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No epidemiological data on prevalence rates of mental disorders based on a representative sample are available for Austrian adolescents up to now. However, the knowledge of psychiatric disorders, related risk and protective factors is of great significance for treatment and prevention. The purpose of the MHAT-Study (Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers), the first epidemiological study on mental health in Austria, is to obtain prevalence rates of mental disorders and to examine risk factors, protective factors and quality of life in a representative sample of adolescents aged 10-18. Aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the screening instruments, pre-estimate the frequency of mental health problems and estimate possible non-responder bias. Twenty-one schools in eastern Austria were asked to participate. Data on mental health problems were derived from self-rating questionnaires containing standardized screening measures (Youth Self-Report, measuring emotional and behavioral problems and the SCOFF, indicating eating problems. Quality of life as well as related risk and protective factors were also obtained. Four hundred and eight adolescents of five schools were recruited. The prevalence of mental health problems was 18.9 % [CI 95 %: 14.9-22.7]. Moreover, emotional and behavioral problems were highly correlated with quality of life measures. A Non-Responder Analysis indicated that non-responders (16.7 %) differ from responders with regard of school related problems. The results demonstrate that mental health problems affect approximately one fifth of the adolescents. A Non-Responder Analysis suggests that the prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems is underestimated.
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original article
198 e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 1 3
SCOFF, indicating eating problems. Quality of life as well
as related risk and protective factors were also obtained.
Results Four hundred and eight adolescents of ve
schools were recruited. e prevalence of mental health
problems was 18.9% [CI 95%: 14.9–22.7]. Moreover, emo-
tional and behavioral problems were highly correlated
with quality of life measures. A Non-Responder Analy-
sis indicated that non-responders (16.7%) dier from
responders with regard of school related problems.
Conclusions e results demonstrate that mental
health problems aect approximately one fth of the
adolescents. A Non-Responder Analysis suggests that
the prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems is
underestimated.
Keywords Mental health· Psychiatric disorders· Epide-
miology· Adolescence
Die Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-
Studie: erste Ergebnisse aus einer Pilotstudie
Zusammenfassung
Grundlagen Bisher sind keine epidemiologischen Daten
zu Prävalenzraten für psychische Störungen für österrei-
chische Jugendliche, basierend auf einer repräsentativen
Stichprobe, verfügbar. Das Wissen über psychiatrische
Störungen sowie Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren ist jedoch
essentiell für erapie und Prävention. Im Rahmen der
MHAT-Studie (Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers, Psy-
chische Gesundheit bei österreichischen Jugendlichen),
der ersten epidemiologischen Studie zur psychischen
Gesundheit in Österreich, sollen Prävalenzraten psychi-
scher Störungen bei einer repräsentativen Stichprobe
von Jugendlichen zwischen 10 und 18 Jahren erhoben
und Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren sowie Lebensqualität
untersucht werden. Zweck der Pilotstudie war die Eva-
luation der Durchführbarkeit und Akzeptanz der Scree-
Summary
Background No epidemiological data on prevalence
rates of mental disorders based on a representative
sample are available for Austrian adolescents up to now.
However, the knowledge of psychiatric disorders, related
risk and protective factors is of great signicance for
treatment and prevention. e purpose of the MHAT-
Study (Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers), the rst
epidemiological study on mental health in Austria, is to
obtain prevalence rates of mental disorders and to exam-
ine risk factors, protective factors and quality of life in a
representative sample of adolescents aged 10–18. Aims
of this pilot study were to evaluate the feasibility and
acceptability of the screening instruments, pre-estimate
the frequency of mental health problems and estimate
possible non-responder bias.
Methods Twenty-one schools in eastern Austria were
asked to participate. Data on mental health problems
were derived from self-rating questionnaires containing
standardized screening measures (Youth Self-Report,
measuring emotional and behavioral problems and the
Neuropsychiatr (2014) 28:198–207
DOI 10.1007/s40211-014-0131-9
The Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-
Study: preliminary results from a pilot study
Julia Philipp · Michael Zeiler · Karin Waldherr · Martina Nitsch · Wolfgang Dür · Andreas Karwautz ·
Gudrun Wagner
Prof. Dr.A.Karwautz()· Dr.J.Philipp· Mag. Dr.G.Wagner
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
Medical University of Vienna,
Währinger Gürtel 18-20,
1090 Vienna, Austria
e-mail: andreas.karwautz@meduniwien.ac.at
Dr.J.Philipp
e-mail: julia.philipp@meduniwien.ac.at
Mag.M.Zeiler· Mag. Dr.M.Nitsch· Priv. Doz. Dr.W.Dür
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research,
Vienna, Austria
Mag. Dr.K.Waldherr
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research, Ferdinand
Porsche Distance University of Applied Sciences (FernFH),
Vienna, Austria
Received: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published online: 28 November 2014
© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014
original article
e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 199
1 3
mental health problems. 14.5% reported mental health
problems associated with severe impairment [10].
e Great Smoky Mountains Study [11] assessed psy-
chiatric disorders in children aged 9, 11 and 13 with a
3-year and 6-year follow up. e 3-month prevalence rate
of all examined disorders was 13.3%. However, 36.7% of
the children had at least one psychiatric disorder dur-
ing the study period. Merikangas et al. [12] interviewed
10123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years within the National
Comorbidity Survey Replication—Adolescent Supple-
ment (NCS-A) in the US. Lifetime prevalence for any dis-
order was 49.5%. When including only adolescents with
severe impairment, prevalence rates decrease to 22.2%.
In the last decades, some reviews were published pre-
senting prevalence rates of mental disorders. Robert,
Attkisson and Rosenblatt [13] identied 52 studies con-
ducted in over 20 countries published between 1963 and
1996 estimating the prevalence of psychiatric disorder.
Prevalence estimates ranged from 1 to 51% with a mean
prevalence of 15.8%. Ihle and Esser [2] as well compared
19 results from 9 countries between 1970 and 2000, pre-
senting a mean prevalence of 18% (6.8–37.4%). A review
concentrating on results from more recent studies in
Great Britain and the United States between 2000 and
2007 including children and adolescents between 5 and
17 years summarized that one person in four suered
from a psychiatric disorder during the past year and even
one out of three throughout the whole life [14]. A review
including 29 studies in Germany between 1949 and 2003
presented an overall prevalence rate of 17.2% for emo-
tional and behavioral disorders [15]. A very recent review
presented a prevalence rate of 15% for any disorder [3].
Anxiety disorders are the most common disorders,
followed by behavior (conduct disorders and attention
decit hyperactivity disorder), mood and substance use
disorders [2, 7, 14].
Some studies additionally examined risk, protective
and other associated factors. In general, older adoles-
cents present higher prevalence rates and more prob-
lems than younger ones [4, 7, 13]. Boys report more
behavioral and emotional problems than girls [4]. Behav-
ior disorders and substance use disorders are more com-
mon in boys whereas girls more often suer from eating
disorders and psychosomatic disorders. No dierence is
found for psychotic disorders. Prevalence rates of anxiety
and mood disorders are inconsistent. ey seem to be
more common in boys during childhood and school age
and in girls during adolescence and young adulthood [2].
Children with mental health problems furthermore
show impaired quality of life compared to healthy con-
trols [7].
ere are variations in the ndings of prevalence rates
in epidemiologic studies due to methodological dier-
ences [14], like dierent denitions, criteria, methods,
age groups and sources of information [13]. Still, there is
strong evidence for behavioral and emotional problems
and mental disorders in a large amount of adolescents.
ning-Phase, eine Häugkeitsschätzung von Verhaltens-
auälligkeiten und emotionalen Problemen sowie die
Abschätzung eines möglichen Non-Responder-Bias.
