, 33, 34 — 10 ìêì; 32 — 100 ìêì.
Central portion of rosette like a small round depression with 5–6 micropylar openings.
Chorion pebbled everywhere (fig. 31).
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters where they pressed one to
another. Eggs can be laid solitary.
Xestia c-nigrum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Egg subspherical (fig. 32), heigh 0.5 mm, diameter 0.65–0.7 mm (n = 6). Egg yel-
lowish-white. As egg develops, it becomes white-yellow with pale vinous spot at apical
part of egg and the same band on perimeter of its medial part. Before caterpillar emer-
gence egg becoming grey with vinous-grey spot at its apical part. Chorion white,
translucent.
Characteristics. Chorion ridged. Egg marked on two thirds surfaces. 11–13 of
the 24–26 sharply expressed, elevated, longitudinal ridges radiate from pointed outer
ends of micropylar cells. Longest ridges with high comb especially in anterior portions.
Transverse walls less distinct and narrow than ridges. Aeropyles weakly expressed at
walls junctions (fig. 33). Micropylar area represented by 1 row of indistinct, long, nar-
row and pointed cells. Rosette slightly elevated, with 15–18 petalled cells. Central por-
tion of rosette like a small round depression with 6–7 micropylar openings. Chorion
weakly pebbled everywhere, pebbles more distinct in area ridges (fig. 34).
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters where they pressed one to
another.
Remark. Xestia c-nigrum has longitudinal ridges less high than X. stigmatica.
Discussion
Based on the data above, the two types of sculpture, cellular and ridged, are typ-
ical for studied species of the subfamily Noctuinae (Table 1 summarizes the distribu-
tion of the character states found in my studies of the egg chorionic sculpture of the
species of Noctuinae occurring in Ukraine).
The cellular sculpture is represented by the polygonal cells. The cells are
arranged in regular lines (Noctuidae), radiating from the micropylar area. The quanti-
ty of lines increases to the egg base.
430 I. V. Dolinskaya, Yu. N. Geryak
Table 1. Comparative characters of the studied species of Noctuinae
Òàáëèöà 1. Ñðàâíèòåëüíûé àíàëèç ïðèçíàêîâ èññëåäîâàííûõ âèäîâ Noctuinae
Characters Species
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
N o t e. 1 — Dichagyris vallesiaca; 2 — Euxoa nigricans; 3 — Agrotis exclamationis; 4 — Axylia putris;
5— Ochropleura plecta; 6 — Noctua pronuba; 7 — N. fimbriata; 8 — N. interposita; 9 — Xestia stigmatica;
10 — X. c-nigrum.
Egg marked on: A — two thirds surfaces; B — ante-
rior quarter; C — unmarked below equator
A B A A A C A A A A
Chorion A — pebbled; B — wrinkled A B B B B B B B A A
Exochorion sculpture A — cellular; B-ribbed A A B B B B B B B B
Cellular sculpture A — cell walls thin, slightly
expressed; B — cell walls broad, clearly expressed
B A — — — — — — — —
Longitudinal ridges A —harply elevated; B — mod-
erately elevated
B A A B B A A A
Longitudinal ridges À — more wide transversal; B —
of the same width or somewhat more wide transversal
À B À À Â A Â B
Aeropyles A — slightly expressed; B — clearly
expressed; C — sharply expressed
A A B B C B A A A A
Oviposition, eggs are laid A — clusters; B — line
bands; C — solitary
A B B A C A, C A
This sculpture is typical for two studied species, Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea and
Euxoa nigricans.
Dichagyris vallesiaca crimea. Cell walls broad, clearly expressed. Rosette elevated.
Euxoa nigricans. Cell walls thin, slightly expressed. Egg marked on anterior quar-
ter egg surface.
The ridged sculpture is represented by longitudinal, elevated ridges. These ridges
radiate from pointed outer ends of the micropylar cells. The quantity of ridges increas-
es to the egg base. Transverse walls are expressed less clearly.
