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The impact of millennials' travel behavior on future personal vehicle travel

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... Being well immersed in technology, i.e., having grown up with access to digital, mobile, wireless, real-time, and on-demand information, impacts attitudes towards traveling, communication, and the openness of millennials, as these are attributes that are developed during the early stages of life (Axhausen 2007). In terms of the residential location choice and travel behavior, millennials tend to be more urban, own fewer cars and are more frequent users of on-demand and digital shared services than preceding generations (Delbosc and Nakanishi 2017; (Astroza et al., 2017b); Klein and Smart 2017;Hopkins 2016;Polzin et al. 2014;Kuhnimhof et al. 2012). As for mobility behavior, higher flexibility with regard to travel mode choice is observed in individuals of this generation, which is characterized by a multimodal travel behavior, as they choose the best-suited mode according to the travel characteristics -"customization of travel" (Delbosc and Nakanishi 2017). ...
... Other researchers argue that economic circumstances, rather than the modification of desires, preferences, or attitudes towards sustainability, are the reason for changes in car usage and ownership levels. Thus, decreases in car ownership can be explained by budget constraints and financial stress, as a result of the 2008 economic recession, the uncertainty related to job security, the occupational status of young adults (begin of career or students), and even delays in lifecycle milestones (Garikapati et al. 2016;Polzin et al. 2014;Klein and Smart 2017). ...
... However, some researchers are more concerned with how millennials' travel patterns will evolve over time than with the reasons why their behavior differs from other generational cohorts (Polzin et al. 2014;Garikapati et al. 2016;Hopkins 2016). Whether millennials remain car-averse will also depend on the conditions they encounter in future cities (Delbosc and Ralph 2017). ...
Article
Temporary transnational relocation is a growing type of migration. However, travel behavior adaptation of highly skilled temporary residents and its urban impacts have largely been ignored. This study extends the knowledge of mobility biographies, mobility cultures, and mobility of millennials by examining how temporary residents adapt their intra-urban travel behavior in response to a transnational relocation. The data used here comes from semi-structured interviews with students and researchers of nine different nationalities, aged between 19 and 31 years, temporarily living in Portugal (Lisbon or Porto). We found supporting evidence for the occurrence of residential self-selection, although prior information on study/workplace combined with low knowledge on neighborhood-level make it somewhat specific. Given their shortterm perspective, temporary residents are more prone to rely on public transport and non-motorized modes, having a low likelihood of purchasing vehicles. Thus, measures aimed at improving and facilitating the use of active modes can have an immediate effect on this group's travel behavior and contribute to reaching critical mass for these sustainable alternatives. Temporary residents are also a potentially interesting market segment for public transportation operators for increases in revenues, as they tend to display a relatively higher travel intensity and a wider diversity of activities and destinations. Finally, technology usage was found to reduce the stress-related to traveling to unfamiliar places by increasing the perceived spatial orientation, having the downside of generating a feeling of confidence that decreases the internalization of information. Providing timely and persuasive information at the very beginning of temporary residents' stay can help induce their travel behavior decisions.
... To answer this question, scholars have identified several factors that influenced the travel behaviors of Millennials in the early 2010s. These factors include recession, delayed life cycles, and residence in urban neighborhoods (Blumenberg, Ralph, Smart, & Taylor, 2016;Garikapati, Pendyala, Morris, Mokhtarian, & McDonald, 2016;McDonald, 2015;Polzin, Chu, & Godfrey, 2014;. Millennials have started to move from urban to suburban neighborhoods because of their increased income and plans for having children (Casselman, 2015). ...
... Blumenberg et al. (2016) used data from the nationwide travel surveys conducted in 1990, 2001, and 2009 and found that unemployment was the largest contributing factor to the reduced mobility of these young adults. Garikapati et al. (2016) These factors include the Millennials' higher educational levels, their delayed life cycles such as household formation and having children, their preference of urban/suburban areas as opposed to rural areas, and the economic recessions (Polzin et al., 2014). McDonald (2015) used nationwide travel survey data from 1995, 2001, and 2009 to quantitatively decompose the factors that contribute to the decline of automobile travel among young adults. ...