Methodik 21 Schulen im Osten Österreichs wurden
eingeladen, an der Studie teilzunehmen. Daten zur psy-
chischen Gesundheit wurden im Rahmen eines Scree-
nings mithilfe standardisierter Selbstbeurteilungsbögen
wie dem Youth Self-Report erhoben, der emotionale
und Verhaltensprobleme erhebt, und dem SCOFF, der
Hinweise für Essstörungen liefert. Lebensqualität und
Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren wurden ebenfalls erhoben.
Ergebnisse 408 Jugendliche an 5 Schulen wurden in
die Studie eingeschlossen. Die Prävalenzrate für psychi-
sche Probleme lag bei 18,9 % [CI 95%:14,9–22,7]. Weiters
korrelierten emotionale und Verhaltensauälligkeiten
hoch mit gesundheitsbezogener Lebensqualität. Die
Non-Responder Analyse weist darauf hin, dass sich Non-
Responder (16.7 %) von Respondern hinsichtlich schuli-
scher Probleme unterscheiden.
Schlussfolgerungen Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin,
dass jeder fünfte Jugendlichen von einem psychischen
Problem betroen ist. Die Non-Responder Analyse deu-
tet auf eine Unterschätzung der Prävalenzraten hin.
Schlüsselwörter Psychische Gesundheit · Psychische
Störungen· Epidemiologie· Jugendliche
Introduction
Mental disorders tend to develop during adolescence [1,
2], show high comorbidity rates (45% [1]) and tend to per-
sist into adulthood [3]. erefore, research should particu-
larly focus on adolescents’ mental health. e knowledge
about prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in child-
hood and adolescence as well as related risk and protec-
tive factors is essential for the development of suitable
prevention strategies and treatment approaches [2].
However, no epidemiological data on prevalence rates
of mental disorders are available for adolescents in Aus-
tria. Due to this lack of epidemiological data in Austria,
international studies and results from other European
countries served as an overview of mental health and
well-being in teenagers so far.
Using only screening questionnaires, Rescorla et al.
[4] investigated rates of behavioral and emotional prob-
lems and compared self-reports from adolescents aged
12–18 (Youth Self-Report [5]) with parental ratings (Child
Behavior Checklist [6]) from 25 societies. With respect to
the total problem score, parents perceived 21.4% of their
children to have problems, whereas 34.6% of the chil-
dren themselves reported problems.
In Germany, the BELLA study was established to
assess mental health problems in teenagers [7, 8]. Prob-
lems were assessed by parents, using the Strength and
Diculties Questionnaire (SDQ [9]). 21.9% of children
and adolescents between 7 and 17 years showed signs of
original article
200 e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 1 3
ment, occurring problems and diculties, as well as all
content-related questions by the participants.
During the assessment, teachers were also asked to ll
in a short teacher’s questionnaire to collect basic demo-
graphic data and data on observed behavioral problems
of all pupils in their class as well as their hypotheses on
reasons for non-participation serving as a basis for Non-
Responder Analysis and estimation of possible non-
responder bias. A Non-Responder Analysis is essential
for epidemiologic studies [15] in order to evaluate the
representativeness of the sample. Teachers gave basic
information concerning survey participation, sex and
class repetition and rated all pupils in respect of school
absenteeism, willingness to make an eort during les-
sons, ability to concentrate during lessons, social inte-
gration in class, passivity, disciplinary problems and
making contact to parents or teacher conference because
of behavioral problems.
Subsequent to the assessment, a short interview with
the class teacher was conducted. ey were asked if they
felt well informed about the study and if they would need
any additional information or help for the next time they
would have to moderate this assessment. Data obtained
by documentation of survey process (e.g. duration of data
collection) as well as qualitative data from the teacher’s
interview served as the basis for the evaluation of feasi-
bility and acceptability of the MHAT screening phase and
is part of the process evaluation of the MHAT-Study.
Instruments
e MHAT questionnaire consists of several instruments.
Mental health data were assessed using the Youth
Self-Report (YSR [5], German version: Arbeitsgruppe-
Deutsche-Child-Behavior-Checklist [16, 17]). e YSR
consists of 103 problem items measuring behavioral and
emotional problems in a six-month time period. e
items are answered using a three-point scale (0=not
true, 1=somewhat or sometimes true, 2=very true or
often true) and sum up to three broad-band scales, a
total problem score, internalizing problems, external-
izing problems, as well as eight syndrome scales: with-
drawn, somatic complaints, anxious/depressed, social
problems, thought problems, attention problems, delin-
quent behavior and aggressive behavior. e broad-band
scales show good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha
>0.86). For the syndrome scales, Cronbach’s alphas of
0.56–0.86 were reported. T-Scores are calculated using
German norm data (1991) according to the manual,
whereby higher scores indicate more problems.
As the YSR is lacking items concerning eating disor-
ders, the SCOFF questionnaire was used to determine
signs of disturbed eating habits [18] (German version
[19]). e SCOFF is a very brief questionnaire, consisting
of ve items to be answered with yes or no (Do you ever
make yourself Sick because you feel uncomfortably full?
Do you worry you have lost Control over how much you
eat? Have you recently lost more than One stone (6kg)
Objectives
e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT) – Study
was initiated to collect epidemiological data on mental
health, emotional and behavioral problems, psychiatric
disorders, related risk and protective factors and quality
of life in a representative sample of adolescents between
10 and 18 years in Austria for the rst time. A two-step
design was chosen for the MHAT-Study. Phase 1 (screen-
ing phase) consists of a questionnaire assessing emo-
tional and behavioral problems, social and demographic
correlates, risk and protective factors and quality of life.
In phase 2 (interview phase), positive screened adoles-
cents as well as a sample of negative screened partici-
pants are further contacted for a standardized clinical
interview in order to obtain DSM-5 diagnosis. A pilot
study was conducted in 2013. e aims of the present
pilot study were a) to evaluate the feasibility and accept-
ability of the screening phase b) to pre-estimate preva-
lence rates in order to plan necessary resources for the
interview phase of the MHAT study and c) to estimate
possible non-responder bias.
Methods
For this pilot study, phase 1 (screening phase) was con-
ducted with a small sample of Austrian adolescents. e
MHAT-Study is approved by the ethics committee of the
Medical University of Vienna and the Austrian Federal
Ministry of Education and Women’s Aairs.
Sampling, recruitment and procedure
Adolescents between 10 and 18 were recruited from ve
secondary schools in Lower Austria and Burgenland.
Four age groups were included in the sample: 5th graders
(aged 10–11, resp.), 7th graders (aged 12–13, resp.), 9th
graders (aged 14–15, resp.) and 11th graders (ages 16–17,
resp.).
Information sheets about background and procedure
of the study, as well as a sample questionnaire was sent
to the schools’ administration oce. Adolescents and
parents concerned were given a description of the study.
Written informed consent was obtained from adoles-
cents and parents.
Screening questionnaires were administered either
by paper-pencil administration or by a corresponding
online questionnaire. e assessment was designed for
the duration of one lesson (approximately 50min).
Class teachers were asked to administer the survey
autonomously. erefore, teachers were given detailed
instructions for the procedure, technical instructions for
the online questionnaire as well as predened answers
to possible “FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)”. A study
member was present in the classroom during data col-
lection and acted as non-participating observer. e
study member documented the duration of the assess-
original article
e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 201
1 3
lated in order to check if respondents and non-respon-
dents equally distribute to the categories of the other
variables depicted in Table 2. Item ratings of the YSR
were summed up per scale and transferred into T-scores.