Sculpture is typical for five studied species, Agrotis exclamationis, Ochropleura plec-
ta, Axylia putris, Noctua pronuba, N. fimbriata, N. interposita, Xestia stigmatica and X. c-
nigrum. Some species have typical diagnostic characters.
Agrotis exclamationis. Longitudinal ridges wider than transverse, slightly elevated.
Chorion sharply wrinkled.
Ochropleura plecta. Aeropyles sharply expressed, large, densely located along lon-
gitudinal ridges.
Xestia. Longitudinal ridges with high comb especially in anterior portions.
Xestia stigmatica. 29–33 longitudinal ridges. Combs sharply expressed.
Xestia c-nigrum. 24–26 longitudinal ridges. Combs moderately expressed.
Noctua. It is not revealed by us any typical diagnostic characters for genus.
However some species have typical diagnostic characters.
Noctua pronuba. Transverse walls typical: very narrow, filiform. Egg unmarked
below equator and weakly marked in micropylar area.
Noctua interposita. Longitudinal ridges sharply elevated.
Noctua fimbriata and Axylia putris have similar morphological characters. However,
Axylia putris differs by more elevated longitudinal ridges.
It should be noted that the cellular radial sculpture in the Noctuidae differs from
that in the families Notodontidae, Lymantriidae and Arctiidae by the egg surface cells
located not like radial lines but chaotically (Dolinskaya, 1990; Dolinskaya, Pljushch,
1999; Pljushch, Dolinskaya, 2000).
Ridged sculpture among families of Noctuoidea occurs somewhat less frequently
than the cellular one. Besides the noctuid-moths it is typical only for Erebidae (Doring,
1955; Salkeld, 1984).
We are obliged to Dr. M. Ponomarenko, Dr. E. Belayev (Institute of Biology and Soil Science,
Vladivostok, Russia), Dr. S. Sinev, Dr. A. L’vovskiy, Dr. A. Matov ( Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg,
Russia) and Dr. S. Passoa (The Ohio State University, United States) for their help with literature. We are
grateful to Dr. A. Matov ( Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) and Dr. Yu. Budashkin (Karadag
Nature Reserve, Crimea, Ukraine) for the help with definition of Noctuidae.
We wish to express our thanks to Dr. Yu. Budashkin (Karadag Nature Reserve, Crimea, Ukraine),
Dr. A. Govorun (Sumy State Pedagogical University, Ukraine) and V. Terekhova (Karazin National Univer-
sity of Kharkiv, Ukraine) for their assistance during our field work in Ukraine and granting us their stationary
facilities. We are very grateful to Z. A. Panina (Department of Electronic Microscopy, N. G. Kholodny
Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv) for her assistance with the SEM.
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432 I. V. Dolinskaya, Yu. N. Geryak
... En años recientes, los estudios sobre huevos de mariposas y en particular de su capa más externa -el exocorion-se realizaron con el empleo de dos técnicas de visualización: el empleo de microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) y la tinción con cloruro de metiltionina (azul de metileno) con observaciones en microscopio estereoscópico (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a). Estos trabajos se efectuaron en Noctuidae (Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012), Pieridae (Eitschberger y Ströhle 1990;Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014aNieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b, 2018aLlorente-Bousquets et al. 2018), Nymphalidae (Heliconiini: Dell'Erba et al. 2005Biblidinae: Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a,b, 2019Satyrinae: Thomson 1992, García-Barros y Martín 1995, Lycaenidae (Downey y Allyn 1981, Munguira et al. 2015, y Riodinidae (Downey y Allyn 1980). Los huevos en la mayoría de estos estudios, así como otros donde se abarcan principalmente ciclos de vida, se obtienen mediante la observación y recolección de oviposiciones de huevos fecundados en el campo o en el laboratorio (v. ...
