Article

Indulging Our Gendered Selves? Sex Segregation by Field of Study in 44 Countries1

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Abstract

Data from 44 societies are used to explore sex segregation by field of study. Contrary to accounts linking socioeconomic modernization to a "degendering" of public-sphere institutions, sex typing of curricular fields is stronger in more economically developed contexts. The authors argue that two cultural forces combine in advanced industrial societies to create a new sort of sex segregation regime. The first is gender-essentialist ideology, which has proven to be extremely resilient even in the most liberal-egalitarian of contexts; the second is self-expressive value systems, which create opportunities and incentives for the expression of "gendered selves." Multivariate analyses suggest that structural features of postindustrial labor markets and modern educational systems support the cultivation, realization, and display of gender-specific curricular affinities.

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... First, we examined the role of gender-stereotypical beliefs (GSB). Girls generally hold lower self-concepts than boys at equal ability levels (Correll, 2001) and it has been suggested that self-concept is an expression of internalized gender beliefs (Charles and Bradley, 2009;Eccles, 2011;Breda et al., 2020). Accordingly, if a girl believes that boys are more competent in mathematics, she might view mathematical competence as inconsistent with female gender identity and thus, doubt her mathematical ability. ...
... In education, different subject domains have often been shown to be gendered. In general, math and math-related domains are stereotyped as male, while language domains are stereotyped as female (Charles and Bradley, 2009;Martinot et al., 2012;Heyder and Kessels, 2013;Nowicki and Lopata, 2017). Stereotypical expectations can reflect both actual and false differences. ...
... Accordingly, the female disadvantage in mathematics reflected strong internalized beliefs about gender and mathematics among the girls themselves. This result may be interpreted in light of cross-cultural research on gender inequality, which has argued that while (vertical) gender inequalities tend to decline in affluent Western democracies, self-expressive value systems, particularly in highly egalitarian countries, still endorse the idea that the genders are innately and fundamentally "equal but different, " and therefore continue to encourage the development and enactment of culturally masculine or feminine affinities (Charles and Bradley, 2009). Under these "post-materialist" gender regimes, gender segregation retains legitimacy because it can be understood as the result of free choices by equal, yet innately different, men and women (Thébaud and Charles, 2018). ...
Article
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This study investigated the role of social contexts for gender disparities in education by examining the associations between gender-stereotypical beliefs (GSB) of students, peers, and teachers and gender achievement patterns in the classroom and students’ self-concept in language and math. We applied multilevel models with school fixed effects to a unique sample of combined survey and register data from Denmark to analyze detailed learning environments within schools and their correlations with gender differences in self-concept across subject domains. Results showed a gender gap in favor of boys in mathematics, net of academic achievement that were consistent across classrooms. In language, the influence of gender varied across classrooms. Furthermore, although GSB and gender achievement patterns did not alter the gender gap in either language or mathematics, we found that they moderated the relationship between gender and self-concept in heterogeneous ways across subjects. While teachers’ GSB increased the gender gap in language by decreasing boys’ self-concept, the students’ own GSB was more important for students’ self-concept in mathematics. Moreover, girls’ mathematics self-concept was lower in classrooms, in which, female peers had a relatively higher level of mathematics achievement compared to boys, suggesting that counter-stereotypical achievement patterns in the classroom do not increase students’ self-concept in subjects with strong gender stereotypes. On the contrary, girls are most likely to compare themselves to female peers, resulting in a negative association with self-evaluations. Our results highlighted the role played by social contexts in schools in the generation of gender differences in self-concept in traditionally stereotyped subject domains, but also showed important differences in how boys and girls were affected by their learning environments across different subject domains, suggesting there are different mechanisms at play.
... I thereby follow the practice of several sociologists, economists and gender scholars (see e.g. Charles & Bradley 2009, Eckert & McConnell-Ginet 2013, Gangl & Ziefle 2015 See also Eckert & McConnell-Ginet (2013, p.2): "while we think of sex as biological and gender as social, this distinction is not clear-cut. People tend to think of gender as the result of nurture -as social and hence fluid -while sex is the result of nature, simply given by biology. ...
... Sex segregation by university major also has important indirect consequences. For example, it may reinforce existing gender norms and stereotypes, thereby limiting the perceived educational choices of future generations (Charles & Bradley 2009). ...
... Finally, the findings speak to Charles and Bradley's (2009) argument that higher levels of gender equality in terms of female labour force participation and gender pay gaps does not necessarily come hand in hand with a disappearance of gendered major and occupational choices. To the contrary, the authors argue that privilege and economic development create opportunities for the expression of 'gendered selves'. ...
Thesis
Despite substantial progress, gender gaps in labour market outcomes persist. Several key factors help explain remaining gaps. First, men and women continue to work in different jobs. Second, parenthood appears to be a crucial point in the life course at which gender gaps widen. Third, traditional beliefs and norms about the appropriate roles of men and women, particularly in the context of parenthood, are obstacles to closing remaining gender gaps. At the same time, advancements in automation technologies are transforming the world of work and may have genderspecific impacts. Motivated by these observations, this thesis advances understanding of several factors related to gender inequality in the labour market. These factors are gendered university major choices, attitudes towards gender roles in the context of parenthood, and effects of recent transformations in labour markets on the gender gap in pay. The thesis consists of four empirical papers. The first paper studies the role of intergenerational transmission for gendered university major choices of young adults. Using regression analysis and exploiting survey data from a recent cohort of university students in Germany, the paper investigates to what extent and why gender-typicality of mother's and father's occupation affect the gender-typicality of their child's university major. Results show signifficant intergenerational associations and indicate that parental resources and a transmission of gender roles are both relevant transmission channels, particularly for sons' major choices. The second and third paper examine how gender role attitudes are shaped in the context of parenthood. The second paper analyses effects of the 2007 paid parental leave reform (Elterngeld) in Germany on parents' gender role attitudes; specifically, attitudes towards the gender division of work, towards the roles of fathers, and towards the labour force participation of mothers. Exploiting the reform as a natural experiment, results indicate that men affected by the reform hold more traditional attitudes towards the role of fathers, whereas there is no effect on the other two iv outcomes. Focusing on the UK, the third paper explores whether parenting daughters affects attitudes towards a traditional male breadwinner model in which it is the husband's role to work and the wife's to stay at home. Using panel data and individual fixed effects models, the results indicate that fathers are less likely to hold traditional views on the gender division of work if they raise a girl. No robust effects on mothers' attitudes are found. Results from the second and third paper inform the broader literature on attitudinal change, suggesting that gender role attitudes are not stable throughout the life course and can be significantly shaped by adulthood experiences. The final paper studies whether technological change increases gender inequality. Using individual-level data from around 28 million individuals in 20 European countries and an instrumental variable strategy, the study provides the first large-scale evidence concerning the impact of industrial robots on the gender gap in earnings. Findings indicate that robot adoption increases both male and female earnings but also increases the gender pay gap. These results are driven by countries with high initial levels of gender inequality and can be explained by the fact that men in medium- and high-skilled occupations disproportionately benefit from robotization, through a productivity effect.
... Early research suggests that traditionally disadvantaged sociodemographic groups benefit from a modernising occupational structure (Bell, 1973;Featherman and Hauser, 1978), but the labour market integrations of several such groups is complicated. For example, younger cohorts' careers are both increasingly unstable and delayed (DiPrete, 2005;Tåhlin and Westerman, 2020), many former industrial workers have experienced limited upward transitions or paths out of declining production industries (Murphy, 2014), women's increasing labour force participation continues to vary dramatically among industries and sectors (Charles and Bradley, 2009;England, 2010) and the influence of parental class on career trajectories appears stable rather than diminishing, as modernisation theories predict (Bukodi and Goldthorpe, 2011;Bukodi et al., 2016). The mechanisms by which structural change occurs are important to understanding labour market integration frictions. ...
... Women's limited entry into blue-collar work can be explained by the fact that, for women, such jobs provide no upward shift in prestige or improvement to work conditions (England, 2010), but reasons behind women's underrepresentation in high-skill STEM jobs are less clear. Some researchers suggest that education tracks were and remain gendered, or that gender-typical occupational choices are considered safer during rapid structural change (Charles and Bradley, 2009). ...
... This finding contradicts the idea that women's labour force participation growth was biased towards people-oriented jobs (cf. Charles and Bradley, 2009). Contrarily, structural change shaped conditions of linearly increasing propensities of women to enter careers in generally men-dominated high-skill and things-oriented domains of the labour market, though from a low starting point. ...
Article
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Research suggests that structural change drives occupational mobility in high-income countries over time, but two partially competing theories explain how such change occurs. One suggests that younger cohorts replace older ones through higher education, and the second suggests that individuals adapt to structural change by switching from declining to new or growing occupations during their careers. A proposed occupational scheme aligns with the two dimensions of structural change – skill upgrading on the vertical axis of occupational differentiation, increasing demand for data comprehension (i.e. high skill) and primary tasks concerning either people or things on the horizontal axis. Applied to career trajectories in the Swedish labour market, sequence analyses of the scheme suggest stability in attainment of career mobility types over time between consecutive birth cohorts, and considerable evidence for within-career manoeuvring. Analyses address heterogeneity along parental class and gender.
... These school sectors serve populations that differ with respect to dominant religious culture (Jewish versus Muslim, Druze and Christian-Arab) and lived socioeconomic experience (security versus precarity), both reliable predictors of the STEM gender gap (Charles, 2011;Dajani et al., 2020;Folberg & Kaboli-Nejad, 2020;Hazzan et al., 2020;Moshfeghyeganeh & Hazari, 2021). Recent comparative studies have suggested a tendency for more genderintegration of mathematics-intensive fields in poorer and reputably gender-traditional societies, including Muslimmajority societies, than in the affluent West (Breda et al., 2020;Charles & Bradley, 2009;Chow & Charles, 2020;Liu, 2020;Stoet & Geary, 2018). We assess the generalizability of this cross-societal pattern by comparing the gender gap in advanced physics course-taking between schools serving Jewish-and Arab-Palestinian students, while controlling for parental education and contextual (i.e., school-level) affluence. ...
... Several recent studies have documented a so-called "gender equality paradox," which refers to the greater genderintegration and weaker male-stereotyping of STEM fields in less affluent and reputably gender-traditional countries, including in many Muslim-majority societies (Breda et al., 2020;Charles & Bradley, 2009;Chow & Charles, 2020;Stoet & Geary, 2018). The latter finding has been met with surprise given Western stereotypes of Muslim gender relations as traditional and uniformly patriarchal (Charles, 2011;Dajani et al., 2020;Folberg & Kaboli-Nejad, 2020;Lagesen, 2008;Moshfeghyeganeh & Hazari, 2021). ...
... One explanation for the observed patterns is that broadbased material security gives rise to cultural individualism and a higher propensity for people to treat school and work as vehicles for personal self-expression (Charles & Bradley, 2009;Francis et al., 2017;Soylu Yalcinkaya & Adams, 2020). When encouraged to follow their passions and "do what they love," adolescents (who often do not know yet what they love) may fall back on gendered choices based on the prevailing stereotypes about what boys and girls love. ...