A cut-o score of T>70 for the syndrome scales and T>63
for the broad-band scales was used to dene clinically
relevant cases, as suggested in the manual.
Participants in this study are dened as high-risk-
cases with a score above the cut-o for clinical relevance
in at least one YSR syndrome scale or a SCOFF score of
two or more positive answers including at least one of
the following: “Do you ever make yourself sick because
you feel uncomfortably full?”, “Have you recently lost more
than one stone (6kg) in a 3 month period?”
A 2×4 ANOVA is conducted to examine the impact of
sex and school grade on YSR sum scores. KIDSCREEN
item rating were recoded if necessary and summed up
for each dimension.
Pearson correlation coecients were calculated to
examine the association between behavioral and emo-
tional problems as obtained by the YSR total problem
score and health-related quality of life as obtained by the
KIDSCREEN scales.
Results
Sample
Figure1 shows the ow diagram of the recruitment pro-
cess. From the 21 schools invited for participation, ve
schools agreed to participate. ese schools provided 27
classes for inclusion in the study: 8 classes of 5th grad-
ers (aged 10–11, resp.), 7 classes of 7th graders (aged
12–13, resp.), 5 classes of 9th graders (aged 14–15, resp.),
in a three month period? Do you believe yourself to be
Fat when others say you are too thin? Would you say that
Food dominates your life?). Item ratings (yes=1, no=0)
can be summed up to a total score (0–5) indicating a risk
for an eating disorder at a score of two or more positive
answers. e SCOFF proved to be 100% sensitive with a
false positive rate of 12.5% [20]. In a German study, one
out of ve adolescents aged 11–17 reported signs of dis-
ordered eating [19]. For the MHAT-Study, we propose
alternative cut-o criteria that are based on the clinical
relevance of the SCOFF items. As judged by clinical psy-
chologists working in the eld of eating disorders at the
child and adolescent psychiatry of the General Hospital
of Vienna, vomiting (item 1) and weight reduction (item
3) are a stronger indication of an eating disorder than the
other items. erefore, we propose that additionally to
the criteria from the authors (score ≥2), at least one of
these two items has to be conrmed by the adolescents.
To measure the socioeconomic status, the Family
Auence Scale (FAS [21]) was used. e FAS was devel-
oped within the WHO-Health Behaviour in School-aged
Children (HBSC) survey and consists of four items ; higher
scores indicating a higher level of family auence. e
FAS has good internal consistency. ree groups can be
described: low family auence, moderate family au-
ence and high family auence.
e KIDSCREEN [22] was used to assess quality of life
in children and adolescents aged 8–18 within the last
week. e following dimensions of the KIDSCREEN-52
version (KS-52) and the KIDSCREEN-27 version (KS-27)
are selected for the purpose of the MHAT-Study: Self-Per-
ception (KS-52), Parent-Relation and Home Life (KS-52),
Social Support and Peers (KS-27), School Environment
(KS-27) and Bullying (KS-52). Additional six items from
the KIDSCREEN questionnaire were included enabling
the calculation of the KIDSCREEN-10 score. Items are
rated on a ve-point scale. Higher scores indicate higher
quality of life. e KIDSCREEN demonstrates good
internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.77 to
0.89, 0.80 to 0.84 and 0.82 for the three versions (KID-
SCREEN-52, KIDSCREEN-27 and KIDSCREEN-10). An
own KIDSCREEN-questionnaire was composed by single
scales of the original KS-52 and KS-27 versions.
Sociodemographic data (sex, age, migration back-
ground, family and residential environment, school
grade, type of school) were collected as well as several
factors known as risk and protective factors for men-
tal health (including e.g. family-structure, physical and
mental diseases of the participant and near relatives, life-
time-occurrence of traumatic events [23, 24]).
Statistical analyses
Data from the teacher’s questionnaire and the MHAT
questionnaire were entered into and analyzed with IBM
Statistics 22.0 software. 2×2 and 2×3 contingency tables
with study participation (yes vs. no) and other variables
captured with the teacher’s questionnaire were calcu-
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Fig.1 Flow diagram of participants
original article
202 e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 1 3
Acceptability and feasibility
All of the ve schools had a computer lab with a sucient
number of computers. Due to occupancy of computer
lab, concurrent data collection in several classes and
technical problems, a quite small number of participants
completed the online version (n=81; 19.9%).
e overall duration of data collection from the begin-
ning of the lesson to the completion of the last question-
naire ranged from 37 to 82min with a median of 46min.
e duration from the beginning of the lesson to the
beginning of completing the questionnaire (including
other activities before starting and reading the instruc-
tion) was quite long (median of 13min, minimum 7min;
maximum 22min). e median net duration for complet-
ing the questionnaire as automatically recorded by the
online questionnaire was 24.6min (minimum 13.5min;
maximum 44.6min).
Twenty-two out of 23 teachers agreed that they would
be able to conduct data collection without any help
of a study member. Some aspects were mentioned as
improvements for the main study: better information
transfer from administration oce to teachers (n=2),
more time for obtaining informed consent (n=2), exten-
sion of “FAQs” (n=2), further information concerning the
procedure (n=2) and adaptation for 5th graders (n=1).
Mental health problems
Prevalence rates of behavioral and emotional problems
obtained by the Youth Self-Report and the SCOFF-ques-
tionnaire are depicted in Table2. 15.9% of the screened
adolescents showed signs of mental health problems
using the Youth Self-Report total problem score. Inter-
nalizing behavioral problems appear more frequent
(18.5%) than externalizing problems (5.7%). Regarding
the YSR second-order scales, withdrawn problems and
somatic complaints were most prevalent, in contrast to
aggressive behavior which appeared as the least preva-
lent problem area. 25% [CI 95%: 20.7–29.3%] of the par-
ticipants scored in at least one of the rst or second order
problem scales.
Dierences between sex and school grades according
to YSR problem scores as analyzed by a 2×4 ANOVA are
depicted in Table 3. A main eect of sex was observed
for the total problem score, internalizing problems,
withdrawn behavior, somatic complaints and anxious/
depressed mood with larger problem scores for girls
compared to boys. A signicant main eect of school
grade was observed for externalizing problems, thought
problems, attention problems and delinquent behaviors.
Due to signicant interaction eects, the interpretation
regarding the impact of the school grade is not clear in
some cases. However, there is a tendency for larger prob-
lem scores for participants in higher school grades. Sig-
nicant sex*school grade interaction eects occurred in
seven of eleven YSR scales. For the signicant YSR scales,
mean problem scores constantly increased with higher
6 classes of 11th graders (aged 16–17, resp.) and 1 class
dropped out. Altogether, 590 adolescents were recruited
and asked to give informed consent for the study. 408
adolescents and their parents (69.2%) agreed to partici-
pate. Of the 182 non-responders (30.8%), 93 (51%) had
no informed consent, 46 (25%) were sick, 4 (2%) broke
o the assessment, 16 (9%) were absent due to other rea-
sons like sport events and 23 (13%) were absent due to
unknown reasons.
Sociodemographic information of participants is pro-
vided in Table1.
ere were more female adolescents and more 5th
graders participating in the study. Most of the partici-
pants reported no migration background, high socioeco-
nomic status and occupation of both parents.
