KEAP1 E3 ligase-mediated downregulation of NF-kappaB signaling by targeting IKKbeta

Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Molecular cell (Impact Factor: 14.02). 10/2009; 36(1):131-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.07.025
Source: PubMed


IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta) is involved in tumor development and progression through activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates IKKbeta degradation remains largely unknown. Here, we show that a Cullin 3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin ligase, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), is responsible for IKKbeta ubiquitination. Depletion of KEAP1 led to the accumulation and stabilization of IKKbeta and to upregulation of NF-kappaB-derived tumor angiogenic factors. A systematic analysis of the CUL3, KEAP1, and RBX1 genomic loci revealed a high percentage of genome loss and missense mutations in human cancers that failed to facilitate IKKbeta degradation. Our results suggest that the dysregulation of KEAP1-mediated IKKbeta ubiquitination may contribute to tumorigenesis.

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Available from: Chun-Te Chen, Mar 14, 2014
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    • "By acting continuously on the Nrf2 pathway, MARV infection causes its sustained activation perhaps in addition to oxidative stress stimulus that may contribute to host inflammatory response dysregulation. Keap1, our identified MARV VP24 target, is involved in inflammatory response control through interaction with IkB kinase IKKb (Lee et al., 2009). IKKb possesses the same ETGE and DLG motifs as Nrf2 and binds to Keap1 in a similar manner. "
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    ABSTRACT: Marburg virus (MARV) has a high fatality rate in humans, causing hemorrhagic fever characterized by massive viral replication and dysregulated inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that VP24 of MARV binds Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), a negative regulator of nuclear transcription factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2). Binding of VP24 to Keap1 Kelch domain releases Nrf2 from Keap1-mediated inhibition promoting persistent activation of a panoply of cytoprotective genes implicated in cellular responses to oxidative stress and regulation of inflammatory responses. Increased expression of Nrf2-dependent genes was demonstrated both during MARV infection and upon ectopic expression of MARV VP24. We also show that Nrf2-deficient mice can control MARV infection when compared to lethal infection in wild-type animals, indicating that Nrf2 is critical for MARV infection. We conclude that VP24-driven activation of the Nrf2-dependent pathway is likely to contribute to dysregulation of host antiviral inflammatory responses and that it ensures survival of MARV-infected cells despite these responses.
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    • "We found that DNA copy number loss and promoter hypermethylation frequently affect individual components, that when considered together affect a remarkably high proportion of PTCs (80%). This phenomenon has been observed by our group and others in lung cancer [6,13]. However, the frequency by which multiple complex components were simultaneously disrupted, and the molecular mechanisms affecting individual components, were strikingly different for PTC (Figure 1C-D), compared to other tumor types. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species contribute to normal thyroid function. The NRF2 oxidative response pathway is frequently and constitutively activated in multiple tumor types, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Genetic mechanisms underlying NRF2 pathway activation in PTC are not fully understood. Thus, we aimed to determine whether inactivating patterns of DNA-level alterations affect genes encoding for individual NRF2 inhibitor complex components (CUL3/KEAP1/RBX1) occur in PTC. Combined patterns of epi/genetic alterations for KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex components were simultaneously interrogated for a panel of 310 PTC cases and 40 adjacent non-malignant tissues. Data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. Enrichment of NRF2 pathway activation was assessed by gene-set enrichment analysis using transcriptome data. Our analyses revealed that PTC sustain a strikingly high frequency (80.6%) of disruption to multiple component genes of the NRF2 inhibitor complex. Hypermethylation is the predominant inactivating mechanism primarily affecting KEAP1 (70.6%) and CUL3 (20%), while copy number loss mostly affects RBX1 (16.8%). Concordantly, NRF2-associated gene expression signatures are positively and significantly enriched in PTC. The KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 E3-ubiquitin ligase complex is almost ubiquitously affected by multiple DNA-level mechanisms and downstream NRF2 pathway targets are activated in PTC. Given the importance of this pathway to normal thyroid function as well as to cancer; targeted inhibition of NRF2 regulators may impact strategies for therapeutic intervention involving this pathway.
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    • "Redox sensitive transcription factors play an important role in regulating several pathways that lead to carcinogenesis and cell survival [20,24]. Keap1 down-regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway by way of functioning as an IKKβ E3 ligase [15]. Induction of Keap1 expression will kill two birds (IKKβ and Nrf2) with one stone, and inactivate two pathways (Keap1-Nrf2-ARE and IKKβ-NF-κB) simultaneously. "
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    ABSTRACT: Degradation of certain proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a common strategy taken by the key modulators responsible for stress responses. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1(Keap1), a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin3 (Cul3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligase complex, mediates the ubiquitination of two key modulators, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and IκB kinase β (IKKβ), which are involved in the redox control of gene transcription. However, compared to the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI), the intermolecular recognition mechanism of Keap1 and IKKβ has been poorly investigated. In order to explore the binding pattern between Keap1 and IKKβ, the PPI model of Keap1 and IKKβ was investigated. The structure of human IKKβ was constructed by means of the homology modeling method and using reported crystal structure of Xenopus laevis IKKβ as the template. A protein-protein docking method was applied to develop the Keap1-IKKβ complex model. After the refinement and visual analysis of docked proteins, the chosen pose was further optimized through molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting structure was utilized to conduct the virtual alanine mutation for the exploration of hot-spots significant for the intermolecular interaction. Overall, our results provided structural insights into the PPI model of Keap1-IKKβ and suggest that the substrate specificity of Keap1 depend on the interaction with the key tyrosines, namely Tyr525, Tyr574 and Tyr334. The study presented in the current project may be useful to design molecules that selectively modulate Keap1. The selective recognition mechanism of Keap1 with IKKβ or Nrf2 will be helpful to further know the crosstalk between NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling.
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