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Although physics is one of the most male-dominated educational fields in Europe and North America, this is not the case in all parts of the world. The present study investigates contextual variability in the physics gender gap by leveraging unique characteristics of the Israeli state educational system, including its highly standardized national curriculum and its distinct school sectors that differ on key analytical dimensions. First, comparison of schools serving different sociocultural groups reveals strong overrepresentation of boys in advanced physics courses in the Hebrew-speaking but not the Arabic-speaking school sector. This pattern aligns with previous cross-national studies showing more gender-integration of STEM fields in contexts characterized by more socioeconomic precarity and in Muslim-majority societies. Second, comparison of advanced physics course-taking between coeducational and single-sex schools provides no support for claims about the degendering effects of single-sex education. Results are consistent with accounts that treat educational gender segregation as the product of contextually contingent sorting processes rather than stable characteristics of boy and girl students. Initiatives aimed at addressing the gender gap in STEM fields must be calibrated to the diverse sociocultural contexts in which these sorting processes unfold.
... Yet, less research has focused on local cultural context as a predictor of labor force gender inequality. Instead, research on cultural environments has primarily been cross-national (Boeckmann, Misra, and Budig 2015;Charles and Bradley 2009;Charles and Grusky 2004;Inglehart and Norris 2003;Knight and Brinton 2017). This body of research has uncovered major variation between nations in gender norms and identified the consequences of these cultural conditions on various forms of labor force gender inequality. ...
... Gender stereotypes toward the types of jobs women and men are best suited for often creates barriers for women and advantages for men in accessing well-paying masculine-typed occupations, a process commonly referred to as statistical discrimination (Bielby and Baron 1986;Tomaskovic-Devey and Kevin 2007). At the same time, these cultural gender stereotypes are also reflected in job-seekers' socialized preferences, as women more often pursue careers in lower-paying fields than men (Cech 2013;Charles and Bradley 2009;England 2010). ...
... Despite limited attention to cultural contexts across the US, scholars studying cross-national patterns have advanced our understanding of the relationship between nation-level gender norms and forms of gender inequality (Boeckmann et al. 2015;Charles and Bradley 2009;Charles and Grusky 2004;Gonalons-Pons and Gangl 2021). These researchers have conceptualized gender norms as the context-specific expectations differentiating conduct between women and men (Pearse and Connell 2016). ...
Article
Local economic conditions have been found to be highly influential in shaping patterns of gender inequality across the United States. Less attention, however, has been directed toward exploring the role of cultural characteristics, such as gender norms toward women’s leadership and family divisions of labor. Using data from the American Community Survey and the General Social Survey, we examine the relationship between local gender norms and levels of the gender wage gap across US commuting zones. Results indicate that gender egalitarian family norms predict lower gender wage gaps, while norms toward women’s suitability for leadership are unrelated to wage inequality between women and men. Investigating the mechanisms by which local norms relate to gender wage gaps, we find that family gender norms are unrelated to occupational gender segregation. Instead, egalitarian gender norms toward the family division of labor are associated with greater within-occupation wage equality, indicating that women and men in the same occupations have more equitable opportunities and compensation in contexts where family expectations are shared equally.
... First, it is larger in more developed and more genderegalitarian countries [in the sense of the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI), see details below]. This type of apparently paradoxical relationship has already been documented for a large range of gender gaps: More gender-egalitarian and wealthier countries also experience higher gender gaps in choice of studies (22,23), in basic preferences measured through laboratory experiment (24), cognitive abilities such as spatial visualization (25), self-reported personality traits (26), basic human values (27), self-esteem (28), subjective well-being (29), or depression (30). ...
... To confirm these insights, we build from PISA2018 gender gaps in self-confidence and expectations to work in an ICT (Information and Communication Technology)-related occupation. We then show that these gender gaps are also larger in more developed or more gender-egalitarian countries [confirming former analyses; see, e.g., (22,23,31,32)], but these relationships can be largely accounted for by the gender gaps in the belief to lack talent: Once we control for the latter in country-level analyses, the relationships largely disappear. A similar exercise is reproduced with gender gaps in competitiveness. ...
... This could explain that essentialist gender norms can be more easily internalized in these countries, as these norms will give individuals a cultural background on which they can fall back when facing the need to express their social identities. This explanation has been developed extensively by Charles and coauthors [see (22,(62)(63)(64)] to explain math attitudes and the larger extent of occupational segregation in more developed countries. We argue here that it can also apply to gender stereotypes regarding talent. ...
Article
Recent research has shown that there exist gender stereotypes that portray men as more brilliant or inherently talented than women. We provide a large-scale multinational investigation of these stereotypes and their relationship with other gender gaps. Using a survey question asked to more than 500,000 students in 72 countries, we build a measure of the stereotypes associating talent with men and show that they are present in almost all studied countries. These stereotypes are stronger among high-achieving students and in more developed or more gender-egalitarian countries. Similar patterns are observed for gender gaps in competitiveness, self-confidence, and willingness to work in an ICT (Information and Communication Technology)-related occupation. Statistical analysis suggests that these three latter gender gaps could be related to stereotypes associating talent with men. We conclude that these stereotypes should be more systematically considered as a possible explanation for the glass ceiling.
... En cambio, en sociedades más equitativas, principios universalistas proporcionarían un espacio normativo para que mujeres y hombres transgredan las normas convencionales de género. Pero aún en estas sociedades, ideologías esencialistas de género y preferencias e intereses endógenos, llevarían a elecciones educacionales diferenciadas entre hombres y mujeres (Charles y Bradley, 2009). Es más, se plantea que, en estos contextos, se produciría la paradoja de igualdad de género en STEM, ya que las brechas de género serían más grandes que en otros contextos. ...
... Sistemas de ETP altamente diferenciados, donde los estudiantes pueden elegir entre un largo número de programas de estudios, incrementarían las aspiraciones tipificadas por género. Se argumenta que la expansión de la educación superior ha acontecido con la diversificación de su oferta curricular, creándose nichos femeninos para que las mujeres que acceden a este nivel puedan expresar sus intereses vocacionales (Charles y Bradley, 2009). ...
Technical Report
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El interés de aumentar la participación femenina en áreas de la ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería y matemáticas (STEM, por sus siglas en inglés) responde a la necesidad de transformar los estilos de desarrollo de los países con igualdad y sostenibilidad, junto con favorecer la autonomía económica de las mujeres. Los programas de estudio de la Educación Técnico Profesional (ETP) impartida en el sistema escolar, se visualizan como un espacio prometedor de formación en competencias STEM, considerando que cerca de la mitad de las ocupaciones en estas áreas demandan cualificaciones técnico- profesionales, ya sea de nivel secundario o postsecundario. Este documento revisa los espacios de provisión de la ETP secundaria de un conjunto de países de América Latina para explorar el potencial de esta formación en impulsar trayectorias laborales y educativas de estudiantes mujeres en áreas STEM. Se encuentra que una serie de aspectos curriculares, organizacionales y culturales limitan este potencial, llevando a que los programas de la ETP en áreas de la “industria y producción” y de las “nuevas tecnologías” continúen siendo visualizados como tradicionalmente masculinos. A ello se suma la falta de antecedentes sistemáticos que permitan cuantificar y caracterizar la problemática de género en la ETP y relevarla como tema de interés. No obstante, en algunos países, distintas iniciativas empiezan a desplegarse con la convicción y firmeza respecto a la necesidad de producir cambios que promuevan la participación femenina en programas de la ETP afines a áreas STEM.
... Although gender differences in access to postsecondary education are declining, the sex segregation of college major persists. By utilising published data on gender distributions across fields of study from UNESCO and the TIMSS from 44 countries, Charles & Bradley (2009) found that the sex typing of curricular fields is particularly prominent in more economically advanced contexts than in developing countries, partially due to the efforts of policy makers to increase the supply of scientific and engineering labour forces, as these 146 fields are recognised as the main driving force of national economic revitalisation. ...
... In particular, these gender disparities cause under-represented individuals to be vulnerable to gender-biased discrimination and reinforce gender stereotypes that position STEM disciplines as masculine fields (Charles & Bradley, 2009). Additionally, gender differences in college majors contribute to the gender pay gap in the earnings of college graduates (Charles, 2011). ...
Thesis
The sociological study of inequalities has long been concerned with questions concerning the role of education in creating a fairer society and whether it just serves as a means for the advantaged to consolidate pre-existing privileges. This thesis adds to the existing literature by addressing the questions of how family background, types of high school, college entrance scores, and participation in the alternative admissions scheme – Independent Freshman’s Admission (IFA) – help structure access to tertiary education in Beijing, China. I examine tertiary education in terms of both university prestige and choice of university major. Using a mixed-methods study, I draw on qualitative data from my fieldwork in Beijing where I interviewed 60 first-year students and 2 admissions tutors, drawn from across seven universities of different levels of prestige, with both STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) and non-STEM subject majors. I also analyse quantitative data from the 2009 Beijing College Student Panel Study (BCSPS) consisting of 4771 students from 15 universities (3 elite, 6 selective and 6 less-selective universities). First, my qualitative analysis reveals the important role of residential background and hukou status, as well as key- point school attendance in university admission of students both through Gaokao route and IFA participation. I also explored some of the reasons behind female students’ uptake of a STEM degree. Second, using multinomial logit models for analysing BCSPS data, I confirmed the importance of family background, residence of origin and school attendance for access to universities of different levels of prestige. Further, using logistic regression, I showed gender differences in personal attributes relevant to the pursuit of STEM fields, but no associations between different beliefs about marriage and family and educational choices. Taken, together, these findings uncover the ongoing importance of institutional barriers in accessing elite and selective tertiary education in China and illustrate how the meritocratic policy objectives of IFA were undermined in practice. In moving forwards, now that IFA has been scrapped, my study suggests that, without a marked change of direction, the conflict will continue between meritocratic principles and elitist goals, and the quest to improve equality in region, class and gender will remain elusive.
... Strong evidence suggests that women's career preferences or choices are in fact constrained by a culture that associates men and masculinity with science, math, and engineering (Cech et al., 2011, Cech, 2014Correll, 2004). 2 Gendered and racialized status beliefs shape perceptions of the ideal scientist, with notions of mathematical and technical competence centering around white and Asian masculinity (Moss-Racusin et al., 2012;Ridgeway, 2011). Individual preferences have also shaped by macro-level, institutional shifts in higher education and the economy, such as diversified college curricula and the rising demand of service sector jobs (Charles & Bradley, 2009). ...
... Innovation opportunities are shaped by the gendered and racialized organization of academic institutions (Acker, 1990(Acker, , 2006Ray, 2019;Wooten & Couloute, 2017). A wealth of research illustrates how the structure and culture of academia and specifically STEM create a "chilly climate" excluding women and BIPOC students and faculty (Britton, 2017;Charles & Bradley, 2009;Hall & Sandler, 1982). In engineering, for example, various organizational factors contribute to gendered and racialized career barriers, including cultural norms like initiation rituals (Seron et al., 2016), heightened visibility associated with tokenism (Muhs et al., 2012;Ong, 2005;Settles et al., 2018), and exclusion from social networks (Fox, 2008;Mickey, 2019). ...