Table 1 Adolescents’ demographic information
n%
Total 408 100
Sex
Male 170 41.7
Female 238 58.3
School grade
5th 134 32.8
7th 106 26.0
9th 84 20.6
11th 84 20.6
Migration background
No migration background 365 89.5
1st generationa17 4.2
2nd generationb26 6.4
FAS categoryc
Low 4 1.0
Moderate 71 17.4
High 327 80.1
Missing 6 1.5
Completeness of familiyd
Yes 324 79.4
No 84 20.6
Occupation of parents
No parent 6 1.5
One parent 78 19.1
Both parents 321 78.7
Missing 3 0.7
Diagnosed physical illness
No 322 78.9
Yes 82 20.1
Missing 4 1.0
aOwn birth-place in Austria and birth-place of both parents in foreign
country
bOwn birth-place and birth-place of both parents in foreign country
cFamily affluence scale
dAdolescents living with both biological parents
original article
e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 203
1 3
to lower health related quality of life in the assessed
dimensions.
Non-responder analysis
A comparison between responders and non-responders
as derived from the teacher’s questionnaire is shown
in Table 4. Participation rate was signicantly higher
for females. For school absenteeism, signicant dier-
ences could be observed, with responders being absent
from school less often in comparison to non-respond-
ers of the same age. According to the teachers’ rating,
responders made greater eort during lessons than non-
responders and the ability to concentrate during les-
sons was perceived signicantly higher for responders
compared with responders. Participants were also more
likely well integrated in class compared to non-respond-
ers. No signicant dierences between responders and
non-responders were observed in respect of grade rep-
etition, disciplinary problems in school, internalizing
behavioral problems (withdrawn, passive) in school and
contacting parents or teaching sta due to behavioral
problems.
Discussion
e purpose of this pilot study was to determine the
acceptability and feasibility of the screening phase, to
estimate the prevalence of mental health problems and
to perform a Non-Responder Analysis.
school grades for female participants. For males, the pic-
ture is not as clear as for females. Whereas mean scores
remained almost stable for the total problem scale, mean
scores decreased from low to high school grades for
internalizing problems, somatic complaints and social
problems. No clear association between school grade
and problem scores could have been observed in males
for externalizing problems including delinquent behav-
ior and aggressive behavior.
In the SCOFF-questionnaire, 20.8% of the screened
adolescents scored above the clinical cut-o applying
the criteria (score ≥2) proposed by the authors. Since the
SCOFF is known for its very high sensitivity leading to a
high rate of positive screened adolescents, we propose
that additionally to the criteria from the authors (score
2), at least one of the two clinically relevant items (vom-
iting, weight reduction) has to be conrmed by the ado-
lescents. Applying these new criteria, the percentage of
positive screened adolescents decreased to 6.6%.
High-risk cases for mental disorders were dened as
scoring above the clinical cut-o in at least one of the YSR
syndrome scales or the SCOFF applying the new criteria
as described above. Following this denition, the over-
all prevalence of mental health problems was 18.9% [CI
95%: 14.9–22.7].
YSR total problem scores were signicantly correlated
with health related quality of life measures as derived
by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire (KIDSCREEN-10:
r=.628; Self Perception: r=.572; Parent Relation and
Home Life: r=.484; Bullying: r=.356; Social Sup-
port and Peers: −.298; School Environment: −.512, all
p-values <.01). Higher YSR problem scores were related
Table 2 Percentage of at-risk cases according to YSR scales and SCOFF and 95% CIs
Scale 5th grade 7th grade 9th grade 11th grade Overall
YSR Total 12.3 [6.4; 18.2] 14.6 [7.5; 21.7] 13.1 [5.8; 20.4] 25.6 [16.1; 35.1] 15.9 [12.2; 19.6]
YSR Int 14.8 [8.5; 21.1] 16.7 [9.2; 24.2] 15.5 [7.7; 23.3] 29.3 [19.4; 39.2] 18.5 [14.6; 22.4]
YSR Ext 2.5 [0; 5.3] 8.3 [2.8; 13.8] 4.8 [0.2; 9.4] 8.5 [2.4; 14.6] 5.7 [3.4; 8.0]
YSR WD 4.1 [0.6; 7.6] 3.1 [0; 6.6] 7.1 [1.6; 12.6] 7.3 [1.6; 13.0] 5.2 [3.0; 7.4]
YSR SC 4.9 [1.1; 8.7] 4.2 [0.2; 8.2] 3.6 [0; 7.6] 6.1 [0.9; 11.3] 4.7 [2.6; 6.8]
YSR Anx/Dep 4.1 [0.6; 7.6] 2.1 [0; 5.0] 3.6 [0; 7.6] 3.7 [0; 7.8] 3.4 [1.6; 5.2]
YSR SP 1.6 [0; 3.8] 4.2 [0.2; 8.2] 1.2 [0; 3.5] 2.4 [0; 5.7] 2.3 [0.8; 3.8]
YSR TP 2.5 [0; 5.3] 2.1 [0; 5.0] 2.4 [0; 5.7] 4.9 [0.2; 9.6] 2.9 [1.2; 4.6]
YSR AT 0.0 5.2 [0.7; 9.7] 2.4 [0; 5.7] 3.7 [0; 7.8] 2.6 [1.0; 4.2]
YSR Del 0.8 [0; 2.4] 2.1 [0; 5.0] 1.2 [0; 3.5] 6.1 [0.9; 11.3] 2.3 [0.8; 3.8]
YSR Agg 0.8 [0; 2.4] 2.1 [0; 5.0] 0.0 1.2 [0; 3.6] 1.0 [0; 2.0]
SCOFFa17.2 [10.8; 23.6] 24.5 [16.3; 32.7] 16.7 [8.7; 24.7] 26.2 [16.7; 35.7] 20.8 [16.9; 24.7]
SCOFFb8.2 [3.5; 12.9] 6.6 [1.9; 11.3] 4.8 [0.2; 9.4] 6.0 [0.9; 11.1] 6.6 [4.2; 9.0]
YSR and SCOFFc16.8 [10.2; 23.4] 18.6 [10.8; 26.4] 14.3 [6.8; 21.8] 26.8 [17.2; 36.4] 18.8 [14.9; 22.7]
YSR Youth self-report, Int Internalizing, Ext Externalizing, WD Withdrawn, SC Somatic complaints, Anx/Dep Anxious/depressed, SP Social problems, TP Thought
problems, AT Attention problems, Del Delinquent behavior, Agg Aggressive behavior
aSCOFF Score ≥ 2
bSCOFF Score ≥ 2 and at least one of the following SCOFF items is marked as applicable: “Do you make yourself sick because you feel uncomfortably full?”,
“Have you recently lost more than one stone (6 kg) in a 3month period?”
cAbove cut-off score of clinical relevance in at least one YSR syndrome scale OR SCOFF Score ≥ 2 and at least one of the following SCOFF items is marked as
applicable: “Do you make yourself sick because you feel uncomfortably full?”, “Have you recently lost more than one stone (6 kg) in a 3month period?”
original article
204 e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 1 3
problems. Compared to another study using the YSR as
screening for emotional and behavioral problems, that
found a total of 34.6% clinical relevant cases [4] our results
turned out to be lower. Using the SD Q as screening for men-
tal health problems also showed higher rates (21.9% [8]).
In contrast to Rescorla et al. [4], reporting 11.1% inter-
nalizing behavioral problems, the results of our study
show a higher rate with 18.5%. Concerning externalizing
problems, the sample of this pilot study reported lower
rates (5.7%) compared to 9.7%.
Our results of the SCOFF questionnaire indicate disor-
dered eating habits in one out of ve participants, which
coincides with a German study [19].