... In 2017, the US economy has recovered from the recent recession, which was at its deepest when the 2009 NHTS was conducted. These findings using the 2017 data supports the arguments of Polzin et al. (2014) and Smart and Klein (2017) that some characteristics in travel may be consistent over time regardless of economic conditions. Pseudo R-squared 0.0133 0.0279 Note: Standard errors in parentheses, *, **, *** indicate p<0.1, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using U.S. nationwide travel surveys for 1995, 2001, 2009 and 2017, this study compares Millennials with their previous generation (Gen Xers) in terms of their automobile travel across different neighborhood patterns. At the age of 16–28 years old, Millennials have lower daily personal vehicle miles traveled and car trips than Gen Xers in urban (higher-density) and suburban (lower-density) neighborhoods. Such differences remain unchanged after adjusting for the socio-economic, vehicle ownership, life cycle, year-specific and regional-specific factors. In addition, the associations between residential density and automobile travel for the 16–28-year-old Millennials are flatter than that for Gen Xers, controlling for the aforementioned covariates. These generational differences remain for the 24–36-year-old Millennials, during the period when the U.S. economy was recovering from the recession. These findings show that, in both urban and suburban neighborhoods, Millennials in the U.S. are less auto-centric than the previous generation during early life stages, regardless of economic conditions. Whether such difference persists over later life stages remains an open question and is worth continuous attention.
... Zaprvé se jedná o nahrazení cest (trip substitution), kdy díky ICT může být řada každodenních kontaktů zprostředkována na dálku (teleworking, online shopping). Nahrazení fyzického kontaktu virtuálním může snižovat poptávku po přepravě zvláště u pracovních a nákupních účelů cest (McDonald, 2015) a může vést i k nižší potřebě vlastnit vozidlo (Polzin et al., 2014). Nicméně vedle substituce cest může docházet i k jejich redistribuci, kdy ušetřený čas a peníze mohou lidé využívat pro jiné aktivity spojené cestováním, nebo i ke stimulaci, kdy širší informovaný přehled jednotlivců vede k cestám za novými aktivitami či do nových lokalit (Lyons, 2015) Zadruhé se jedná o multitasking, tedy vykonávání dalších aktivit prostřednictvím ICT během cestování. ...
... V době velké hospodářské krize v letech 2007 až 2009 a následném období zotavování ekonomiky (2010 až 2013) vstupovala generace miléniálů do produktivního věku (členům generace bylo mezi 16 až 32 lety v daném období). Nezaměstnanost, studentské půjčky a omezené možností sociální mobility (Polzin et al., 2014) ovlivnily u dané generace výši příjmů, a tedy i disponibilních prostředků využitelných například pro nákup vozidla. Omezené zdroje příjmů a složité ekonomické podmínky vyvolaly větší zájem o služby sdílené ekonomiky (Lutz, 2014;O'Connell, 2015) včetně sektoru dopravy (např. ...
... Proto aby plně uspokojili své dopravní potřeby jsou ochotni více využívat různých druhů dopravy (Delbosc and Nakanishi, 2017). Tomuto chování napomáhá i celkově vyšší míra vzdělání u této generace (Polzin et al., 2014). I z tohoto důvodu jsou mileniálové více otevření k využívání multimodální dopravy. ...
Book
S dynamickým vývojem automatizace v posledním desetiletí přichází do systému osobní dopravy i trend autonomní mobility (CCAM), tj. nových přepravních (mobilitních) služeb využívajících technologii autonomních vozidel. Celá vize autonomní mobility navíc funguje v synergii se službami C-ITS, elektromobilitou a systémy MaaS. Jedná se tedy o sérii inovací, na které se budou v horizontu 10 let muset města a regiony připravit. Kniha je průvodcem v tématu, poskytuje orientaci potřebnou pro rozhodování o politikách, realizaci pilotů, tvorbu strategických, koncepčních či metodických dokumentů a doplňuje metodiku zavádění AV technologií do měst o potřebný kontext. Celkově kniha postihuje historii a současnost vývoje CAD, stupně automatizace řízení SAE, společenské, technologické a spotřební trendy, lidský faktor, kontext transformace, lokální i evropskou veřejnou politiku, automatizaci řízení vozidel a autonomní mobilitu, systémy automatizace řízení a HD mapy, nové mobilitní služby, systém MaaS, proces akceptace a adopce, inteligentní dopravní systémy, jejich služby a aplikace a elektromobilitu. Full-text: https://www.shopcdv.cz/cs/autonomni-mobilita-pro-21-stoleti
... comparing to students without a personal vehicle (36). 42 ...
... The statistically significant influencing factors for Via Shopping Shuttle ridership indicate that 35 domestic students are less likely to use Via Shopping shuttle as compared to international students. 36 Similarly, respondents from households with at least one vehicle were less likely to be frequent users as 37 compared to respondents with 0 vehicle households. Respondents satisfied with the wait times for the Via 38 ...