Article
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How to study inequality in innovation? Often, the focus has been gender gaps in patenting. Yet much is missing from our understanding of gendered inequality in innovation with this focus. This review discusses how gender and innovation are intertwined in durable academic inequalities and have implications for who is served by innovation. It summarizes research on gender and race gaps in academic entrepreneurship (including patenting), reasons for those longstanding inequities, and concludes with discussing why innovation gaps matter, including the need to think critically about academic commercialization. And while literature exists on gender gaps in academic entrepreneurship and race gaps in patenting, intersectional analyses of innovation are missing. Black feminist theorists have taught us that gender and race are overlapping and inseparable systems of oppression. We cannot accurately understand inequality in innovation without intersectionality, so this is a serious gap in current research. Intersectional research on gender and innovation is needed across epistemic approaches and methods. From understanding discrimination in academic entrepreneurship to bringing together critical analyses of racial capitalism and academic capitalism, there is much work to do.
... Like many other advanced industrial societies, Germany's labour market and postsecondary education continue to be profoundly segregated by gender, with women and men concentrated in different fields of study and employment (Charles & Bradley, 2009;Charles & Grusky, 2004). Recent German studies, however, showed that even small reductions in the gender segregation of occupations over the past decades (Hausmann & Kleinert, 2014) contributed significantly to compressing the gender wage gap and wage inequality (Witte, 2020). ...
... Recent German studies, however, showed that even small reductions in the gender segregation of occupations over the past decades (Hausmann & Kleinert, 2014) contributed significantly to compressing the gender wage gap and wage inequality (Witte, 2020). The stratification theory of gender essentialism argues that young people's selections of fields of study and occupations are strongly affected by persistent gender-essentialist beliefs and increasing self-expressive values (Cech, 2013;Charles & Bradley, 2009). Prior research has shown that boys and girls with gender-typical aspirations have a higher chance of selecting gender-typical disciplines in post-secondary education (Law, 2018;Morgan et al., 2013) and are more likely to end up in gender-typical occupations as adults (Polavieja & Platt, 2014). ...
Article
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Objective: This study investigates how multiple domains of parental gender role socialisation as well as parent-child relationships and family structure may shape adolescents’ gendered occupational aspirations. Background: Young people with gender-typical aspirations have a higher chance of choosing gender-typical post-secondary education fields and are more likely to work in gender-typical occupations as adults. Gender norms, family structures and parent-child relationships have undergone profound changes in recent decades. We extend the intergenerational transmission literature by considering whether the influence of parental role modelling may vary according to parent-child relationships and family structure. Method: We draw on data from 2,235 adolescents from the German Socio-Economic Panel and apply logistic regressions. Results: Children whose fathers were employed in gender-typical jobs had a greater likelihood of aspiring to a more gender-typical occupation. This relationship was not significant among sons who did not live continuously with both parents since birth, who were generally more likely to aspire to gender-typical occupations. Surprisingly, the gender-typicality of fathers' occupations seemed more influential among daughters whose parents had separated than among those who lived continuously with both parents. Regarding the parental gender division of paid and unpaid work, only mothers' continuous non-employment was associated with daughters being more likely to aspire to a gender-typical occupation. Conclusion: On the whole, our findings suggest a rather weak influence of parental gender role modelling on children’s persistently gendered occupational aspirations in Germany. Yet, our study extends existing family research by pointing to significant variations across family structures.
... Across the globe, we have found a tendency for nations with less sex equality to be those that exhibit the fewest sex differences in argumentation measures (Hample 2018). Our tentative explanation, which follows the theory of Charles and Bradley (2009), is that when women begin to be satisfied with their status vis-à-vis men, they relax into their more natural gendered identities, and it is then that sex differences are most easily expressed. Since Poland has a moderate level of economic advancement compared to other nations, we do not expect to see either a near absence of sex differences or a strong assertion of them (we have observed both possibilities in other nations). ...
... There has been greater equality between the sexes in terms of financial resources and economic situation. The middling rate of sex-typing in interpersonal arguing that our study revealed seems to match the Charles and Bradley (2009) theory which suggests that the more sex equality a nation has, the more sex differences assert themselves. Very possibly, Polish female and male needs for self-realization and self-expression are mirrored in their face-to-face arguing tendencies. ...
Article
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This is a descriptive study (N = 243) of how Polish undergraduates and graduates perceive face to face arguing. We had some reasons to suppose that they would not be especially aggressive. The Polish culture has a number of proverbs warning against combative arguing, with “agreement builds and disagreement destroys” being illustrative. In addition, up until 1989 public dissent and open disagreements were suppressed by the government, and older generations often found it prudent to avoid arguing. We compared Polish results with previously reported data from the U.S. and Ukraine. We did, in fact, find that Polish orientations were less aggressive and more other-oriented than the two comparison nations. We also discovered Poland was more wary of engaging in interpersonal conflicts. Distinct sex differences appeared when we compared Polish men and women, with men being more forceful. Correlational patterns, especially concerning argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness, were largely consistent with those originally found in the U.S. Power distance continues to have important connections with the standard argument orientation measures, but its patterns of correlation are not entirely consistent across the relatively small number of nations where the variable has been studied.
... Other research on gender, the labour market, the family and education suggests the need for a nuanced approach to characterising and interpreting patterns in gender-related attitudes and beliefs between countries as well as assumptions equating progress towards gender equality with degree of modernisation (Charles, 2011;Charles & Bradley, 2009;Knight & Brinton, 2017). For example, in a series of studies on cross-country variations in gender segregation in labour markets, Charles and colleagues (Charles, 2011;Charles & Bradley, 2009) show how women's representation in non-traditional STEMM fields such as engineering and computer science is higher in developing economies than in advanced industrial countries (Charles, 2011, p. 362). ...
... Other research on gender, the labour market, the family and education suggests the need for a nuanced approach to characterising and interpreting patterns in gender-related attitudes and beliefs between countries as well as assumptions equating progress towards gender equality with degree of modernisation (Charles, 2011;Charles & Bradley, 2009;Knight & Brinton, 2017). For example, in a series of studies on cross-country variations in gender segregation in labour markets, Charles and colleagues (Charles, 2011;Charles & Bradley, 2009) show how women's representation in non-traditional STEMM fields such as engineering and computer science is higher in developing economies than in advanced industrial countries (Charles, 2011, p. 362). Charles (2011, p. 366) concludes: 'Some of the most sex-segregated labour markets and educational systems are found in precisely those countries reputed to be the most gender-progressive in their cultural values and social policy provisions.' ...
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This paper argues an important aspect of Human Resources (HR) as an occupation has been largely overlooked by mainstream and critical scholars alike: its gendered qualities. Gender is ‘hiding in plain sight’ in the sense that its high concentration of women is obvious but has attracted only sporadic academic commentary. We suggest rather than simply a ‘feminised’ area of management, contemporary HR is a complex mix of both masculine‐coded and feminine‐coded values, priorities and norms derived from earlier traditions of welfare and personnel management as well as the later influence of strategic management. Attention to this gendered complexity can help us understand how the HR occupation is experienced in everyday interactions and provide an alternative perspective that enriches Critical Human Resource Management.
... Furthermore, women are more likely to avoid STEM careers because they might associate them with high costs of career success in comparison to gender-typical careers paths (Fiorentine & Cole, 1992). This particularly seems to be the case in liberal-egalitarian contexts, such as Germany, where structural features of the postindustrial labor market and modern educational systems appear to support the cultivation, realization, and display of gender-specific curricular affinities (Charles & Bradley, 2009). ...
... This led to a decreasing interest in technical occupations among East German women and an increasing interest in commercial, financial, administrative, and health-related occupations (Vondracek et al., 1999), which is equal to a shift from male-dominated to gender-integrated and female-dominated occupational aspirations. This resonates with earlier findings that women's subject choices are more gender-typical in more developed (or individualized) societies, which has been interpreted as the possibility to "indulge our gendered selves" (Charles & Bradley, 2009). However, despite the institutional integration of the two parts of the country in 1990, cultural differences regarding mothers' employment persist because they were inherited by the postcommunist generations (Pfau-Effinger & Smidt, 2011;Rosenfeld et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Gender segregation in fields of study represents an important explanation for gender inequalities in the labor market, such as the gender wage gap. Research shows that horizontal gender segregation in higher education persists for a variety of reasons, including women’s greater communal goals and men’s greater motivation to earn high incomes. Yet with the male breadwinner model in decline, a key question is whether women’s motivation to earn high incomes might contribute to increasing women’s participation in female-atypical fields of study. Using data from the German Student Survey over a period of 30 years, our findings show that the proportion of women enrolled in female-atypical fields of study increased from 1984 to 2015. Moreover, women’s motivation to earn high incomes mediates the effect of time on enrollment in female-atypical fields of study. Their motivation to earn high incomes might thus be a factor contributing to the disruption of gender segregation in fields of study over time. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, the motivation to earn high incomes as a driving force for women to opt for gender-atypical fields of study is not stratified by social background.
... Education reduces women's poverty (McCarthy, 2015), allows them better employment opportunities (Spierings et al., 2010), empowers them to have the number of children they desire (Poelker and Gibbons, 2018), improves women's health (Alsan and Cutler, 2013), and increases their political participation (Fanny and Oluwasanumi, 2014;Bird, 2019). Despite decades of efforts to achieve equality, higher education is still segregated by gender across the world (Charles and Bradley, 2009). One educational field dominated by men is agricultural and rural development (Acker, 1999;Dunne et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Higher education, a key driver of women’s empowerment, is still segregated by gender across the world. Agricultural higher education is a field that is male-dominated, even though internationally women play a large role in agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to understand the experience, including challenges and coping strategies, of women from 10 Latin American countries attending an agricultural university in Latin America. The participants were 28 women students with a mean age of 20.9 ± 1.8 years. Following informed consent and assurance of confidentiality, four focus group sessions (one for each year of study with a mean duration of 81 min) were conducted in Spanish. The central question was, “what has been your experience at the university?” Sessions were recorded and transcribed. Thematic coding was performed independently by two teams of researchers (from Latin America and North America), with the resulting schemas combined through mutual discussion. Member checking, auditing, and reflexivity contributed to trustworthiness of the process. Students reported that the personal qualities needed for success included determination, persistence, and self-efficacy. Many described an empowerment process, including increased discipline and self-efficacy from the first to fourth year of study. University life encompassed six themes: university structure and discipline (part of the exosystem), two supportive microsystems (friends and classmates and institutional support) as well as three challenges (academics, peers, and machismo). Cultural influences instantiated in students’ daily experiences included familism, machismo, and religious faith. Students anticipated futures involving further education and contributions to society. We conclude that higher education in agriculture can serve as an effective means of empowering women to feed the world.