Consistent with the literature [4, 7, 13] problem scores
increase with age, but only for female adolescents. For
males, the problem scores stay rather stable across the
age groups or even decreased by age. Our study reveals
higher problem scores in females, in contrast to the
results of former studies, where problems were more fre-
quently reported by males [4].
Acceptability and feasibility
Online-application as well as paper-pencil-application of
the questionnaire proved to be feasible. A sucient num-
ber of computers were available in all schools. Completing
the questionnaire within one lesson proved to be possible
for both application forms for nearly all of the adolescents.
Providing technical instructions and FAQs turned out
to be helpful for teachers.
Teachers felt that they would be able to conduct the data
collection without the guidance of a study member. Teach-
ers suggested several improvements for the main study: bet-
ter information transfer, more time for obtaining informed
consent, extension of the FAQs, further information con-
cerning the procedure and adaptation for 5th graders.
Mental health problems
According to the Youth Self-Report total problem score,
15.9% of the adolescents showed signs of mental health
Table 3 Descriptive Results of Youth Self-Report (YSR) Scores and ANOVA results (main effect of sex and school grade, in-
teraction effect sex*school grade)
YSR scale Sex Descriptive statistics (mean, SD) Test statistics
5th grade 7th grade 9th grade 11th grade
Total problem
score
Boys 30.74 (21.58) 30.72 (23.87) 29.16 (15.96) 29.04 (14.68) Sex: F(1,397)=8.00, p=.005, ηp
2=.02
Grade: F(3,397)=2.52, p=.057, ηp
2=.02
Interaction: F(3,397)=8.00, p=.005, ηp
2=.02
Girls 27.30 (17.01) 34.87 (18.79) 35.85 (17.25) 44.48 (18.55)
Internalizing
problems
Boys 9.22 (7.77) 8.48 (7.34) 8.31 (6.90) 7.35 (6.18) Sex: F(1,397)=28.84, p  <.001, ηp
2=.07
Grade: F(3,397)=0.99, p=.400, ηp
2<.01
Interaction: F(3,397)=3.53, p=.015, ηp
2=.03
Girls 10.21 (8.14) 12.06 (8.35) 13.40 (8.97) 16.08 (9.12)
Externalizing
problems
Boys 9.87 (7.16) 10.37 (8.90) 8.44 (5.16) 10.70 (5.94) Sex: F(1,397)=0.07, p=.793, ηp
2<.01
Grade: F(3,397)=4.90, p=.002, ηp
2=.04
Interaction: F(3,397)=3.75, p=.011, ηp
2=.03
Girls 6.55 (4.03) 9.42 (5.81) 9.85 (5.84) 12.85 (6.42)
Withdrawn Boys 2.56 (2.36) 2.59 (2.34) 2.66 (2.40) 2.87 (2.42) Sex: F(1,397)=10.02, p=.002, ηp
2=.03
Grade: F(3,397)=1.62, p=.184, ηp
2=.01
Interaction: F(3,397)=0.68, p=.568, ηp
2<.01
Girls 3.21 (2.23) 2.96 (2.35) 3.62 (3.18) 4.33 (3.06)
Somatic com-
plaints
boys 2.38 (2.43) 2.19 (2.72) 2.00 (1.97) 1.48 (1.41) Sex: F(1,396)=20.06, p <.001, ηp
2=.05
Grade: F(3,396)=0.58, p=.631, ηp
2<.01
Interaction: F(3,396)=3.41, p=.018, ηp
2=.03
girls 2.35 (2.59) 3.31 (2.78) 3.56 (2.57) 3.82 (3.29)
Anxious/de-
pressed
Boys 4.51 (4.61) 3.85 (3.89) 3.84 (3.71) 3.13 (3.90) Sex: F(1,397)=30.24, p<.001, ηp
2=.07
Grade: F(3,397)=0.76, p=.520, ηp
2<.01
Interaction: F(3,397)=3.89, p=.009, ηp
2=.03
Girls 5.00 (5.08) 6.31 (5.33) 6.75 (5.53) 8.52 (5.24)
Social problems Boys 2.54 (2.57) 2.54 (2.49) 1.88 (1.70) 1.52 (1.81) Sex: F(1,397)=0.00, p=.994, ηp
2<.01
Grade: F(3,397)=2.57, p=.054, ηp
2=.02
Interaction: F(3,397)=1.43, p=.233, ηp
2=.01
Girls 2.10 (2.18) 2.50 (2.48) 1.50 (1.85) 2.38 (1.92)
Thought prob-
lems
Boys 0.87 (1.56) 0.70 (1.41) 1.25 (1.68) 1.30 (1.46) Sex: F(1,397)=0.14, p=.713, ηp
2<.01
Grade: F(3,397)=5.72, p<.001, ηp
2=.04
Interaction: F(3,397)=1.24, p=.296, ηp
2<.01
Girls 0.89 (1.33) 0.63 (0.95) 0.92 (1.20) 1.92 (2.14)
Attention
problems
Boys 3.97 (2.84) 4.44 (3.66) 4.44 (2.63) 4.61 (2.46) Sex: F(1,397)=0.04, p=.847, ηp
2<.01
Grade: F(3,397)=6.07, p<.001, ηp
2=.04
Interaction: F(3,397)=2.22, p=.085, ηp
2=.02
Girls 2.89 (2.28) 4.48 (3.02) 4.19 (2.47) 5.67 (2.87)
Delinquent
behavior
Boys 2.79 (2.47) 3.11 (2.77) 2.72 (2.07) 3.61 (2.35) Sex: F(1,397)=0.09, p=.761, ηp
2<.01
Grade: F(3,397)=9.64, p<.001, ηp
2=.07
Interaction: F(3,397)=4.05, p=.007, ηp
2=.03
Girls 1.58 (1.56) 2.48 (2.24) 3.13 (2.69) 4.72 (3.10)
Aggressive
behavior
Boys 7.08 (5.31) 7.26 (6.68) 5.72 (3.74) 7.09 (4.06) Sex: F(1,397)=0.04, p=.840, ηp
2<.01
Grade: F(3,397)=2.42, p=.066, ηp
2=.02
Interaction: F(3,397)=2.75, p=.042, ηp
2=.02
Girls 4.97 (2.92) 6.94 (4.22) 6.71 (3.76) 8.13 (4.24)
Significant main and interaction effects are printed bold
original article
e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 205
1 3
Non-responder analysis
Non-responders were signicantly more likely to be
male, more often absent from school, showed less eort
and ability to concentrate during lessons and were less
likely to be well integrated in class as per teacher’s opin-
ion. ere were no dierences in the following variables:
signs of disciplinary problems in school, being with-
drawn and passive, repeating grades, making contact
to parents or school sta due to problems. e Non-
Responder Analysis indicates that non-responders may
have more problems in school. As a result prevalence of
behavioral and emotional problems may be underesti-
mated in epidemiological studies conducted in schools.
For this study, high-risk cases for mental disorders
were dened as scoring above the clinical cut-o in
at least one of the YSR syndrome scales or giving two
or more positive answers in the SCOFF questionnaire
including one of the clinically relevant questions (mak-
ing oneself sick, having lost more than 6kg). Using this
denition, the overall prevalence of mental health prob-
lems in this study was 18.9%, which is in accordance with
several studies indicating a rate of 10–20% for mental dis-
orders and behavioral problems [2, 3, 13, 15].
Furthermore, this study supports the assumption that
mental health problems highly correlate with impaired
quality of life [7].