... often car dependent (36). Accordingly, public transit planners on the college campus should identify the 10 students' vehicle ownership to determine the proper level of public transit needs for transit-dependent 11 students. ...
Conference Paper
Universities across the United States manage their own transit services to provide affordable and convenient mobility options to their students, staff, and faculty. Due to their subsidized rates, university people often prefer these transit services as compared to other mobility options available publicly to everyone. Ridership trends and determinant factors of public transit ridership have been extensively studied in the literature. However, there has not been much focus on how university communities use the dedicated transit options available to them and what are the influencing factors for the ridership of these services. This study is an attempt to bridge this gap by exploring the determinant factors of university transit service ridership by using data from a university campus. Results show that availability of a service at the time of need, accessibility provided by a service to the desired destination, customer service, safety, number of vehicles in the household, and immigration status of users are statistically significant factors associated with ridership of these services. Results also show that a large number of university community members do not use the transit options available to them because they do not know about the existence of these services. The findings of this study could help improve university transportation services to provide better mobility options to university communities.
... To answer this question, scholars have identified several factors that influenced the travel behaviors of Millennials in the early 2010s. These factors include recession, delayed life cycles, and residence in urban neighborhoods (Blumenberg, Ralph, Smart, & Taylor, 2016;Garikapati, Pendyala, Morris, Mokhtarian, & McDonald, 2016;McDonald, 2015;Polzin, Chu, & Godfrey, 2014;. Millennials have started to move from urban to suburban neighborhoods because of their increased income and plans for having children (Casselman, 2015). ...
... Blumenberg et al. (2016) used data from the nationwide travel surveys conducted in 1990, 2001, and 2009 and found that unemployment was the largest contributing factor to the reduced mobility of these young adults. Garikapati et al. (2016) These factors include the Millennials' higher educational levels, their delayed life cycles such as household formation and having children, their preference of urban/suburban areas as opposed to rural areas, and the economic recessions (Polzin et al., 2014). McDonald (2015) used nationwide travel survey data from 1995, 2001, and 2009 to quantitatively decompose the factors that contribute to the decline of automobile travel among young adults. ...
... In 2017, the US economy has recovered from the recent recession, which was at its deepest when the 2009 NHTS was conducted. These findings using the 2017 data supports the arguments of Polzin et al. (2014) and Smart and Klein (2017) that some characteristics in travel may be consistent over time regardless of economic conditions. Pseudo R-squared 0.0133 0.0279 Note: Standard errors in parentheses, *, **, *** indicate p<0.1, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. ...
Preprint
Using U.S. nationwide travel surveys for 1995, 2001, 2009 and 2017, this study compares Millennials with their previous generation (Gen Xers) in terms of their automobile travel across different neighborhood patterns. At the age of 16 to 28 years old, Millennials have lower daily personal vehicle miles traveled and car trips than Gen Xers in urban (higher-density) and suburban (lower-density) neighborhoods. Such differences remain unchanged after adjusting for the socio-economic, vehicle ownership, life cycle, year-specific and regional-specific factors. In addition, the associations between residential density and automobile travel for the 16- to 28-year-old Millennials are flatter than that for Gen Xers, controlling for the aforementioned covariates. These generational differences remain for the 24- to 36-year-old Millennials, during the period when the U.S. economy was recovering from the recession. These findings show that, in both urban and suburban neighborhoods, Millennials in the U.S. are less auto-centric than the previous generation during early life stages, regardless of economic conditions. Whether such difference persists over later life stages remains an open question and is worth continuous attention.
... Regarding transport and land use, Millennials have been capturing the attention of transportation professionals ever since they came of age, with increased preferences for living in urban centers (Delbosc and Nakanishi 2017;Okulicz-Kozaryn and Valente 2018), accompanied by reduced rates of licensure (Delbosc and Currie 2013;Schoettle 2011, 2012), vehicle ownership, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (Hopkins 2016;Kuhnimhof et al. 2012;Polzin et al. 2014), leading to them being dubbed the "go-nowhere" generation (Buchholz and Buchholz 2012;McDonald 2015) (in contradiction to their afore-discussed penchant for traveling abroad). Recent work has suggested that differences in transport choices may be attributable to temporary environmental/external factors; for example, as Millennials enter later life stages (i.e., with children/families), lack of affordable options such as urban housing (among other reasons) may be causing their behavioral patterns to converge with those of prior generations (Delbosc and Nakanishi 2017;Garikapati et al. 2016;Lavieri et al. 2017). ...