... Underlying gender segregation in college majors, it is suggested, are cultural beliefs rooted in gender essentialism (i.e., beliefs that men and women are inherently different and suitable for different kinds of work), differential family-work conflicts, and differences in job preferences (Konrad et al. 2000;DiPrete and Buchmann 2013;Duxbury and Higgins 1991;Eccles 2007;England and Su 2006;Quadlin 2020). There is also emerging evidence that university programming itself tends to facilitate women's investment in "gendered dispositions" and, thus, their movement toward female-dominated majors (Armstrong and Hamilton 2013;Charles and Bradley 2009;Hamilton 2014). ...
Article
Emerging literatures have highlighted the social- and resource-related inequalities among first-generation college students. Less attention has been devoted to the curricular pathways (i.e., college majors) these students follow and their potentially gendered character. We build on educational inequality and gender literatures in this article, and arguments surrounding habitus and class-based dispositions to address this gap. Our analyses draw on several waves of the Education Longitudinal Survey (ELS-2002) merged with national data on sex composition of fields of study. Our results suggest unique pathways in college for first-generation compared to continuing-generation students. Specifically, first-generation students are more likely to choose occupationally specific “applied” majors than their continuing-generation counterparts. Modeling by gender reveals little to moderate variation between first- and continuing-generation students’ representation in female-dominated majors. These patterns generally hold for 2- and 4-year college going samples. We conclude by discussing the relevance of these findings for educational inequality, eventual job returns, and occupational mobility.
... Gender-differentiated preferences are believed to be important drivers of occupational gender segregation in both cultural and rational choice-inspired explanations of occupational gender segregation (England and Folbre, 2005). Women and men have been argued to differ in their preferences for job attributes, such as pay and working hours, as well as in their preferences for different occupations (Becker, 1991;Charles and Bradley, 2009;Charles and Grusky, 2004;Dryler, 1998;Polachek, 1981). However, for preferences to play a decisive role in perpetuating gendered career choices, there must be gender differences in preferences. ...
Article
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Despite increased gender equality in many arenas in most of the Western world, women and men continue to choose different educational paths; this is one reason for the persistent gender segregation in the labour market. Cultural and economic explanations for occupational gender segregation both contend that gendered career choices reflect gendered preferences. By analysing data from a multifactorial survey experiment conducted in Norway, designed to isolate the preferences for occupations from preferences for job attributes with which occupation is often correlated: pay; type of position; and amount of work, this article examines whether and to what extent boys and girls who have not yet entered the labour market have different preferences for different work dimensions. The study shows some gender differences in occupational preferences, while also demonstrating similarities in boys’ and girls’ preferences for work dimensions, such as pay and working hours. This indicates that attributes tested by the experiment, which are typically associated with gendered occupations, cannot independently explain why boys and girls tend to have divergent occupational preferences. Importantly, however, the results suggest that boys’ reluctance to undertake some female-typed occupations might be reduced if they did not pay less than male-typed occupations requiring the same level of education.
... Por su parte, la segregación "horizontal" -la desproporción entre hombres y mujeres según campos educativos-parece ser más extendida y persistente (Barone, 2011;Charles y Bradley, 2009). La menor participación de las mujeres en las formaciones avanzadas en ciencias "exactas", ingeniería y tecnología, y matemáticas ha sido evidenciado a escala mundial (Iesalc, 2021), al igual que una progresiva pero lenta ampliación del acceso para ellas (Ramirez y Wotipka, 2001). ...
Technical Report
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Este documento analiza la cobertura de la formación doctoral en universidades peruanas licenciadas. Ello, en cuanto a la oferta de programas de doctorado, la admisión a los mismos y la repartición de su matrícula. Se presta especial atención a la evolución en el tiempo (2010-2020) y la distribución según área disciplinaria y desempeño institucional en investigación (Web of Science y Scopus). Con ello, se busca aportar en la comprensión de nuestro sistema universitario, y su mejora continua, con evidencia y análisis de un nivel de estudios escasamente investigado en el país.
... Indeed, Chang (2000 ) and Charles and Grusky (2005 ) discuss varieties of gender segregation regimes. Socio-cultural norms and characteristics, penetration of egalitarian principles in the society, state interventions and the policy environment, the structure of the educational system and labour market, the level of economic development, and the size of tertiary sector, among other things, can a ect occupational segregation by gender ( Charles 1992 ;Charles and Bradley 2009 ). ...
Chapter
Gender, wine, and culture are inextricably connected. The literature is recent with a geographically diffuse focus. Gender roles seem entrenched in many of the world’s winemaking cultures and more fluid in others, reminding us that gender culture varies geographically, though we lack enough evidence to disentangle the two influences on occupational roles. Family businesses especially continue to provide opportunities for women despite patterns of enduring male dominance. Women have also emerged, often from family experience, as entrepreneurs with a different but effective management style. They create networks, challenge governance, and excel at wine marketing. Female winemakers have become an extrinsic cue for wine. This chapter surveys the literature for common themes as well as analytic gaps and calls for more research dedicated to inter- and intra-country analyses across wine cultures.
... Even though individuals with tertiary degrees have, on average, higher incomes than those with lower levels of education, the differences in wage returns across fields can be as large as the college wage premium (Altonji et al., 2016;Kirkeboen et al., 2016). Despite the growing number of female graduates, gender segregation by field of study has not undergone a similar transformation, and its overall levels have been relatively stable in recent decades (Charles & Bradley, 2009;England & Li, 2006). Given that women still tend to choose disciplines with lower career prospects and earning potential (Magnusson, 2013), being the partner with more education might imply relatively low (financial) advantage. ...
Article
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In this paper, we explore the patterns of assortative mating among college-educated women who graduated from typically female, typically male, or mixed disciplines. Using a set of cross-sectional observations of a single cohort of female graduates (2010) from European Union Labour Force Survey data and applying multilevel multinomial logit models, we estimated the relative risk of living with a college-educated partner (homogamy), living with less educated partner (hypogamy), or being single. Focusing on the first five years after graduation, the analysis demonstrated that field of study is a significant predictor of mating behaviour. Women with degrees in male-dominated fields are less likely to partner down with less educated men. The mating advantage of women from male-dominated fields is stronger in countries with a higher female employment rate. Furthermore, more liberal gender roles seem to increase the level of singlehood among women from male-dominated fields. Finally, women from female-dominated and mixed disciplines are more likely to partner down if the man graduated from a male-typical discipline. However, among women from male-dominated disciplines, such a trade-off was not observed.
... Girls who have been fortunate enough to have a greater degree of early exposure develop more computer self-efficacy (Correll, 2001;He & Freeman, 2010;Master et al., 2017), and have more positive stereotypes associated with technology jobs (Cheryan et al., 2013). There is evidence that countries which have more compulsory STEM coursework also have a better gender balance in STEM jobs (Charles & Bradley, 2009). ...
Article
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The under-representation of w omen in computer science education courses is well documented, and the social and commercial need to address this is widely recog-nised. Previous literature offers some explanation for this gender imbalance, but there has been limited qualitative data to provide an in-depth understanding of existing quantitative findings. This study explores the lived experiences of female computer science students and how they experience the male dominated learning environment. Female computer science students from eight universities were interviewed (n = 23) and data were analysed using template analysis. Whilst these women have not been troubled by their sense of fit at university, a combination of stereotypical assumptions of male superiority in this field, and a masculine, agen-tic learning environment, has left them feeling less technologically capable and less motivated. The findings are discussed in terms of Cheryan et al.'s tripartite model for women's participation in STEM (2017) and we recommend that computer science departments should consider feminist pedagogy to ensure that all learners can be well supported.
... Vertical segregation is viewed as a product of the belief of male primacy. Even though gender-egalitarian forces undermines this form of segregation, horizontal segregation is maintained and generated through social presumptions of essential female and male traits, and their coherence with male-and female-dominated occupations (Charles & Bradley, 2009;Charles & Grusky, 2004). Of relevance to this study and as pointed out by England (2010), equal access to the labour market have led women to upward mobility through maletypical occupations, but without challenging the devaluation of female-typical occupations (England, 2010). ...
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Aim: Given the apparent link between gender and ethnicity, and the diversity and career opportunities in nursing, this study examined gender and ethnicity's influence on first-year nursing students' educational motivation and career expectations. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Through bootstrapped linear regressions, we analysed data on 504 Norwegian first-year nursing students' self-reported educational motivation and career expectations, from the StudData survey at the Centre for the Study of Professions (SPS) at Oslo Metropolitan University (OsloMet). Results: The sample consisted of 67 (13%) male and 437 (87%) female nursing students. Female students were more motivated compared to male students by professional interest and to pursue a specialization, less likely to assume leadership positions in the future, and more likely to prioritize family and pursue positions in the traditional nursing field. In total, 425 (84%) respondents stated a Norwegian background. Respondents who stated that both of their parents were born in a country other than Norway made up the 79 (16%) students of immigrant background. Those with immigrant backgrounds were more motivated than other students by income, status and flexible working hours and less likely to pursue a specialization or future employment in the nursing field.
... One suggestion for future research, which could not be addressed in the current investigation given our country characteristics, is to test whether the gender difference in compliance would be greater in more gender egalitarian countries. Because the gender equality paradox indicates that the greatest gender differences in personality traits and other important aspects of social life exist in the most gender egalitarian cultures (e.g., [22,23,[46][47][48][49][50][51][52] ), future research could test whether such find-ings also extend to compliance with preventive health measures during global health crises. ...
Article
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One of the greatest public health crises in recent times, the COVID-19 pandemic, has come with a myriad of challenges in terms of health communication and public cooperation to prevent the spread of the disease. Understanding which are the key determinants that make certain individuals more cooperative is key in effectively tackling pandemics and similar future challenges. In the present study (N = 800), we investigated whether gender differences in compliance with preventive health behaviors (PHB) at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic could be established, and, if so, whether the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness can help explain this presumed relationship. Consistent with our theorizing, we found women to score higher than men on agreeableness and conscientiousness, and to be more willing to comply with a set of PHB. Importantly, both personality traits were found to mediate the gender-compliance link. This means that women's greater compliance levels with PHB could, at least in part, be attributed to their higher agreeableness and conscientiousness scores. A greater understanding of the determinants of PHB in terms of gender and associated personality traits may help identify options for developing more effective communication campaigns, both in terms of communication channel selection and message content.
... In the three studies below, we attempt to identify effective scripts for managing conflict that also minimize genderbased social backlash in engineering workplaces and undergraduate classrooms. We focus on engineering because it remains one of the most sex-segregated occupations in the United States and internationally (Charles & Bradley, 2009). Of the undergraduate degrees in engineering, just over 20% are earned by women (Roy, 2019), and the attrition of highly competent women from the field has been a major concern of researchers and organizations such as the National Science Foundation (c.f., Borrego et al., 2005;Hewlett et al., 2008;Marra et al., 2012). ...