Variable Responder observed (and expect-
ed) frequenciesa
Non-Responder observed (and
expected) frequencies
Test statisticbp-value
Sex χ2
(1)=5.921 .021
Male 155 (166.8) 80 (68.2)
Female 212 (200.2) 70 (81.8)
Grade repetition χ2
(1)=1.196 .274
Yes 17 (19.6) 11 (8.4)
No 27 (324.4) 137 (139.6)
School absentismcχ2
(2)=15.561 <.001
Below average 172 (156.8) 52 (67.2)
Average 137 (140.0) 63 (60.0)
Above average 36 (48.3) 33 (20.7)
Effort during lessonscχ2
(2)=10.342 .006
Below average 79 (93.3) 54 (39.7)
Average 168 (161.3) 62 (68.7)
Above average 98 (90.5) 31 (38.5)
Ability to concentrate during lessonscχ2
(2)=14.535 .001
Below average 78 (93.2) 55 (39.8)
Average 168 (165.3) 68 (70.7)
Above average 98 (85.5) 24 (36.5)
Good integration in class χ2
(1)=12.340 <.001
Rather yes 309 (296.6) 114 (126.4)
Rather no 36 (48.4) 33 (20.6)
Behavioral problems in school χ2
(1)=1.041 .308
Rather yes 49 (52.7) 26 (22.3)
Rather no 294 (290.3) 119 (122.7)
Internalizing behavioral problems (withdrawn and passive in school) χ2
(1)=0.501 .479
Rather yes 72 (75.0) 35 (32.0)
Rather no 272 (269.0) 112 (115.0)
Making contact with parents or teacher conference due to behavioral problems χ2
(2)=3.711 .156
Yes 46 (50.4) 26 (21.6)
No 293 (286.5) 116 (122.5)
No, but should be done 5 (7.0) 5 (3.0)
aDue to missing data in the teacher’s questionnaire, sample size of respondents doesn’t correspond necessarily to the sample size of the main analysis
bTest statistic based on 2×2 or 2×3 contingency table
cRatings in comparison to students of the same age
Table 4 Non-responder analysis
original article
206 e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 1 3
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Limitations
As the sample in this pilot study was not selected ran-
domly and due to the small sample size, results and prev-
alence rates cannot be generalized to the population of
adolescents 10 to 18 years. However, the main goal of this
pilot study was to ascertain the acceptability and feasibil-
ity and to conduct a Non-Responder Analysis for which
the described sample is sucient.
Another limitation is the lacking of the second phase
(interview phase). For the pilot study, only the screening
phase was conducted, meaning that no contact informa-
tion was inquired from parents. is anonymity could
probably have an impact on the response rates.
Finally, the presence of a project member during the
data collection could have inuenced teachers’ and ado-
lescents’ behavior.
Conclusion and implications for the MHAT-study
is pilot study was conducted as part of the project risk
management of the MHAT-Study to improve the main
study. e duration as well as the online-application and
paper-pencil-application of the questionnaire were over-
all well accepted and feasible. It is expected that teach-
ers are able to administrate the main study without the
guidance of a study member. Teachers’ suggestions to
improve the information material (i.e. time for obtain-
ing informed consent, extension of the FAQs, further
information concerning the procedure) will be taken
into account, instructions will be upgraded, technical
instructions and FAQs will be adapted.
e results demonstrate that mental health problems
aect a large amount of adolescents from 10 to 18 years.
For the main study, a representative sample of Austrian
adolescents based on age, sex, federal state and school
type will be included.
A Non-Responder Analysis will also be conducted,
because underestimation of prevalence rates can further
be expected in the main study. e screening phase will
be followed by a second phase. e second phase consists
of a structured diagnostic interview to assess psychiat-
ric diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Ver-
sion 5 (DSM-5) criteria with adolescents scoring above
the predened cut-o score described in this study and a
random sample of adolescents scoring below the cut-o.
Acknowledegments
e MHAT study is funded by “Gemeinsame Gesund-
heitsziele aus dem Rahmen-Pharmavertrag” (a coop-
eration between Austrian pharmaceutical industry and
Austrian social insurance).
Conict of interest
Julia Philipp, Michael Zeiler, Karin Waldherr, Martina
Nitsch, Wolfgang Dür, Andreas Karwautz, and Gudrun
Wagner declare that they have no conict of interest.
original article
e Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study: preliminary results from a pilot study 207
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... Looking at Austria specifically, adolescents' mental health service situation is far from perfect: Philipp et al. (19) found that more than 20% of Austrian adolescents between 10 and 18 years old have a diagnosable mental illness. Wagner et al. (20) confirmed this percentage, with the most common mental issues being anxiety or developmental disorders. ...
Article
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Adolescence is a crucial developmental time, and it is essential to ensure stable mental health during the transition to adulthood. Peer-to-peer networks seem to be a promising tool to support adolescents during that time. While co-development often concentrates on the end-user, this paper focuses on the peer facilitators of an online peer encouragement network (OPEN2chat), where adolescents can chat with peer facilitators about their problems. We conducted 3 group discussions with 18 peer facilitators after a testing phase to improve the process of these interactions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data after transcription. The four main themes were the responsibility of the peer facilitators toward their peers, especially their role of giving advice; the interaction process itself; time management; and technology aspects of the application. Including these stakeholders in the development process empowered the young people, helped eliminate problems with the application, and made the researchers more sensitive toward potential issues and emotions that peer facilitators encounter that may have been missed without a co-development process. Eliminating these problems might also help establish a better environment and support system for the actual end-users.
... Up to 2007, when law was passed [1], it used to be an additive special medical education, only accessible for pediatricians, neurologists, and psychiatrists. The prevalence of psychological impairment among children and adolescents affects over 13.0% of the age group worldwide, 17.0% in Germany, and up to 35.0% in Austria [2]. Both late creation of the specialty and the epidemiology necessitate an increased need for intervention and prevention [3]. ...
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Background: Child and adolescent psychiatry has only recently been established as a separate specialty and is practiced in different settings. The epidemiology of psychological problems in childhood is high and varied, thus qualitative work is essential. Assessment of outcome as part of quality management is central to assure the service of psychiatric care to be effective. Method: Over a three-year period consecutively admitted patients from inpatient and day-clinic treatment were prospectively evaluated. A total of 200 from 442 patients (m = 80, f = 120; age 15.1 ± 2.8 y) agreed to participate. Patients, caregivers, and therapists answered a range of questionnaires to provide a multi-personnel rating. Questionnaires used for outcome assessment were Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth-Self-Report (YSR) (at admission, discharge, and 6 weeks after discharge) and the problem score of the Inventory of Quality of Life for children (ILK), treatment satisfaction, and process quality by the Questionnaire for Treatment Satisfaction (FBB, at discharge) and as real-life outcome control assessment of quality of life (ILK) was added (admission, discharge, and 6 wks after discharge). Results: There was a significant reduction in psychopathologicalsymptoms (CBCL, YSR) and in the problem score. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in quality of life. QoL score and YSR/CBCL scores returned to normal levels. Treatment satisfaction was high and so was satisfaction with process quality. Factors significantly influencing outcome were severity of disease and the relationship to the therapist. No differences were found for gender and setting. Conclusion: The quality management analysis revealed significant improvements of symptom load, a significant increase in QoL and a high treatment satisfaction. Furthermore, process quality was scored highly by parents and therapists.
... [6][7][8] Women are known to be more often affected by these comorbidities than men. 9,10 T1D is an autoimmune disorder, and patients with one autoimmune disease are prone to develop additional autoimmune diseases (eg, autoimmune thyroiditis or celiac disease). Genetic background may affect a person's risk for autoimmune diseases, and patients with T1D exhibit an increased risk of other autoimmune disorders. ...