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During 2016-2017, growers at San Juan de Los Planes, El Carrizal, and El Pescadero at Baja California Sur, Mexico experienced serious outbreaks of phytoplasma squash yellowing disease, causing significant economic loss, mostly from low yield and quality of squash, Cucurbita pepo L., for export. In addition, abundant beet leafhoppers, Circulifer tenellus (Baker), presumed to transmit the disease, were observed in each field. Using nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and comparing in silico patterns, positive Western X-disease phytoplasma of the 16SrIII group was detected. Scanning electron microscopy showed phytoplasmatic particles in sieve tubes of infected plants and insects. Phytoplasma risk based on combined data of insect abundance, disease incidence, and economic threshold was analyzed to evaluate the impact of the disease over time. Only at Los Planes with 128 adult insects per trap and 75.5% incidence of disease was risk of phytoplasma high, while at El Carrizal and El Pescadero, risk was moderate. This is the first evidence of beet leafhoppers transmitting phytoplasma to squash at Baja California Sur. The information will be useful for managing disease in the region and where squash is grown worldwide.
... The egg morphology has been investigated in several noctuid moths with illustrated descriptions (Peterson 1961(Peterson , 1964Hudson 1973;Lu et al., 1995;Zhou et al., 1995;Skudlik et al., 2005;Zenker et al., 2007;Dolinskaya & Geryak 2010;Korycinska 2012;Rolim et al., 2013;Dolinskaya 2016;Blanco et al., 2019). Previous studies have demonstrated the egg ultramorphology of Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera littoralis from Eurasia (Korycinska 2012), and Spodoptera cosmiodes, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera albula from South America (Rolim et al., 2013) with the help of SEM techniques. ...
Article
Spodoptera depravata (Butler) is an important lawn pest in northeastern Asian countries, and its larvae mainly target the leaves of Gramineae crops. However, the morphological traits of egg and larva of this species have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined the external morphology and ultrastructure of egg and larva of S. depravata using light and scanning electron microscopy. The egg is subspherical and covered with abundant female hair silk (modified scales). The upper exochorion sculpture consists of a dense network of irregular contiguous polygonal cells, with 2–3 micropyles at the top. Three types of sensilla were observed on larval antenna and maxilla: sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica and sensilla styloconica. The larva, eruciform, bears three pairs of thoracic legs, and five pairs of prolegs on abdominal segment III to VI and X (anal prolegs), respectively. The crochets of prolegs are arranged in uniordinal mesal penellipse, and protected by membranous stripes. Besides, the head and body chaetotaxy of S. depravata were illustrated and described in details. This study also briefly discussed the application of morphological traits of eggs and larvae to classification and systematic studies on Spodoptera species.
... Alvah Peterson publicó durante la década de 1960 imágenes correspondientes a taxones de 35 familias; también reportó cambios de coloración, así como técnicas de fotografía para huevos (Peterson 1960(Peterson , 1961(Peterson , 1962a(Peterson ,b, 1963a(Peterson ,b, 1964(Peterson , 1965a(Peterson ,b, 1966(Peterson , 1967a(Peterson ,b, 1968(Peterson , 1970. Desde la década de 1970 se produjeron trabajos en Riodinidae y Lycaenidae primero -luego en Noctuidae, con descripciones y análisis morfológicos del corion con base en técnicas de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) (Downey y Allyn 1980, 1981, 1984Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya , 2014Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013). Más tarde se extendieron estas exploraciones en huevos de la familia Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2011 y en mayor número de especies de Lycaenidae paleárticas (Munguira et al. 2015). ...
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Se describe y compara el exocorion de tres especies en la tribu Coeini con ejemplares de México: Historis odius dious, Colobura dirce dirce, y Smyrna blomfildia datis. Se caracterizaron los principales rasgos estructurales del exocorion: color, forma, tamaño, ‘ornamentación’, diferenciación micropilar, perimicropilar, y de la zona de transición, así como estructuras ecuatoriales y basales; bajo la técnica de tinción y el empleo del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se reconocen caracteres microestructurales autapomórficos en el corion de estos géneros (calgarys, filas), así como especializaciones en la base (puentes y domos). Para una comprensión mayor de estas estructuras, se incluyen esquemas y un glosario con los términos adoptados en este trabajo. Se realiza la comparación de nuestros resultados con descripciones publicadas para estas especies, así como con algunas filogenias de la subfamilia Nymphalinae.