Article
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This paper presents three studies that examine how women can respond to conflict in assertive ways that obtain their desired result without harm to their competence and likability, thus minimizing gender backlash. In Study 1, we interviewed 29 experienced women engineers and had them read scenarios of common team conflicts and describe the exact words they would use (and the words they would avoid using) to respond in these conflicts. We inductively coded these responses to develop a positive, future-focused (PFF) script for responding to conflict that minimized gender backlash. This PFF script balances communality and agency by pointing out positives, foregrounding group goals, focusing on solutions, and avoiding emotion. In two follow-up experimental studies, we compared the PFF script to popular psychology advice that encourages individuals to foreground their personal feelings with I-focused statements. Engineering students (N = 289, Study 2; N = 279, Study 3) viewed three conflict scenarios with different response strategies and rated their impressions of the protagonist and the likelihood of a satisfactory outcome. Results demonstrated that conflict responses based on the PFF script led to significantly better impressions and outcomes for both men and women protagonists compared to responses based on I-focused statements. Training students and professionals to use PFF conflict resolution strategies has the potential to increase women’s visibility in situations where they currently remain silent and to improve overall team dynamics in ways that challenge gender stereotypes.
... Sex segregation by university major also has important indirect consequences. For example, it may reinforce existing gender norms and stereotypes, thereby limiting the perceived educational choices of future generations (Charles and Bradley, 2009). ...
Article
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In this paper, I study the role of gender-typical parental occupation for young adults’ gender-typical university major choice using data on a recent cohort of university students in Germany. Results show significant intergenerational associations between the gender typicality in parental occupation and young adults’ majors. As to why these effects occur, findings suggest that the transfer of occupation-specific resources from parents to their children plays an important role and that a transmission of gender roles explains at least some of the father-son associations. The paper contributes to existing literature by introducing a novel measure that operationalises the extent to which majors and occupations are ‘typically female’ or ‘typically male’ and by studying different transmission channels.
... Despite the expansive changes, the world continues to be deeply and unequally gendered (Barone, 2011;Charles and Bradley, 2009), and one can identify places where improvements in women's participation have remained elusive. Indeed, we see a contemporary wave of contestations over women's rights, associated with challenges to the liberal script from ideologies of populism, nationalism, and religious conservatism. ...
Article
Existing scholarship documents large worldwide increases in women’s participation in the public sphere over recent decades, for example, in education, politics, and the labor force. Some scholars have argued that these changes follow broader trends in world society, especially its growing liberalism, which increasingly has reconfigured social life around the choices of empowered and rights-bearing individuals, regardless of gender. Very recently, however, a variety of populisms and nationalisms have emerged to present alternatives to liberalism, including in the international arena. We explore here their implications for women’s participation in public life. We use cross-national data to analyze changes in women’s participation in higher education, the polity, and the economy 1970–2017. We find that women’s participation on average continues to expand over this period, but there is evidence of a growing cross-national divergence. In most domains, women’s participation tends to be lower in countries linked to illiberal international organizations, especially in the recent-most period.
... A potential explanation might be that those topics are closely related to reallife experiences of students, i.e., that men and women undergo different socialization processes, live through different societal expectations and roles, and, hence, develop different research interests (Key and Sumner 2019). In favor of this explanation, a comprehensive study finds that curricular choices are strongly influenced by gender-specific interests similar to those seen in the research topics of PhD students (Charles and Bradley 2009). Still, it is surprising that the long, and sometimes painful, yet highly reflexive process of writing a dissertation exhibits such a high degree of gender-bias. ...
Article
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Applications of machine learning (ML) in industry and natural sciences yielded some of the most impactful innovations of the last decade (for instance, artificial intelligence, gene prediction or search engines) and changed the everyday-life of many people. From a methodological perspective, we can differentiate between unsupervised machine learning (UML) and supervised machine learning (SML). While SML uses labeled data as input to train algorithms in order to predict outcomes of unlabeled data, UML detects underlying patterns in unlabeled observations by exploiting the statistical properties of the data. The possibilities of ML for analyzing large datasets are slowly finding their way into the social sciences; yet, it lacks systematic introductions into the epistemologically alien subject. I present applications of some of the most common methods for SML (i.e., logistic regression) and UML (i.e., topic models). A practical example offers social scientists a “how-to” description for utilizing both. With regard to SML, the case is made by predicting gender of a large dataset of sociologists. The proposed approach is based on open-source data and outperforms a popular commercial application (genderize.io). Utilizing the predicted gender in topic models reveals the stark thematic differences between male and female scholars that have been widely overlooked in the literature. By applying ML, hence, the empirical results shed new light on the longstanding question of gender-specific biases in academia.
... Historical and systemic factors prevent women from pursuing and thriving in scientific careers [3][4][5] . Women occupy over 70% of global health positions but less than 25% of leadership positions 6 . ...
Article
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Underrepresentation of women in scientific leadership is a global problem. To understand and counter narratives that limit gender equity in African science, we conducted a public engagement campaign. Scientists representing six sub-Saharan African countries and multiple career stages used superhero imagery to create a diverse and unified team fighting for gender equity in science. In contrast to many traditional scientific environments and global campaigns, this “PowerPack of SuperScientists” was led by early-career Black female scientists whose perspectives are often under-represented in discussions about gender equity in science. The superhero imagery served as a powerful and fun antidote to imposter syndrome and helped to subvert traditional power structures based on age, race and sex. In an interactive social media campaign, the PowerPack developed insights into three themes: a) cultural stereotypes that limit women’s scientific careers, b) the perception of a “conflict” between family and career responsibilities for women scientists, and c) solutions that can be adopted by key stakeholders to promote gender equity in African science. The PowerPack proposed solutions that could be undertaken by women working internally or collectively and interventions that require allyship from men, commitment from scientific institutions, and wider societal change. Further work is required to fully engage African scientists and institutions in these solutions and to enhance commitment to achieving gender equity in science. Our experience suggests that creative tools should be used to subvert power dynamics and bring fresh perspectives and urgency to this topic.
... Similarly, when institutions name majors based on the corresponding occupation, such as education, nursing, or business (Brint et al., 2005), they indicate to students that they should choose a major based on career goals. More broadly, when institutions of higher education provide students with more options for possible majors, they provide greater opportunities for self-expression to enter the major choice (Charles & Bradley, 2009). Institutional pressure for students to match their majors to their interests can be seen, for instance, when academic advisors encourage students to major in what they are most passionate about, encouraging an orientation that is based on interest rather than career or other factors (Armstrong & Hamilton, 2013). ...
Article
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Students’ orientations towards choosing their college majors lead them to make different major choices with long-term stratification implications. In this paper, we investigate what orientations students use to choose their majors, how these orientations vary by student characteristics, how stable orientations are across the first year of college, and what mechanisms might explain how orientations change. We use mixed-methods data from an original longitudinal survey (N=1,117) and longitudinal in-depth interviews with 50 first-year students at UNC-Chapel Hill (N=146 interviews). We find that students rely on many different orientations, including learning interesting things and helping others, and that their most important orientations frequently change during the first year of college. These findings challenge the existing assumption that major orientations are stable and suggest the need to incorporate changing orientations into models of the major decision process if we hope to successfully intervene to disrupt inequality reproduction.
... This last argument echoes feminists' ongoing criticism toward the "sameness" approach-that is, the expectations from women to act as men dofor achieving gender equity (Chávez, Nair, and Conrad 2015;Tong 2007). Recent findings may indirectly support these claims by showing that in more genderegalitarian countries-countries that readily encourage boys and girls to express their "gendered selves"-women "dare" to report that they like math and science less relative to other countries (Charles and Bradley 2009;Charles and Grusky 2004). If, as the researchers suggest, math and science majors are on average less conducive to women's self-expression, then the conclusion that in order to achieve pay equity with men women will have to intensify their participation in STEM is problematic. ...
Article
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The steep rise of top wages is acknowledged as one of the main drivers of the rise in earnings inequality between workers in most postindustrial labor markets. Yet its relation to gender stratification, in particular to the stagnation in the gender pay gap, has received very little scholarly attention. Using data from the U.S. Current Population Survey, conducted between 1980 and 2017, we provide evidence of the enormous weight that the dynamic at the top of the earnings distribution exerts on the gender pay gap. We also show how this dynamic inhibits the consequences of the countervailing process of gender vertical desegregation. Although developments in gender inequality and in the rise of top wages have drawn extensive scholarly attention and have even penetrated into the public discourse in recent years, the two dimensions of inequality are often perceived as unrelated to one another. Our findings, then, highlight the connection between different forms of inequality—class inequality and gender inequality—a relation that demands much more attention in the new economy.
... Consequently, the masculine gender role involves having a successful career, influence over others, and providing for a family, while the feminine gender role involves caring for others and being social and service-oriented. Thus, the gender segregations in the labor market is based on assumed fit of women's communion in human-centered fields and supportive roles and men's agency in impersonal and tech-intensive fields and roles of power (Charles & Bradley, 2009;Eagly et al., 2020;Koenig et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Occupational gender segregation is still a persistent problem in the labor market. This study investigates gender differences in gender typicality and prestige of occupational aspirations in early adolescence, as well as the role of agency and communion in these differences. In total, 2779 adolescents (age 11–15) reported their occupational aspirations, later coded for gender typicality and prestige. Participants also described themselves spontaneously with three attributes, then coded in terms of agency and communion. The results showed significant gender differences in a stereotypical direction for 40% of the occupations named, with boys expressing a clear preference for male-dominated and girls for female-dominated occupations. Conversely, the results revealed higher aspirations among girls regarding occupational prestige. Communion was found to be a significant mediator between gender and aspirations to typically feminine occupations, while agency mediated the relationship between gender and the prestige of aspirations. The findings’ implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... nurturing, caring, curing, communicating), while men mainly work in occupations that require them to perform male-typical tasks (e.g. analytical, managing, physically demanding work) (Charles, 2005;Charles & Bradley, 2009;Charles & Grusky, 2004;Levanon & Grusky, 2016). When this perspective is combined with the task-based approach, we see that the principle of gender essentialism is strongly related to the horizontal axis of Figure 1, i.e. the differentiation between cognitive analytic and interactive tasks and noncognitive, manual tasks. ...
Preprint
We analyse whether gender differences in individual job tasks explain part of the gender pay gap between and within occupations. Theoretically, we combine the economic task-based approach with sociological considerations of gender essentialism and male primacy to discuss systematic variation in the demand for and remuneration of job tasks. Results of hybrid models and Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions reveal that women perform lower-paid job tasks more often than men do, which contributes to the gender pay gap between and within occupations. However, not all tasks performed by women pay less, pointing towards an interdependence between skill-biased technological change and gender-essentialist task selection.