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... The questionnaires were administered during a school lesson (approximately 50 min) as online or paper-pencil versions. A pilot study earlier confirmed the feasibility and acceptability of these procedures [20]. More details are published elsewhere [21]. ...
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Background: Headache disorders are highly prevalent worldwide, but not so well investigated in children and adolescents as in adults: few studies have included representative nationwide samples. No data exist for Austria until now. In a representative sample of children and adolescents in Austria, we estimated the prevalence and attributable burden of headache disorders, including the new diagnostic category of "undifferentiated headache" (UdH) defined as mild headache lasting less than 1 hour. Methods: Within the context of a broader national mental health survey, children and adolescents aged 10-18 years were recruited from purposively selected schools. Mediated self-completed questionnaires included sociodemographic enquiry (gender, age, socioeconomic status, family constellation, residence [urban or rural] and migration background). Prevalence and attributable burden of all headache, UdH, migraine (definite plus probable), tension-type headache (TTH: definite plus probable) and headache on ≥15 days/month (H15+) were assessed using the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire for children and adolescents. Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) was assessed using the KIDSCREEN questionnaire. Results: Of 7643 selected pupils, 3386 (44.3%) completed the questionnaires. The 1-year prevalence of headache was 75.7%, increasing with age and higher in girls (82.1%) than in boys (67.7%; p < 0.001). UdH, migraine, TTH and H15+ were reported by 26.1%, 24.2%, 21.6% and 3.0% of participants. Attributable burden was high, with 42% of those with headache experiencing restrictions in daily activities. Medication use (50% overall) was highest in H15+ (67%) and still considerable in UdH (29%). HrQoL was reduced for all headache types except UdH. Participants in single parent or patchwork families had a higher probability of migraine (respectively, OR 1.5, p < 0.001; OR 1.5, p < 0.01). Participants with a migration background had a lower probability of TTH (OR 0.7, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Headache disorders are both very common and highly burdensome in children and adolescents in Austria. This study contributes to the global atlas of headache disorders in these age groups, and corroborates and adds knowledge of the new yet common and important diagnostic category of UdH. The findings call for action in national and international health policies, and for further epidemiological research.
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The Covid 19 pandemic has taken a toll on the mental health of children and adolescents. However, in addition to the many negative effects of the pandemic, there have also been changes that are positive in some respects. The overwhelming general situation and insecurity has helped to destigmatize mental disorders in children and adolescents and their parents, since the cause of mental disorders is thus seen not in the child, not in the adolescent, not in the parents, but in external factors that affect the entire collective. The society now deals more openly with the psychological consequences of the overload, as they affect the whole society. The role of the state in the treatment of mental illness, especially in the vulnerable group of children and adolescents, is under renewed discussion, and the need for expansion is now taken seriously. New media and their use have also been newly evaluated. In the crisis caused by the pandemic, they not only provided an essential space for the continuation and development of interpersonal relationships, they were also the vehicle for school and university education.
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Introduction: The most up-to-date information on the secondary prevention of eating disorders (EDs) is systematically and thoughtfully reviewed. Recommendations are given on screening and detection methods in the school population and at-risk populations; successful programs, training of professionals; referral to care and therapeutic resources; and early intervention. Also future lines are pointed out.
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ADVERTIMENT. Lʼaccés als continguts dʼaquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials dʼinvestigació i docència en els termes establerts a lʼart. 32 del Text Refós de la Llei de Propietat Intel·lectual (RDL 1/1996). Per altres utilitzacions es requereix lʼautorització prèvia i expressa de la persona autora. En qualsevol cas, en la utilització dels seus continguts caldrà indicar de forma clara el nom i cognoms de la persona autora i el títol de la tesi doctoral. No sʼautoritza la seva reproducció o altres formes dʼexplotació efectuades amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva comunicació pública des dʼun lloc aliè al servei TDX. Tampoc sʼautoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant als continguts de la tesi com als seus resums i índexs. ADVERTENCIA. El acceso a los contenidos de esta tesis doctoral y su utilización debe respetar los derechos de la persona autora. Puede ser utilizada para consulta o estudio personal, así como en actividades o materiales de investigación y docencia en los términos establecidos en el art. 32 del Texto Refundido de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual (RDL 1/1996). Para otros usos se requiere la autorización previa y expresa de la persona autora. En cualquier caso, en la utilización de sus contenidos se deberá indicar de forma clara el nombre y apellidos de la persona autora y el título de la tesis doctoral. No se autoriza su reproducción u otras formas de explotación efectuadas con fines lucrativos ni su comunicación pública desde un sitio ajeno al servicio TDR. Tampoco se autoriza la presentación de su contenido en una ventana o marco ajeno a TDR (framing). Esta reserva de derechos afecta tanto al contenido de la tesis como a sus resúmenes e índices.
Thesis
The research examines the application of computer technology in professional education. Computer technology is to be classified as a cultural technique because it is used in all areas of social activity. Computer-based learning tools encourage learners to change their relationship to themselves, to others and the world and are therefore to be understood as parts of an educational process. As the examples of e-learning and online self-learning programs show, professional-pedagogical actions currently are increasingly being implemented and guided with the help of computer-mediated communication (CvK). A special case of the online self-study programs and a central topic of the present work are guided psycho-education programs (PEPs). Studies show that the training with disorder-specific PEPs in combination with accompanying CvK can initiate a learning process that is beneficial for reducing symptoms of mental illness like eating disorders. So far, the content of the accompanying coaching mails has only been analyzed minimally. This thesis examines the degree of individuality and complexity of the coaching content and built on this the extent to which it can be realized from partly automated processes. The data was generated during a randomized controlled study by the Medical University of Vienna in cooperation with the Parkland Clinic Bad Wildungen researching internet-based guided selfhelp based on cognitive behavioral therapy for Bulimia Nervosa (Salut). It can be shown that, on the one hand, there is the possibility of cybernetic communication, since at least 16% of the coaching content is very well suited for this due to its rule-based and linearity and, on the other hand, the limits of the use of assistance-systems are marked by the 38%, which must be formulated from a human counterpart on a case-by-case basis for each trainee furthermore to maintain user-satisfaction and the quality of the relationship.
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The present research paper examines the application of computer technology in professional education. Computer technology is to be classified as a cultural technique because it is used in all areas of social activity. Computer-based learning tools encourage learners to change their relationship to themselves, to others and the world and are therefore to be understood as parts of an educational process. As the examples of e-learning and online self-learning programs show are professional-pedagogical actions currently increasingly being implemented and guided with the help of computer-mediated communication (CvK). A special case of the online self-study programs and a central topic of the present work are guided psycho-education programs (PEPs). Studies show that the training with disorder-specific PEPs in combination with accompanying CvK can initiate a learning process that is beneficial for reducing symptoms of mental illness like eating disorders. So far, the content of the accompanying coaching mails has only been analyzed minimally. This thesis examines the degree of individuality and complexity of the coaching content and built on this the extent to which it can be realized from partly automated processes. The data was generated during a randomized controlled study by the Medical University of Vienna in cooperation with the Parkland Clinic Bad Wildungen researching internet-based guided selfhelp based on cognitive behavioral therapy for Bulimia Nervosa (Salut). It can be shown that, on the one hand, there is the possibility of cybernetic communication, since at least 16% of the coaching content is very well suited for this due to its rule-based and linearity and, on the other hand, the limits of the use of assistance-systems are marked by the 38%, which must be formulated from a human counterpart on a case-by-case basis for each trainee furthermore to maintain user-satisfaction and the quality of the relationship.