... Alvah Peterson publicó durante la década de 1960 imágenes correspondientes a taxones de 35 familias; también reportó cambios de coloración, así como técnicas de fotografía para huevos (Peterson 1960(Peterson , 1961(Peterson , 1962a(Peterson ,b, 1963a(Peterson ,b, 1964(Peterson , 1965a(Peterson ,b, 1966(Peterson , 1967a(Peterson ,b, 1968(Peterson , 1970. Desde la década de 1970 se produjeron trabajos en Riodinidae y Lycaenidae primero -luego en Noctuidae, con descripciones y análisis morfológicos del corion con base en técnicas de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) (Downey y Allyn 1980Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya , 2014Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013). Más tarde se extendieron estas exploraciones en huevos de la familia Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2011 y en mayor número de especies de Lycaenidae paleárticas (Munguira et al. 2015). ...
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Xylella fastidiosa es una de las enfermedades más importantes a nivel mundial, el manejo de sus vectores es una de las estrategias más viables para su control. La presente investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Entomología y Acarología del Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (UAAAN). Se evaluaron 21 extractos de plantas sobre Cuerna costalis proveniente de muestreos de vid y nogal, estos se multiplicaron sobre frijol bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Para el establecimiento del ensayo se utilizó el método de prueba 005 del IRAC con ligeras modificaciones, en un arreglo completamente al azar con 8 concentraciones y 10 repeticiones evaluando a las 120 h. La mortalidad se corrigió acorde a Abbott (1925) y se realizó un Análisis Probit, asimismo se determinaron los principales compuestos fitoquímicos presentes en los extractos mediante el espectrofotómetro infrarrojo. Los resultados muestran una alta susceptibilidad a los extractos de uña de gato (Mimosa zygophylla), sangre de drago (Jatropha dioica), pimienta negra (Piper nigrum), canela (Cinnamomum verum), y mezquite (Prosopis laevigata) con una CL50 de 1166, 1275, 1433, 1459, y 1478 ppm, respectivamente. Los metabolitos presentes en la mayoría de los extractos eficientes fueron ácido tartárico, 1,8-cineol, eugenol, grupos de saponinas, flavonoides, y compuestos fenólicos.
... En años recientes, los estudios sobre huevos de mariposas y en particular de su capa más externa -el exocorion-se realizaron con el empleo de dos técnicas de visualización: el empleo de microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) y la tinción con cloruro de metiltionina (azul de metileno) con observaciones en microscopio estereoscópico (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a). Estos trabajos se efectuaron en Noctuidae (Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012), Pieridae (Eitschberger y Ströhle 1990;Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014a,b, 2015Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b, 2018aLlorente-Bousquets et al. 2018), Nymphalidae (Heliconiini: Dell'Erba et al. 2005Biblidinae: Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a,b, 2019; Satyrinae: Thomson 1992, García-Barros y Martín 1995), Lycaenidae (Downey y Allyn 1981, Munguira et al. 2015, y Riodinidae (Downey y Allyn 1980). Los huevos en la mayoría de estos estudios, así como otros donde se abarcan principalmente ciclos de vida, se obtienen mediante la observación y recolección de oviposiciones de huevos fecundados en el campo o en el laboratorio (v. ...
... En años recientes, los estudios sobre huevos de mariposas y en particular de su capa más externa -el exocorion-se realizaron con el empleo de dos técnicas de visualización: el empleo de microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) y la tinción con cloruro de metiltionina (azul de metileno) con observaciones en microscopio estereoscópico (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a). Estos trabajos se efectuaron en Noctuidae (Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012), Pieridae (Eitschberger y Ströhle 1990;Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014aNieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b, 2018aLlorente-Bousquets et al. 2018), Nymphalidae (Heliconiini: Dell'Erba et al. 2005Biblidinae: Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a,b, 2019Satyrinae: Thomson 1992, García-Barros y Martín 1995, Lycaenidae (Downey y Allyn 1981, Munguira et al. 2015, y Riodinidae (Downey y Allyn 1980). Los huevos en la mayoría de estos estudios, así como otros donde se abarcan principalmente ciclos de vida, se obtienen mediante la observación y recolección de oviposiciones de huevos fecundados en el campo o en el laboratorio (v. ...