... In Bezug auf Geschlechtsunterschiede bei den erlebten Schwierigkeiten beim Online-Lernen während der CO-VID-19-Pandemie zeigten weibliche Studierende signifikant höhere Werte bei den Faktoren kurzfristige Folgen der Fernlehre und inadäquate häusliche Lernumgebung. Diese Ergebnisse sind in Übereinstimmung mit geschlechtsspezifischen Stereotypien, denen zufolge technische und mathematische Kompetenzen als männliche Domäne gesehen werden (Charles & Bradley, 2009) und die damit zu einen "digital gender gap" beitragen. Junge Buben werden zudem mehr zu technischen Spielen und IKT-Technologien ermutigt und junge Mädchen mehr zu verbalen Aufgaben wie Lesen und zu sozialen Interaktionen (Eccles, Wigfield, Harold & Blumenfeld, 1993). ...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Hintergrund: Die COVID-bedingten Restriktionen einschließlich der Umstellung auf Fernlehre führten bei Studierenden zu schlechteren akademischen Leistungen. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war die systematische Erfassung von pandemiebedingten Belastungsreaktionen bei Studierenden. Methoden: Insgesamt nahmen 187 Psychologiestudierende (davon 71% weiblich) an der Untersuchung teil. Die verwendeten Fragebogen erfassten psychische Reaktionen auf die COVID-19-Pandemie, subjektives Stresserleben, depressive Symptomatik, Sorgentendenz, soziale Unterstützung sowie studiumsbezogene Belastungen während der Fernlehre. Ergebnisse: Das subjektive Stresserleben, die Sorgentendenz und die depressive Symptomatik korrelierten (a) signifikant positiv mit dem Ausmaß der pandemiebedingten Belastungswerte und (b) signifikant negativ mit dem Ausmaß der sozialen Unterstützung. Im Vergleich zu männlichen Studierenden berichten weibliche Studierende fast durchwegs signifikant höhere Belastungswerte. Diskussion: Das Ausmaß von pandemiebedingten Belastungsreaktionen bei Studierenden ist hoch, wobei weibliche Studierende insgesamt höhere Werte berichten. Als protektiver Faktor erwies sich das Ausmaß der erlebten sozialen Unterstützung. Die Ergebnisse werden in Hinblick auf didaktische und therapeutische Implikationen diskutiert.
... Identity construction becomes a reflexive process made up of observations (Bussey and Bandura, 1999;and Bandura, 2005) and experiences of the sexual differentiation of tasks, construction of gender, and definitions of acceptable behavior. Preschool education with segregated sexual cultures, distinct and autonomous peer cultures, use of gender labels, differentiated distribution of resources and gender-based classroom structures increase the development of rigid stereotypes (Adler et al.,1992;Solbes-Canales et al., 2020;and Charles and Bradley, 2009). These act as drivers for adherence to cultural-specific gender beliefs, culturally appropriate gender roles, gender norms, desire and extrinsic motivation for gender-normative and gender-appropriate behavior. ...
Article
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With progress in the fight for workplace equality for employees who do not have a cisgender identity, discrimination towards members of oppressed social classes is slowly becoming more covert. The paper studies two groups of stakeholders in organizations, non-cisgender employees and HR personnel, across multiple sectors to understand the provisions, challenges and implementation needs of such employees. Provisions and needs of non-cisgender employees as organizational members were studied. These included the sufficiency of imperative workplace facilities, provisions and policies for inclusion, the facilities and provisions for equal compensation, maternity and parental benefits, and remote working conditions. Anti-harassment and anti-sexual harassment policies in the workplace, along with the willingness to report any incidents, were included. The importance of inclusivity as practiced in the organization and measures like allyship has been studied. HR managers were asked about the feasibility of implementation of progressive measures that help non-cisgender employees through infrastructure and anti-discrimination policies, inclusivity measures, bias at the workplace, measures to counter and prevent sexual harassment and abuse, allyship and creation of a noncisgender friendly culture at their workplace. It was found that basic resource allocation and allyship can be facilitators for inclusivity.
Article
Academia, in much of the world, has long been disproportionately populated by men. This pattern, at least in the social sciences, may be changing. We explore the shifting gender gap in political science in Kazakhstan, and then set out to explore potential determinants of the changes as well as the resulting employment patterns. We use time-series data to demonstrate that a rising GDP, shifting fertility rates, occupational prestige and a growing population are related to the increase in the number of women entering political science in Kazakhstan, which, nevertheless, has not resulted in employment parity.
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Although the association between siblings’ compositional characteristics and educational performance has been extensively studied, the question of whether the features of a sibling group are related to substantive gendered educational preferences has not been examined. Our analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY-79) Mothers and Children Files (N = 1545; 57% young women; 22% STEM major) showed that siblings’ compositional characteristics matter for STEM major preferences in college, but only for young women. Our findings indicated that women were more likely to prefer a STEM major if they were raised in smaller sibling groups, in male sibling group dominance, and if they had an older sister with high math achievement. These results are in line with the resource dilution approach; they shed light on the effects of being in a normative male-role sibling group climate; and they suggest that gendered outcomes are shaped by the interplay of role modeling and same-gender competitive stimulation. We also found that for young men, their preference for majoring in a STEM field was mostly driven by their own math ability. These findings suggest that socialization experiences that operate on the sibling level play a crucial role in whether girls become interested in and pursue “gender-atypical” educational choices. Our findings also underscore the need to differentiate these theoretical approaches by gender, particularly when applied to gendered outcomes such as STEM career trajectories.
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O artigo examina como estudantes dos sexos masculino e feminino estão alocados em diferentes grupos de curso do ensino superior brasileiro em 2002 e em 2016. Foram utilizados os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios 2014 e do Censo do Ensino Superior 2002 e 2016. Os resultados indicam que a conclusão do ensino superior é desproporcionalmente feminina, padrão que se intensificou na última coorte avaliada. Por outro lado, existem diferenças significativas indicando que mulheres estão sobrerrepresentadas em grupos de curso com menores retornos no mercado de trabalho. O padrão de segregação de gênero das escolhas educacionais é estável ao longo do tempo. No entanto, observou-se que isso não se deve a um comportamento estático da segregação de gênero nos grupos de curso, mas sim à compensação de cursos que diminuem e aumentam a segregação.
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The authors investigate if same-gender peers in the immediate learning context have heterogeneous associations with academic outcomes of male and female students. By applying within-student across-subjects models to data from 44 countries in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, the authors examine “situational” within-classroom differences between immediate (peer) learning environments for the same student. The results show, first, that student outcomes are correlated primarily with traits of same-gender peers and, second, that different peer traits have diverse associations with student outcomes. Because of the empirical design, the authors are able to hold factors such as the socioeconomic composition of peers and friendships constant. These findings highlight the importance of gender in the peer influence process in the classroom as well as the diverse channels through which peer traits operate.
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Women are now more likely to receive college degrees than men, yet important differences remain in the college majors of women and men. This visualization depicts women’s and men’s college majors across four decades in Norway. The authors document the movement of women into higher paying majors and show that men are increasingly majoring in fields that are gender integrated. However, women remain overrepresented in female-dominated majors, and men remain in overrepresented in majors that have historically been well paid. This visualization thus underscores the progress that has been made in achieving gender parity in education as well as the challenges that remain.
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O artigo examina como estudantes dos sexos masculino e feminino estão alocados em diferentes grupos de curso do ensino superior brasileiro em 2002 e em 2016. Foram utilizados os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios 2014 e do Censo do Ensino Superior 2002 e 2016. Os resultados indicam que a conclusão do ensino superior é desproporcionalmente feminina, padrão que se intensificou na última coorte avaliada. Por outro lado, existem diferenças significativas indicando que mulheres estão sobrerrepresentadas em grupos de curso com menores retornos no mercado de trabalho. O padrão de segregação de gênero das escolhas educacionais é estável ao longo do tempo. No entanto, observou-se que isso não se deve a um comportamento estático da segregação de gênero nos grupos de curso, mas sim à compensação de cursos que diminuem e aumentam a segregação.
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This paper analyzes the reciprocal relationship between occupational gender segregation and occupational part-time work in West Germany over time. Based on a unique occupational panel dataset covering 254 occupations between 1976 and 2010, we apply static, dynamic, and Arellano-Bond panel models to account for reverse causality and endogeneity. Results indicate that trends in occupational part-time rates and gender ratios mutually reinforce each other but not in the same manner. Part-time work in occupations increases once more women start working in these occupations. Occupational part-time ratios are mainly driven by married women and mothers; women's education level only plays a minor role. Vice versa, the gender composition of occupations is likewise affected by changing working-time arrangements, at least in the short run, but it is mainly driven by previous levels of occupational gender segregation.
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The gender-equality paradox refers to the puzzling finding that societies with more gender equality demonstrate larger gender differences across a range of phenomena, most notably in the proportion of women who pursue degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math. The present investigation demonstrates across two different measures of gender equality that this paradox extends to chess participation ( N = 803,485 across 160 countries; age range: 3–100 years), specifically that women participate more often in countries with less gender equality. Previous explanations for the paradox fail to account for this finding. Instead, consistent with the notion that gender equality reflects a generational shift, mediation analyses suggest that the gender-equality paradox in chess is driven by the greater participation of younger players in countries with less gender equality. A curvilinear effect of gender equality on the participation of female players was also found, demonstrating that gender differences in chess participation are largest at the highest and lowest ends of the gender-equality spectrum.
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How do students decide what major to study and what explains the low enrolment of women in science and economics? Using data on the subjective expectations of undergraduate students who are in the process of selecting a major, we model major choice as a function of major-specific and job-specific attributes. We identify significant gender differences in the preferences for different attributes as well as in the expectations of future outcomes, especially of grades. Women are willing to pay twice as much as men for course enjoyment and higher grades, even as they expect lower grades in science and economics. This suggests that in addition to gender differences in preferences being shaped by pervasive norms about which subjects are considered more suitable for women, women also suffer from a relative confidence gap in their major-specific abilities.
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Based on several studies, after exiting higher education there are serious gender differences in the labor market, and disadvantages of people with worse social background also exist. Research question of this study is whether such inequalities in students’ persistence also exist, or not. Based on a survey (n = 2199) conducted in a region of Central and Eastern Europe, we use cluster analysis to characterize resilient students (with unfavorable social backgrounds and good performances), and carry out stepwise linear regression to reveal the effects on students’ persistence. We found that persistence is not the highest among resilient students, as presumed. They still cannot break through the glass ceiling set by students from better social backgrounds in relation to persistence. In accordance with the previous research results, however, females’ higher persistence can still be shown, despite their less favorable social background.
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There is significant underrepresentation of women majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) internationally as well as in Colombia. This study analyzes the relation between being exposed to female STEM teachers during secondary education and female graduates’ enrollment in tertiary STEM programs. For this purpose, the study uses data from secondary education graduates from Bogotá between 2010 and 2013, and employs a linear probability model. The results indicate that female students that were exposed to a higher proportion of female STEM teachers during secondary education have a higher probability of enrollment in tertiary STEM programs, while such a relation is not observed for men. However, this relation does not fully offset the lower rate of women’s enrollment in STEM. We perform additional exercises that allow to argue that the relation is in line with the hypothesis that female STEM teachers influence field career decisions of female secondary education graduates and not those of male students.