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Surgeons are becoming aware that surgical outcomes are not only based on technical skills. The impact of psychological problems on outcomes must be studied from both the patient's and the health care provider's viewpoint. Psychological problems may affect up to 20% of the population, with almost half of them non-treated. Surgeons have to deal with a significant number of patients with psychological problems, which affect surgical outcomes changing how symptoms, results and side effects are interpreted. Surgeons also face psychological problems at a significant rate. Although there are no studies on the effect of chronic psychological problems of the surgeon on outcomes, in simulated scenarios, acute stress usually leads to worse performance. Some initiatives can be implemented to improve outcomes based on the effect of psychological problems.
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This article provides a review of the magnitude of mental disorders in children and adolescents from recent community surveys across the world. Although there is substantial variation in the results depending upon the methodological characteristics of the studies, the findings converge in demonstrating that approximately one fourth of youth experience a mental disorder during the past year, and about one third across their lifetimes. Anxiety disorders are the most frequent conditions in children, followed by behavior disorders, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. Fewer than half of youth with current mental disorders receive mental health specialty treatment. However, those with the most severe disorders tend to receive mental health services. Current issues that are now being identified in the field of child psychiatric epidemiology include: refinement of classification and assessment, inclusion of young children in epidemiologic surveys, integration of child and adult psychiatric epidemiology, and evaluation of both mental and physical disorders in children.
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One of the goals of epidemiological research is to describe the frequency and patterns in the distribution of diseases among certain groups of a statistical population. According to the literature available, mental disorders in children and adolescents are a common phenomenon worldwide. This article provides a review of the most important and recent international studies on the magnitude, on patterns of distribution, on the course and on gender differences of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Additional data from scientific textbooks are added to the original articles.
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Eating disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in young women. Early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, but the presentation of eating disorders is often cryptic—for example, via physical symptoms in primary care. The ability to diagnose the condition varies and can be inadequate,1 and existing questionnaires for detection2,3 are lengthy and may require specialist interpretation. No simple, memorable screening instruments are available for nonspecialists. In alcohol misuse, the CAGE questionnaire (questions about Cutting down, Annoyance with criticism, Guilty feelings, and Eye-openers)4 has proved popular with clinicians because of its simplicity. We developed and tested a similar tool for eating disorders, with questions designed to raise the suspicion that an eating disorder might exist before rigorous clinical assessment.
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In der BELLA-Studie, dem Modul „Psychische Gesundheit“ des deutschen Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurveys (KiGGS), wurde eine repräsentative Unterstichprobe im Umfang von 2863 Familien mit Kindern im Alter von 7–17 Jahren vertiefend zum seelischen Wohlbefinden und Verhalten befragt. Die Auftretenshäufigkeit psychischer Auffälligkeiten wurde anhand der Angaben über Symptome und Belastung im Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) und weiterer standardisierter Screening-Verfahren ermittelt. Insgesamt zeigen 21,9 % (95 % KI: 19,9–24,0) aller Kinder und Jugendlichen Hinweise auf psychische Auffälligkeiten. Als spezifische psychische Auffälligkeiten treten Ängste bei 10,0 % (95 % KI: 8,7– 11,6), Störungen des Sozialverhaltens bei 7,6 % (95 % KI: 6,5–8,7) und Depressionen bei 5,4 % (95 % KI: 4,3–6,6) der Kinder und Jugendlichen auf. Unter den untersuchten Risikofaktoren erweisen sich vor allem ein ungünstiges Familienklima sowie ein niedriger sozioökonomischer Status als bedeutsam. Bei kumuliertem Auftreten mehrerer Risikofaktoren steigt die Häufigkeit psychischer Auffälligkeiten stark an. Personale, familiäre und soziale Ressourcen sind hingegen bei psychisch unauffälligen Kindern und Jugendlichen stärker ausgeprägt. Die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität psychisch auffälliger Kinder und Jugendlicher ist deutlich eingeschränkt. Längst nicht alle betroffenen Kinder und Jugendlichen werden behandelt. Bei der Identifikation von Risikogruppen sollten nicht nur Risikofaktoren für die psychische und subjektive Gesundheit einbezogen, sondern auch die vorhandenen Ressourcen berücksichtigt werden. Die Stärkung dieser Ressourcen sollte wesentliches Ziel von Prävention und Intervention sein.
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Anliegen: Methoden und Ergebnisse des bislang erreichten empirischen Forschungsstandes zur Prävalenz psychischer Auffälligkeit bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland werden vorgestellt. Methode: Die mit Hilfe einer systematischen Literaturrecherche identifizierten n = 29 relevanten Studien werden tabellarisch anhand epidemiologischer Eckdaten vergleichend gegenübergestellt und deskriptiv analysiert. Ergebnisse: Die mittlere Prävalenz psychischer Auffälligkeit beträgt M = 17,2 % (SD = 5,07). Die erzielten Raten sind von den verwendeten Untersuchungsmethoden beeinflusst. Eine Zu- oder Abnahme psychischer Auffälligkeit im Kindes- und Jugendalter über die Jahrzehnte ist nicht ableitbar. Schlussfolgerungen: Die Ergebnisse werden im Hinblick auf die Studienqualität auch im internationalen Vergleich diskutiert und Maßnahmen zur Standardisierung zukünftiger Untersuchungen empfohlen.
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Zusammenfassung. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Uberblick uber den aktuellen Wissensstand zur Entwicklungsepidemiologie psychischer Storungen des Kindes- und Jugendalters gegeben. Der Median der Periodenpravalenzraten der wichtigsten Studien betrug 18%, wobei ca. ¾ der Pravalenzraten zwischen 15 und 22% lagen. Damit sind psychische Storungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in etwa gleich haufig wie bei Erwachsenen. Als haufigste Storungen zeigten sich Angststorungen mit einer durchschnittlichen Pravalenz von 10,4%, gefolgt von dissozialen Storungen mit 7,5%. Es ergaben sich konsistent hohe Persistenzraten der Storungen von ungefahr 50%, wobei dissoziale Storungen die ungunstigsten Verlaufe aufwiesen. Die haufigsten komorbiden Storungen waren dissoziale Storungen bei Vorliegen einer hyperkinetischen Storung und Angststorungen bei Vorliegen einer depressiven Storung. Bis zum Alter von 13 Jahren wurden durchgehend hohere Gesamtpravalenzen psychischer Storungen bei Jungen gefunden, wogegen im Zuge der Adole...
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Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Die Mannheimer Kurpfalzerhebung wurde entwickelt, um Daten uber die Pravalenz, die Entstehung und den Verlauf psychischer Storungen von der Kindheit bis ins Erwachsenenalter bereitszustellen. Fragestellung: Untersuchung alters- und geschlechtsspezifischer 6-Monats- und Lebenszeit-Pravalenzraten psychischer Storungen und Untersuchung von Komorbiditat und Funktionsbeeintrachtigungen in verschiedenen Lebensbereichen. Methode: 321 (80 %) Teilnehmer einer im Alter von 8, 13 und 18 Jahren untersuchten Stichprobe nahmen in Alter von 25 Jahren an einem 4. Interview zur Erfassung von psychischen Storungen und Funktionsbeeintrachtigungen teil. Ergebnisse: Die 6-Monatspravalenz psychischer Storungen im Alter von 25 Jahren betrug 18,4 %. Manner wiesen hohere Raten von dissozialen Storungen und Storungen durch Substanzgebrauch auf, wohingegen Frauen hohere Raten von affektiven und psychosomatischen Storungen zeigten. Die Komorbiditatsrate betrug 45 %. Langsschnittliche Vergl...