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Phyllophaga ravida Blanchard and Phyllophaga opaca Moser (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) are economically important in Mexico. An option for management of the insect pests is use of sex pheromones. To obtain the chemical profile of sex pheromones of both species the posterior section of the genital chamber of females was excised and macerated to release the contents. Eight compounds from P. ravida were identified by retention index and mass spectra: cyclohexane, 1,1′-(2-tridecyl-1,3-propanediyl) bis-; 10-methyl-eicosane; 5-butyl-hexadecane; 3-hexen-2-one; 3,3-diethyl-azetidine-2,4-dione; tetramethyl-oxirane; 3-methyl-2-pentanone; and 2-methoxy-2-methyl-butane. Seven compounds were identified for P. opaca: cholesta-4, 6-dien-3-ol; cholesterol; cholesta-3,5-dien; 2-methyl heptadecane; α-tocopherol succinate; 9,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, acetate; and lup-20 (29)-en-3-ol, acetate. Some identified chemicals, mainly 3,3-diethyl-azetidine-2,4-dione and 2-methyl heptadecane might be involved in sexual attraction of P. ravida and P. opaca, respectively. Several compounds probably are incorporated from plants into insects during feeding, and further transformed by metabolism.
... Exochorion morphology as a character system in Lepidoptera is currently explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or methylene blue stain (methionine chloride) under an optical microscope. Examples include Noctuidae (Dolinskaya 2010(Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya & Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya & Ponomarenko 2013); Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012); Pieridae (Eitschberger & Ströhle 1990;Hernandez-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014a,b, 2015Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b,c, 2018a; Lycaenidae (Downey & Allyn 1981;Munguira et al. 2015); Riodinidae (Downey & Allyn 1980); Satyrinae (Thomson 1992;García-Barros & Martín 1995); Heliconiini (Dell'Erba et al. 2005); Biblidinae (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a. The authors of more detailed descriptions in Pieridae (Llorente-Bousquets & Castro-Gerardino 2007Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014a,b, 2015Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b,c, 2018a and Biblidinae (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a have explored exochorion morphology as a character system in Papilionoidea and have compared their results to previously published studies. ...
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We studied the chorionic morphology of six species of Hamadryas, and together with previous studies, we compared our results with previously published phylogenies for the genus. Samples were obtained from 19 females collected between 2013 and 2017 whose abdomens were sectioned and preserved for later dissection. Eggs were extracted from those dissections and used for the descriptions and illustrations of the chorion. The Hamadryas egg is of the globose type; it is quasi-spheroidal and has multiple polygonal grids with differentiation in specific zones/regions, and knolls with macrocells in their summits that arise in the apical third. These characteristics are very different from those found in the majority of Biblidinae and for those reported in the literature for Batesia and Panacea, which belong to the same subtribe as Hamadryas (Ageroniina, now Ageroniini). Chorionic characters support a previously suggested division of the genus (februa, feronia and laodamia groups) and they agree with the phylogenetic proposal based on morphological characters. Our study expands previous morphological work focused on this genus and compiles all the information available to date about the exochorion of Hamadryas, which now includes data for 10 species and that of Ectima thecla thecla, the putative sister group of Hamadryas.
... This type of the exit opening was found in the most of notodontid subfamilies that were examined. This state of the character is also found in the most outgroup species -Noctuidae (Dolinskaya, 2010(Dolinskaya, , 2011(Dolinskaya, b, 2014aDolinskaya & Geryak, 2010;Dolinskaya & Ponomarenko, 2013), Erebidae (Dolinskaya, 2014b;Dolinskaya & Pljushch, 1999). Basis of this studies this state of the character is considered plesiomorphic relative to other states. ...