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In this article, we compare how racial inequalities are shaped by school-to-work transitions among bachelor’s degree (BA) holders in Brazil and the United States. Our findings reveal how distinct paths linking higher education and the job market can drive similar patterns of Black–White earnings gaps. While the distribution across fields of study matters more for racial earnings inequality in Brazil, differential returns to the same field and occupations are a stronger determinant in the United States. We also find that linked closure, that is, the exclusion of Black BA holders from occupations with high levels of linkage to the labor market, is the predominant mechanism in the United States, while a mix between linked closure and what we term unlinked closure, that is, the exclusion of Black BA holders from occupations that have weak linkages to fields of study, is more important in Brazil. By identifying variations in mechanisms leading to racial inequality, this article contributes to debates in comparative race relations and stratification.
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Book
Gender Equality, the fifth UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 5), aims for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women and girls. It thereby addresses all forms of violence, unpaid and unacknowledged care and domestic work, as well as the need for equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life. Thus, the areas in which changes with regard to gender equality on a global scale are needed are very broad. In this volume, we focus on three main areas of inquiry, ‘Sexuality’, ‘Politics of Difference’ and ‘Care, Work and Family’, and raise the following transversal questions: How can gender be addressed in an intersectional perspective, linking gender to further categories of difference, which are involved in discrimination? In which ways are binary notions of gender taking part in inequality regimes and by which means can these binaries be questioned? How can we measure, control and portray progress with regard to gender equality and how do we, in doing so, define gender? Which multi-, inter- or transdisciplinary perspectives are needed for understanding the diversity of gender, in order to support a transition to 'gender equality'? Transitioning to Gender Equality is part of MDPI's new Open Access book series Transitioning to Sustainability. With this series, MDPI pursues environmentally and socially relevant research which contributes to efforts toward a sustainable world. Transitioning to Sustainability aims to add to the conversation about regional and global sustainable development according to the 17 SDGs. Set to be published in 2020/2021, the book series is intended to reach beyond disciplinary, even academic boundaries.
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The amount of attention devoted to women and women's issues has increased dramatically in the last five decades throughout the world. In this article we examine the cultural construction of women that guided such action by analyzing texts that were produced and activities that were undertaken in relation to women by international organizations from 1945 through 1995. We show that the modernist principles of universalism, liberal individualism, and rationality provided the cultural framework for this global project. We compare the ways in which two issues important to women, education and genital mutilation, were constructed by global actors and the implications of this meaning making for action over time. Our analysis reveals an important link between the extent to which an issue is constructed to be consistent with the modernist principles and the extent to which it receives global attention.
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Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings. Next, three approaches used to study women's employment are discussed: 1. the macro-level approach, which gives a thorough understanding of the influence of the institutional context on women's work; 2. the micro-level approach, which compares individual-level results in a number of countries; and 3. the macro-micro approach, in which the relative importance is shown of institutional and individual level factors. Finally, a review is given of the hypotheses and outcomes of both the institutional level, with welfare regime and family policy playing an important role, and the individual level, which shows that being a mother has an important effect on women's employment in the different countries studied.
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Although it has hardly disappeared, gender inequality in the labor market has declined noticeably in recent decades, by most standard indicators. Inequality is declining in labor-force participation rates, wages, and occupational sex segregation, even though considerable sex segregation remains, especially at the job and firm level (Jacobs 1999; Petersen and Morgan 1995; Reskin and Padavic 1999). A debate now centers on the nature of the forces behind these changes and their implications for the future. Are the forces that have been and are undermining gender inequality now unstoppable, as recent arguments posit (Jackson 1998)? Is the significance of gender as an organizing principle of inequality in society declining as a consequence? If there are forces that continue to reproduce gender inequality, what do they consist of and what is their future?.
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This article investigates the benefits of girls-only classroom instruction in math and science during Grades 9 and 10, in the context of a public coeducational high school. It is based on a longitudinal investigation with 786 participants: 85 girls in all-girl classes, and 319 girls and 382 boys in a regular coeducational program. Preexisting achievement, background, and psychological characteristics were included as covariates to ensure comparability of the groups. Significant post-intervention program effects were found for math and science achievement and course enrollment. In contrast, there were no significant program effects for perceived math competence or math anxiety. Although those psychological characteristics predicted performance, they were independent of program effects (i.e., they did not mediate the program effects).
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Recent international education reports have highlighted some of the progress (as well as remaining disparity) in gendered education enrollment rates. But, the problem of gender segregation is still a very real issue even in some nations where girls are enrolled at levels on par with boys. Separate classes, curricula, and in many countries separate schools for boys and girls persist. This is juxtaposed against the opposite extreme that exists in some other countries' educational systems where girls are sometimes pushed into classes and advanced curricula for which they have not been adequately prepared. Using data from the most recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), this article reports on gender parity across approximately 45 nations in access (measured by enrollment rates), performance (mathematics achievement scores), and opportunity (implemented curriculum, teacher characteristics, classroom interaction) among 13-year-old girls and boys. The results of this study suggest that while cross-national gender parity numerically exists in many of these 45 nations in access, performance, and opportunity, the implications for gender equality are less clear. Several theoretical propositions are posited to explain these cross-national trends in gender parity versus equality.
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Using data on the number of men and women who received doctorates in all academic fields from 1971 to 2002, the authors examine changes in the sex composition of fields. During this period, the proportion of women who received doctorates increased dramatically from 14 percent to 46 percent. Regression models with fixed effects indicate no evidence that fields with declining relative salaries deter the entry of men, as would be predicted by the queuing theory of Reskin and Roos. Consistent with the devaluation perspective and Schelling’s tipping model, above a certain percentage of women, men are deterred from entering fields by the fields’ further feminization. However, the rank order of fields in the percentage of women changed only slightly over time, implying that, to a large extent, men and women continued to choose fields as before, even when many more women received doctorates. The findings on the effects of feminization on salaries are mixed.
Chapter
How and where boundaries are drawn between ‘the technical’ and ‘the social’ in engineering identities and practices is a central concern for feminist technology studies, given the strong marking of sociality as feminine and technology as masculine. I explore these themes, drawing on ethnographic observations of building design engineering. This is a profoundly heterogeneous and networked engineering practice, which entails troubled boundaries and identities for the individuals involved – evident in interactions between engineers and architects, and amongst engineers, around management and design. There are complex gender tensions, as well as professional tensions, at work here. I conclude that engineers cleave to technicist engineering identities in part because they converge with (and perform) available masculinities, and that women’s (perceived and felt) membership as ‘real’ engineers is likely to be more fragile than men’s. Improving the representation of women in engineering requires foregrounding and celebrating heterogeneity in genders as well as engineering.
Chapter
In a book called ‘Scenarier 2000’ (Hompland (ed.), 1987), which has caused considerable debate in Norway, a group of young social scientists predicts that in the course of the next decade women in Norway will begin to dominate those types of higher education that provide access to the leading positions in various parts of the country’s public sector. This trend implies that after the year 2000 women will be running the Norwegian welfare state. Men will make different educational choices than women, and their aim will be to hold leading positions in the private sector. Often they will choose education organized outside the public institutions of higher learning — in the so-called ‘grey’ or ‘hidden’ university. Some of the education in the ‘grey’ or ‘hidden’ university is controlled by private industrial or business enterprises and comprise what is often called the ‘corporate classroom.’ We see this trend toward differential education and employment by gender as a part of a larger process in which the public sector loses prestige and power as it gets ‘invaded’ by women. We are, then, addressing a new issue in political debate on education: the tendency to privatization within the educational system in Norway.
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Much social theory takes for granted the core conceit of modern culture, that modern actors - individuals, organizations, nation states - are autochthonous and natural entities, no longer really embedded in culture. Accordingly, while there is much abstract metatheory about "actors" and their "agency," there is arguably little theory about the topic. This article offers direct arguments about how the modern (European, now global) cultural system constructs the modern actor as an authorized agent for various interests via an ongoing relocation into society of agency originally located in transcendental authority or in natural forces environing the social system. We see this authorized agentic capability as an essential feature of what modern theory and culture call an "actor," and one that, when analyzed, helps greatly in explaining a number of otherwise anomalous or little analyzed features of modern individuals, organizations, and states. These features include their isomorphism and standardization, their internal decoupling, their extraordinarily complex structuration, and their capacity for prolific collective action.
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Extending an earlier study (Lee & Bryk, 1986), this research investigates sustained effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary school on the attitudes, values, and behaviors of young men and women, measured 2 or 4 years after high school graduation. The sample from High School and Beyond consists of 1,533 college students who had attended 75 Catholic high schools, 45 of which were single-sex. Longitudinal data were available biennially from their high school sophomore year (1980) until their college senior year (1986). Although sustained effects of single-sex secondary schooling appear for both sexes on college choice and postcollege interests, effects on young women extend to attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. The single-sex educational experience, especially during the formative adolescent period, appears to enable young women to overcome certain social-psychological barriers to their academic and professional advancement.
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Research on the gender gap in earnings has been influenced heavily by human capital theory and theories of labor market segmentation. Both theories consider the role of gender differences in values on the ''supply side'' only with respect to the allocation of time between the labor market and the home and its possible effect on career decision making. Gender differences in values, however may affect the choice of occupations and jobs, as well as the way in which jobs are performed. This article reports on a study of gender differences in the job values of U.S. high school seniors from 1976 to 1991. Unlike earlier studies of job values, the authors found no gender differences in the importance of extrinsic rewards and influence, but persisting gender differences in the importance of intrinsic, altruistic, and social rewards. Young women attach greater importance to these latter rewards than do young men and less importance to the leisure-related aspects of jobs.
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Two experiments tested a form of automatic stereo-typing Subjects saw primes related to gender (e g, mother, father, nurse, doctor) or neutral with respect to gender (e g, parent, student, person) followed by target pronouns (stimulus onset asynchronv = 300 ms) that were gender related (e g, she, he) or neutral (it, me) or followed by nonpronouns (do, all, Experiment 2 only) In Experiment 1, subjects judged whether each pronoun was male or female Automatic gender beliefs (stereotypes) were observed in faster responses to pronouns consistent than inconsistent with the gender component of the prime regardless of subjects' awareness of the prime-target relation, and independently of subjects explicit beliefs about gender stereotypes and language reform In Experiment 2, automatic stereotyping was obtained even though a gender-irrelevant judgment task (pronoun/not pronoun) was used Together, these experiments demonstrate that gender information imparted by words can automatically influence judgment, although the strength of such effects may be moderated by judgment task and prime type
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Research in the United States has found that peers and parents play an important role in shaping students' educational aspirations. Little research has examined the extent to which these findings apply in other countries or whether the role of significant others varies according to the organization of national educational systems. This article examines the effects of peers' and parents' attitudes regarding academic performance on students' educational aspirations in 12 countries. The results indicate that peers and parents influence educational aspirations in countries with relatively undifferentiated secondary schooling, like the United States, while the influence of significant others is negligible in societies with more differentiated secondary education. In these latter systems, it appears that aspirations are largely determined by the type of school the student attends; there is little room for interpersonal affects. The effects of significant others on students' aspirations depend, in large part, on the structural features of the educational systems in which they operate.