... As discussed in the "Background" section, a substantial body of work indicates that Millennials have been bucking the upward trend on car ownership and VMT (Buchholz and Buchholz 2012;Delbosc and Currie 2013;Kuhnimhof et al. 2012;McDonald 2015;Polzin et al. 2014;Schoettle 2011, 2012), with recent concern in the literature about the stability of this deviation (Blumenberg et al. 2012;Delbosc and Nakanishi 2017;Garikapati et al. 2016;Lavieri et al. 2017;Newbold and Scott 2017). In this study, this construct measures attitudes toward car ownership, with one indicator related to general attitudes toward owning material goods. ...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable recent work suggests that Millennials’ behaviors may be converging with those of Generation X as they enter later life stages, but few have investigated whether attitudes, which are often strong predictors of behavior, are undergoing the same convergence. In this study, we analyze the existing generational gap in four transportation-related attitudes (currently pro-urban, long-term pro-urban, pro-car ownership, and pro-environment), and examine the differential effects of other characteristics, including life-stage variables, on these attitudinal gaps. We apply the threefold Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method to a statewide (weighted) sample of 1029 Millennials and 946 Generation Xers from California to unravel these effects. The method distinguishes among: (1) effects due to the cohorts having different characteristics (endowments); (2) effects due to those characteristics having different influences on attitudes (coefficients); and (3) the interaction of those two effects. We observe that Millennials’ attitudes: (1) differ from those of Generation X only by small, albeit statistically significant, amounts on average; and (2) are closer to those of Generation X as they gain on a host of life-stage variables such as marital status, income, and education. For example, if Millennials were married, employed, and earning higher incomes at the same rates as Generation X (but retaining their own model coefficients), the generational gap in the currently pro-urban attitude would be reduced by 24%. This study brings an econometric approach to the study of generational divides in transportation-related attitudes, with findings suggesting that Millennials might be leaving part of their uniqueness behind as they enter later life stages.
... First, there are slight differences across existing literature regarding the exact period in which this generation was born. This can range anytime between the early 1980s and 2000 (Credo, Lanier, Matherne, & Cox, 2016;Polzin, Chu, & Godfrey, 2014). Some researchers believed that the specific years were between 1982 and 2002 (Howe and Strauss, as cited in Graybill, 2014), between 1980and 1999(Ng et al., 2010, between 1992 and 1999 (Twenge et al., 2010), or between 1982and 2001(Martin, 2009). ...
... In addition, Millennials are no longer as attracted to driving and owning motorised private vehicles as the previous generations (Cheng & Chen, 2015;Goldberg, 2014;Focas & Bézaguet, 2016;Polzin et al., 2014;Sivak & Schoettle, 2012aSpeck, 2012). The decline in the ownership of driver's license among young people have been identified by various studies done by Schoettle and Sivak (2013;Sivak & Schoettle, 2011. ...
Thesis
Sustainable transportation development is among the many Global Sustainable Development goals and targets recognised by the United Nations. Identifying and understanding leisure mobility styles is one way to achieve this goal, in which the Millennial generation and emerging mid-sized cities play important roles. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of focus on Millennials in smaller cities in the field of leisure mobility research, particularly in Canada. This is a case study which explored leisure mobility styles of the Millennial generation in the City of Nanaimo for two purposes: to contribute to the knowledge base about leisure mobility in the academic world, and to help the city understand Millennials’ needs and barriers in accessing leisure in order to attract and retain these young talents. A convergent parallel mixed methods approach was implemented using three data collection methods: an online survey (N = 195 respondents), a Facebook group discussion (N = 16 participants), and a traditional focus group (N = 9 participants). Munafò (2015)’s classification of activities for leisure travel was adopted in this study: compactophile (activities done in urban settings) and naturophile (activities done in natural settings). This classification was used to test Orfeul and Soleyret (2002)’s compensation theory in leisure travel – a theory that refuted the sustainable value of compact cities with efficient public transportation as residents offset their low daily carbon footprint by travelling further away for leisure on the weekend. The results show that Millennials in Nanaimo frequently partook in compactophile activities within Nanaimo while wishing that they could participate in naturophile activities more often. One of the most prominent barriers was transportation. In order to negotiate this leisure constraint, Millennials in Nanaimo relied on social relationships, which created two interrelated leisure mobility styles: the Independents (those with a car) and the dependents (those depending on friends with a car). The compensation theory in leisure travel within the context of Nanaimo could be neither confirmed nor refuted. However, it was clear that those living in less dense areas of the city were more mobile for leisure purposes than those living in denser areas. The results, together with the suggestions of Millennials themselves, determined that transportation played an essential role in meeting the leisure needs of this generation, which should be one of the city’s priorities in its sustainable development strategies.