Article
On the basis of comparative-morphological analysis of 43 genera and 92 species of Palaearctic Notodontidae, as well as the study of the eggs of outgroup species, complexes of characters that are diagnostic, taxonomic or phylogenetic are singled out. It is shown that the egg characteristics are of great taxonomic value at species and generic levels. Some characters are useful for grouping genera. In general, a complex of characters should be used, because different species or genera often share the same characters. Possible apomorphic and plesiomorphic states of the different characters are discussed in relation to the different taxa. The results of this study are discussed with reference to recently published classifications of Notodontidae. As a result of the studies, the keys for identification to the eggs of 43 genera and 92 species of notodontid moths from the Palaearctic region are presented. Reliable diagnostic characters that do not disappear with the injury of eggs or with eggs preserved in alcohol were used. Characters including egg shape, egg and chorion colour, the shape of gnawed holes in eggs when caterpillars hatched, chorionic sculpture, the type of oviposition, foodplants, and geographic distribution of the genera and species were applied. Occasionally, characters that are typical for live eggs, which vary during development, were used. These are characters of egg colour and pattern. The keys are illustrated with photographs made using a digital camera and a scanning electron microscope.
... Posterior a ellos, el empleo de microscopía electrónica de barrido permitió la exploración de la zona perimicropilar en varios taxones: Downey y Allyn (1980,1981,1984) y Munguira et al. (2015) en Riodinidae y Lycaenidae, respectivamente; Kitching (1985) en Danainae; García-Barros y Martin (1995) en Satyrinae; Freitas y Brown (2004) en Nymphalidae; Dell' Erba et al. (2005) y da Silva et al. (2006) en Heliconiini del sur de Brasil. Más recientemente se ha empleado en Noctuidae ( Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), y en Hesperiidae ( Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012). Sin embargo, en ninguno de ellos se detalló la conceptualización de las estructuras del exocorion más significativas para su empleo en sistemática, a distintos niveles de la jerarquía taxonómica. ...
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We described and compared the macro and micro exochorionic grid of three species of the genus Colias: C. croceus, C. alfacariensis, and C. lesbia mineira, under methylene blue staining techniques and with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The size, shapes, as well as diverse aspects of the grid in its region or zones, are different for each species. The differences occur in the micropyle, perimicropylar area, relative thickness between axes and ribs, the arrangement and number of polygons that make up the micro-grid, among other characters we detailed. All these characters are illustrated in drawings and SEM photographs. The results are compared between each species and those of earlier works. © 2018 Southwestern Entomological Society. All rights reserved.
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Eggs of 10 species. belonging to 6 genera of Arctiidae (subfamily Arctiinae) were examined with the use of the scanning electron microscopy. The descnptions and the comparative morphological analysis are provided for all these taxa. As a result, all the examined genera are divided into 2 groups; the diagnostic characters for genera and some species are chosen. A characteristics of the subfamily Aretiinae is given basing on the egg charclers. ZusammcDfassung: Die aussere Morphologic der Eiem von 10 Arten aus 6 Gattungen Arctiidae (Untcrfamilie Arctlinae) ist auf Grund cler Untersuchung des Materials aus Primorje (Russland) beschrieben. Die vergleichendmorphologische Analyse der Eiemsculptur der Arten und Gattungen ist durchgefuhrt. AIle untersuchten Gattwlgen sind in 2 Gruppen eingeordnet. Die diagnostishe Merkmale sind fur Gattungen wld manche Arten gegeben. Die Unterfamilie Arctiinae ist auf Grund der Eiennerkmale characterisiert. Resume: Les ocufs de 10 cSpCces d'Arctiidae (Arctiinae) appartenant a6 genres ant ete etudies au moyen d'un microscope eleclronique scaJmeur. L'analyse comparative de la morphologic des ocufs ctudies a etc faite. Les genres etudies ant etc partages en 2 groupes~ des caracteres diagnostiques des oeufs pour les genres et certaines especes sont etablis. Une caracteristique de la sous-familie des Arctiinae d'apres leurs oeufs est proposee. Introduction.
