Enhancing sunscreen efficacy in the 'real' world?
Sunscreens, used in the prevention of sunburn and skin cancer, have been commercialized since the 1930s. Their utilization is expanding, particularly in response to photoaging and an increase of skin cancer. However, failures occur in sunscreen use because their efficacy depends on the adequacy of application and utilization. This overview documents issues in sunscreen use and also discusses 2007 FDA-proposed rules to offer possible options for enhanced efficacy and communications to the consumer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Principles of therapyBarrier properties of skinFactors affecting drug penetration into skin (Box 181.1)Systemic delivery of drugs through skinTransdermal therapeutic systemsSkin metabolism of drugsVehiclesTopical dermatological therapeutic agentsSystemic therapeutic agentsConclusion References0Comments 1Citation
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Treatment of melasma remains a challenge and involves multistep approach. Diacetyl boldine (DAB) stabilizes tyrosinase in its inactive form while TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 inhibits tyrosinase activity. Aims: (1) to study the efficacy and safety of the combination use of two formulae containing two principal ingredients: DAB and TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 on facial melasma, and (2) to compare their efficacy with 2% and 4% hydroquinone cream (HQ) on sun-protected normal skin. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, 12-week comparative study of pre-/post-treatment was conducted in 40 females. Melasma was evaluated by manual MASI score and MASI score with instrumentally graded darkness at baseline, 6th week, and 12th week. The author also compared their effect with HQ on the arms, assessed their safety profile throughout the study. Results: Thirty-eight subjects have completed the study. Their melasma showed improvement at the 6th week and 12th week as compared with baseline (P < 0.05). None developed severe reaction. Most subjects had temporary, mild skin reaction. About 2.6% of subjects graded themselves markedly improved, 76.3% moderately improved, and 21.1% slightly improved. Each formula showed either more efficacy or exerted faster action on pigment reduction than HQ. Conclusion: Combination of DAB serum at night and DAB/TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68/sunscreen cream in the morning and at noon was effective and safe for facial melasma. They were superior to HQ in pigment reduction.0Comments 0Citations