... A post-materialism index based on respondent expressions of attitudes towards materialist and post-materialist social goals can be constructed using data from the World Values Survey-Wave 6 (WVS), administered over the period 2010-2014(World Values Survey Association, 2015, and is referred to here as the Inglehart post-materialism index. The construction of the index is set out in Table 1 where all WVS variables used in the following are described. ...
... Complementary to higher-density living by younger generations in the USA, the rate of car ownership and the miles of driving undertaken by Millennials is less than their older peers (Polzin, Chu, and Godrey, 2014). Higher urban densities support more of the publicly shared experience opportunities afforded by parks, libraries, public squares, museums, art galleries, entertainment and sports venues, spaces for group meetings and public demonstrations, street cafes, and more that provide opportunities for a post-material mode of living (Markusen, 2006;Markusen and Gadwa, 2010;Markusen and Schrock, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
A recent article in this journal, 'Achieving a Post-Growth Green Economy', argued that a turn to post-material values by younger generations may be setting the stage for a more environmentally friendly, post-growth green global economy. To expand the foundations for the possible emergence of such an economy, the current article offers empirical evidence from the World Values Survey for the propositions that individual post-material values and experiences leads to (1) a reduction in consumption-oriented activities, (2) a shift to more environmentally friendly forms of life that include living at higher, more energy efficient urban densities, (3) having families with fewer children, and (4) greater political support for environmental improvement. Such behavioral shifts provide a foundation for a no-growth, or even a negative-growth, economy among the affluent nations of the world leading to declining rates of energy and materials throughput to the benefit of a healthier global biosphere.
... Millennials are generally less likely to make substantial investments in private vehicles (Thompson and Weissmann 2012). This generation has a lower driver's license and car ownership rate and made fewer trips with lower vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (Polzin et al. 2014;Sivak and Schoettle 2011;Delbosc and Currie, 2013;Blumenberg et al. 2016). ...
... Also, Millennials showed a higher likelihood of not owning a vehicle due to their daily trips in short distances. This is also consistent with the literature (Thompson and Weissmann 2012;Polzin et al. 2014), which indicated that the younger generations preferred urban lifestyle with more options for transit and non-motorized modes and close proximity to daily activities. The t-test results showed that the difference between the mean of all attitudinal indicators was statistically significant between the two generations. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a study investigating the potential market of ridesourcing services, with a focus on the attitudinal and preferential differences between Millennials and Generation Xers. Data obtained from a stated preference survey were utilized, where the respondents were asked to choose between a conventional mode (private vehicle driver, transit, or private vehicle passenger) and ridesourcing modes (exclusive ride and shared ride). Error component nested logit models were developed for Generation Xers and Millennials, respectively. Latent attitudes derived through factor analysis were incorporated into models. A wide range of attitudinal indicators, including general mobility attitudes, perceived benefits and concerns of shared mobility services, reasons for or against owning a car, reasons for ridings Autonomous Vehicles (AV), and the most desired AV features were considered to extract latent attitudes. Model results indicated distinct mode choice behavior between Millennials and Generation Xers. For Generation Xers, the choice to switch to ridesourcing was highly dependent on the perceived time and cost benefits of shared mobility. On the other hand, Millennials’ choices were more likely to be influenced by their attitudes or desire toward technology, on-demand services, and driving stress relief. Interestingly, the joy of driving showed a negative impact on Millennials' use of shared-ride services only. The findings from this study provide a more in-depth understanding of the distinct behavior of Generation Xers and Millennials toward shared mobility services, which could help develop strategies and policies to focus more effectively on the needs and concerns of individuals based on their characteristics and attitudes and help promote sustainable transportation system.
... Millennials are increasingly drawing the attention of urban researchers and policymakers. Recent research reports that they delay getting driver's licenses (Blumenberg et al. 2016;Delbosc 2017;Hjorthol 2016;Thigpen and Handy 2018), own fewer private vehicles (Klein and Smart 2017;Polzin, Chu, and Godfrey 2014), and drive less than preceding generations when entering adulthood (McDonald 2015;Wang 2019). Unless these trends are associated with lower levels of access to opportunities (Ralph 2017), transportation professionals and policymakers may view this as a signal for realizing the sustainable mobility vision. ...