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Eggs of 11 species belonging to 7 genera of Lymantn'idae were examined with the use of the scanning electron microscopy. The descriptions and the comparative morphological analysis are provided for all these species. The evaluation of significance of some morphological characters is given and the diagnostic characters for some species are chosen. Many species were found out to be recognizable from the complex characters they share with other genera. A preliminary characteristics of the family Lymantriidae is given basing on the egg characters. Zusammenfassung: Die aussere Morphologie der Eiem von 11 Arten aus 7 Gattungen (familie Lymantriidae) ist auf Grund der Untersuchung des materials aus Primorje (Russland) beschrieben. Die vergleichendmorphologische Analyse der Eiemskulptur der Arten und Gattungen ist durchgefuhrt. Die diagnostishe Merkmale sind rur einigen Arten gegeben. Die Arten sind mit verschiedenen Kombinationen der derselben Mermalen unterscheidet. Die familie "Lymantn'idae ist auf Grund der Eirnmerkmale characterisiert. Resume: Des oeufs de 11 es¢ces de Lynzantn'idae appartenant a 7 genres ont ete etudies au moyen d'un microscope electronique scanneur. L'analyse de la morphologie comparative des oeufs etudies a ete faite. L'appreciation d'lUle valeur taxinomique des caracteres morphologiques principaux est donnee; des caracteres diagnostiques des oeufs pour certaines es¢ces sont etablis. n apparalt que des oeufs de nombreuses especes peuvent etre identifies d'apres un ensemble de caracteres dont la combinaison est propre a I'es¢ce. Une caracteristique preliminaire de la famille des Lymantriidae d'apres leurs oeufs est proposee.
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Presented, with notes, are 124 plates of SEM illustrations of noctuid eggs representing 14 subfamilies of the Noctuidae: one species of Agaristinae, four species of Pantheinae, six species of Acronictinae, 34 species of Noctuinae, 26 species of Hadeninae, 10 species of Cuculliinae, 14 species of Amphipyrinae, three species of Acontiinae, two species of Euteliinae, two species of Plusiinae, 11 species of Catocalinae, one species of Hypeninae, one species of Rivulinae, and nine species of Herminiinae.
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Morphological features of the eggs of Euxoa campestris, E. declarata, and E. rockburnei, the “declarata group”, were diagnostic for the species; the esterase zymograms of the eggs of campestris and declarata support the morphological findings. Chorionic features and the esterase zymograms of a hybrid resembled those of the female parent.
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The eggs of several species of cutworms of the subgenera Chorizagrotis, Crassivesica, Longivesica, Orosagrotis, and Pleonectopoda in the genus Euxoa Hübner are described. Within the genus eggs are of two main types, those with smooth chorions and those with ridged chorions, but all have the same basic chorionic design. Variations in the degree of ridging and in the detail of the design make the egg useful for species determination, and a key to some species is provided. However, the egg is of little value in distinguishing the subgenera as they are currently constituted.
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The eggs of 18 species of cutworms of the subgenus Euxoa Hübner are described and a key for separating some of them has been constructed. Only in rare instances can species be identified from egg morphology alone, but the egg stage can usually be identified to the subgeneric level.
Ukraine) for their assistance during our field work in Ukraine and granting us their stationary facilities. We are very grateful to Z. A. Panina (Department of Electronic Microscopy
  • . A Dr
  • Govorun
Dr. A. Govorun (Sumy State Pedagogical University, Ukraine) and V. Terekhova (Karazin National University of Kharkiv, Ukraine) for their assistance during our field work in Ukraine and granting us their stationary facilities. We are very grateful to Z. A. Panina (Department of Electronic Microscopy, N. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv) for her assistance with the SEM.
Microstructure of the oxocorion in eggs of some species of Noctuids (Lepidoptera: Glossata: Noctuidae) // Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia. Serie Ciencias Naturales, Punta Arenas (Chile)
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