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The attitudes of two samples of adolescents (total N = 2,105) from Victoria, British Columbia, and Shanghai, People’s Republic of China, toward computer studies and selected school subjects were surveyed and compared. The Chinese students were significantly more positive in their attitudes toward computers, science, and writing than were the British Columbia students. In addition, the students from Shanghai displayed fewer sex or age differences among themselves, except when asked to give opinions about the competence of females with regard to computer use and science. Both samples of females agreed that women have as much ability as men in these areas, whereas males in both countries were significantly more skeptical. The study also supports the validity and reliability of attitude research in a cross-cultural context.
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Examines the relationship between the occupational distributions of men and women in 25 industrial countries and selected social, economic, and cultural factors. The same economic structures that are associated with women's greater integration into the formal labor force also contributes to a deepening institutionalization of gender within the occupational structure. This may occur through the incorporation of women's traditional tasks into the formal economy, and/or through the hierarchical and functional differentiation of economic activity in highly industrial societies. Results indicate that some primary structural characteristics of modern economies (a relatively large service sector and a large employee class) are associated with greater female concentration in clerical, sales, and service occupations. Other social and cultural characteristics of these countries - low rates of fertility and more favorable ideological environments - partially offset these segregative forces. The actual penetration of egalitarian principles into the labor market appears to be mediated by the structure of interest articulation, with corporatist systems showing greater propensity toward segregations. -from Author
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Unlike the extensive cross-national research on occupational sex segregation, sex segregation within higher education has yet to be empirically examined comparatively. This article reports analyses for a wide range of countries from 1965 through 1990, using two measures of gender differentiation by field of study. The results indicate that gender differentiation has declined surprisingly little. Women are more likely to graduate from education, arts, humanities, social sciences, and law, and men are more likely to graduate from natural sciences, mathematics, and engineering. Few differences are found between more- and less economically developed countries. These findings echo those in the occupational sex segregation literature.
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This study traced the development of gender differences in learning opportunities, achievement, and choice in mathematics among White, African American, and Latino students using data from a nationally representative sample of eighth-grade students who were resurveyed in the 10th grade. It found that in this age group, female students do not lag behind male students in test scores and grades and that White female students are exposed to more learning opportunities in mathematics than are male students. However, all female students tend to have less interest in mathematics and less confidence in their mathematics abilities. Gender differences are the largest among Latinos and the smallest among African Americans. Furthermore, the major barriers to mathematics achievement for White female students are attitudes and career choices and for minority students of both sexes, they are limited learning opportunities and low levels of achievement.
Article
This study uses data on sex differences in the eighth-grade mathematical performance of over 77,000 students in 19 countries, 1964 and 1982 data on such differences in 9 countries, and data on gender stratification of advanced educational and occupational opportunities to explore when and where gender will affect students' performance in mathematics. The analyses show that there is cross-national variation in the performance of mathematics and that it is related to variation in the gender stratification of educational and occupational opportunities in adulthood, that sex differences have declined over time, and that school and family factors leading to higher mathematical performance are less stratified by gender when women have more equal access to jobs and higher education.
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Stratified social orders are maintained through a wide variety of mechanisms, one being broad-based legitimation of the notion of unequal distribution of primary resources. My attempt to develop a set of propositions provides at least a partial explanation of how such legitimation is generated and maintained. I argue that both conflict and functional theory point, at least implicitly, to the importance of the effect of unequal distribution of resources on the development of the self--constructing my argument through application of Mead's theory of the self to the case of stratification. This application is shown, in turn, to be compatible with several lines of theorizing in social psychology, including equity and status attribution theory. Once basic propositions are developed, I discuss ways in which major social institutions maintain legitimacy through their effect on the self and explore some possible sources of delegitimation.
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This paper's focus is on the extremely rapid expansion of educational enrollments that occurred throughout the world between 1950 and 1970. The universal expansion of education during this period led us to construct diffusion models and to explain this process as a consequence of the population characteristics of educational systems. Estimates of these models show that such a self-generating process explains much of the variation in educational expansion. We then test the effect of economic, political, and social characteristics of countries on educational expansion. The results show that cross-national differences in levels of economic, political, and social development do not explain much of this massive post-war expansion of educational systems. Rather, between 1950 and 1970, education has expanded everywhere as a function of the available population to be educated and of the level of education existing in 1950. We conclude by speculating that the causes of this expansion lie in characteristics of the contemporary world system, since such characteristics would affect all nations simultaneously.
Article
This cross-national study shows that women's enrollments in science and engineering fields in higher education increased between 1972 and 1992 throughout much of the world. This increase was positively influenced by women's level of enrollments in the nonscience and nonengineering fields. This finding suggests a positive spillover effect for women. The level of male enrollments in these fields also had a positive effect, thus suggesting that as fields of study become more open to men, they also become more open to women. These cross-national findings raise questions about the applicability of the persistence of an inequality perspective to women's expanded access to higher education.
Article
This article argues for a new approach to the study of tracking in the high school, an approach that emphasizes the active and knowledgeable role students play. In addition to the more frequently studied issue of class segregation in school tracking, the article examines the often overlooked phenomenon of gender segregation. Interviews with girls who selected business courses are used to illustrate how students' knowledge of the school and of the society produces course choices that in turn tend to reproduce class and gender categories.
Book
The twentieth century gave rise to profound changes in traditional sex roles. This study reveals how modernization has changed cultural attitudes towards gender equality and analyzes the political consequences. It systematically compares attitudes towards gender equality worldwide, comparing almost 70 nations, ranging from rich to poor, agrarian to postindustrial. This volume is essential reading to gain a better understanding of issues in comparative politics, public opinion, political behavior, development and sociology. © Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris 2003 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Article
We analyze the acquisition of women's suffrage in 133 countries from 1890 to 1990. Throughout the twentieth century the influence of national political and organizational factors has declined and the importance of international links and influences has become increasingly important. These findings indicate that the franchise has become institutionalized worldwide as a taken-for-granted feature of national citizenship and an integral component of nation-state identity: The prevailing model of political citizenship has become more inclusive.
Article
In a few short decades, the gender gap in college completion has reversed from favoring men to favoring women. This study, which is the first to assess broadly the causes of the growing female advantage in college completion, considers the impact of family resources as well as gender differences in academic performance and in the pathways to college completion on the rising gender gap. Analyses of General Social Survey data indicate that the female-favorable trend in college completion emerged unevenly by family status of origin to the disadvantage of sons in families with a low-educated or absent father. Additional analyses of National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS) data indicate that women 's superior academic performance plays a large role in producing the gender gap in college completion, but that this effect remains latent until after the transition to college. For NELS cohorts, who were born in the mid-1970s, the female advantage in college completion remains largest in families with a low-educated or absent father, but currently extends to all family types. In conjunction with women's growing incentives to attain higher education, gender differences in resources related to family background and academic performance largely explain the growing female advantage in college completion.
Article
This article develops a supply-side mechanism about how cultural beliefs about gender differentially influence the early career-relevant decisions of men and women. Cultural beliefs about gender are argued to bias individuals' perceptions of their competence at var- ious career-relevant tasks, controlling for actual ability. To the extent that individuals then act on gender-differentiated perceptions when making career decisions, cultural beliefs about gender channel men and women in substantially different career directions. The hy- potheses are evaluated by considering how gendered beliefs about mathematics impact individuals' assessments of their own mathe- matical competence, which, in turn, leads to gender differences in decisions to persist on a path toward a career in science, math, or engineering.
Article
Women in the United States are underrepresented in science, mathematics, and engineering (SME) educational programs and careers. One cause is the dramatic and disproportionate loss of women who intended in high school to pursue science-related careers. This article uses the longitudinal survey responses of 320 male and female SME summer program students to assess the ways in which their social relationships and experiences affect their involvement in science and technology. The issues are framed in terms of identity theory. Structural equation models support the identity framework; emotionally satisfying relationships cent tered on SME activities and discussions positively shape students' likelihood of thinking of themselves in SME terms and of engaging in SME activities. Girls are more responsive to the programs' educational interventions, whereas boys are driven more by an "internal compass" that reflects past SME identities and behaviors. These findings add to our understanding about why typical SME educational settings may be especially hostile to female students and suggest ways of increasing the retention of talented SME students. They also suggest the need to reexamine the identity theory model.
Article
to ability, which differentially biases the way men and women assess their own competence at tasks that are career relevant, controlling for actual ability. The model implies that, ifmen and women make dzfferent assessments of their own competence at career-relevant tasks, they will also form dzfferent aspirations for career paths and activities believed to require competence at these tasks. Data from the experiment support this model. In one condition, male and female undergraduate participants completed an experimental task after being exposed to a belief that men are better at this task. In this condition, male participants assessed their task ability higher than female participants did even though all were given the same scores. Males in this condition also had higher aspirations for career-relevant activities described as requiring competence at the task. No gender differences were found in either assessments or aspirations in a second condition where participants were instead exposed to a belief that men and women have equal task ability. To illustrate the utility of the model in a "real world" (i.e., nonlaboratoryl setting, results are compared to a previous survey study that showed men make higher assessments of their own mathematical ability than women, which contributes to their higher rates ofpersistence on paths to careers in science, math, and engineering.
Article
This study examines the effect of attending an all-girls' high school on the sex-traditionality of women's choice of college major. Using data from the High School and 'Beyond study and multinomial logit analysis, the results indicate that women who attended all-girls' high schools (versus coed high schools) were more likely to major in sex-integrated fields, compared to highly female fields. The effect may be due in small part to feminist attitudes produced in an all-female high school environment but is not due to differences in coursework (particularly math) or test scores.
Article
Using survey data collected in fall 2000, the authors analyzed four aspects of “horizontal” variation among Russian university students: field of specialization, cost (paid versus free), intensity (full- versus part-time study), and timing of study (Soviet versus post-Soviet era). For each type of variation, they examined trends over time, gender differences, and effects on earnings and employment opportunities. In Russia, as elsewhere, horizontal differentiation of higher education has stratifying consequences. Unlike in many countries, gender differences along horizontal dimensions have not narrowed in Russia; in fact, the gender gap in part-time study has widened. But the introduction of market forces in higher education and the economy has shaped both male and female distributions across specialty, cost, and intensity. The labor market advantages accruing to a university degree differ across these horizontal dimensions and by the timing of the degree. Some of the patterns observed in Russia resemble those in the United States, while others are distinctive.
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Gender segregation in baccalaureate degree fields declined rapidly in the first half of the period from 1971 to 2002; at the same time, women's representation among baccalaureate degree recipients increased most rapidly relative to men's. The desegregation of the early period resulted mainly from women's increased entry into business-related fields and declining proportions of women majoring in traditional fields such as education and English. Men did not contribute to integration by moving toward fields numerically dominated by women. Fixed-effects regression models suggest that feminization of fields discourages later cohorts of men from entering them, as predicted by the devaluation perspective. The stalling of desegregation came from a combination of men's disinclination to enter fields that are “too” filled with women, and the slowdown in women making less traditional choices.
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