... The results are not surprising as men are more likely to spend more time at work and on social and recreational activities while women tend to spend more time shopping and conducting household-serving activities (Hanson and Hanson 1980). Polzin, Chu, and Godfrey (2014), Wang (2019), and Blumenberg et al. (2016) have found that having higher education degrees exposes a significant and positive effect on young adults' automobility. Our results show that holding higher education degrees increase the driving distances for commuting, running errands, and social and recreational activities among young adults on weekdays. ...
Article
Personal vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in the United States has seen a dip from 2004 to 2014, owing to the recent economic recession. News reports and academic articles relate this change to Millennials’ (those born in the last two decades of the twentieth century) travel patterns. Some researchers argue that the existing mobility patterns of Millennials may not persist as the U.S. economy fully recovers from the Great Recession. This study examines the changes in automobile travel patterns across generations. The empirical study builds on three most recent nationwide travel surveys. Research results reveal that residential location choice and life course events have stronger associations with Millennials’ automobility travel patterns than those of Gen Xers. We also find as personal wealth increases, the Millennials generation will not increase auto mileage as much as the preceding generations. Analyzing the driving distances by trip purposes while accounting for the differences between weekdays and weekends offers timely insights on formulating effective policy provisions for specific periods or planning targets.
... They observe that millennials have pragmatic attitudes towards car ownership, are more conscious of the negative externalities of driving, are more informed about environmental and public health issues, prefer closer access to vibrant parts of cities, and are more willing to substitute virtual contacts for physical trips (Couture & Handbury, 2017;Delbosc & Currie, 2014;Hopkins, 2016;Puhe & Schippl, 2014;Raymond, Dill, & Lee, 2018;Smith & Page, 2016;Taylor, Doherty, Parker, & Krishnamurthy, 2014;Vij, Carrel, & Walker, 2013). Since these explanations have different implications for planning and policy, it is important to assess the contribution of various factors to current travel patterns of millennials and understand what these mean for possible changes to their travel in the near future (Delbosc & Ralph, 2017;Polzin, Chu, & Godfrey, 2014). Lee, Y., Circella, G., Mokhtarian, P. L., & Guhathakurta, S. (accepted). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Millennials tend to use a variety of travel modes more often than older birth cohorts. Two potential explanations for this phenomenon prevail in the literature. According to the first explanation, millennials often choose travel multimodality at least in part because of the effects of the economic crisis, which affected young adults more severely than their older counterparts. Another explanation points to the fact that millennials may have fundamentally different preferences from those of older birth cohorts. This paper presents an examination of millennials' travel behavior as compared to the preceding Generation X, based on a survey of 1,069 California commuters. It shows that millennials adopt multimodality more often than Gen Xers, on average. However, the analysis also points to substantial heterogeneity among millennials and indicates that, perhaps contrary to expectations and the stereotype in the media, the majority of millennials are monomodal drivers in California. The paper contributes to the literature on millennials' mobility in several ways. First, it rigorously classifies various forms of travel multimodality (on a monthly basis and distinctively taking trip purpose into account) through the analysis of a rich dataset that includes individual attitudes and preferences; second, it explores gradual changes of multimodality across age and generation; and third, it analyzes the effects of various demographic, built environment, and attitudinal attributes on the adoption of multimodality.
... In the study of Garikapati et al. [16], those differences were visible not for all mobility patterns but for non-motorized modes and public transport. Polzin et al. [112] proved that Y Generation presents different travel behavior than the preceding generations when being at the same age as Y's are now, and identified several factors such as residential location, race, employment and economic status, living arrangements, licensure status. In the subsequent studies, a more complex analysis will be made to compare the set of variables influencing the mobility patterns of young adults to sets presented in the literature [11,33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Generational change is one of the vital socioeconomic forces affecting the global economic environment. In many studies, the youngest generations are presented as the ones changing the market trends. This can also be observed in areas of travel demand and mobility patterns. However, research on those topics in many countries, for many societies, is scarce. This study aimed to examine the travel behavior of Polish young adults, namely students living in the Tricity area. Factor analysis and ANOVA were used to analyze the data gathered via an online survey assessing the characteristics of mobility patterns of students born between 1981 and 1999. Factor analysis allowed grouping the attitudes towards traveling among those young adults (Y Generation, Y’s, Y Gen). Three factors were identified, and they were associated with luxury and self-expression, freedom and comfort, safety and environmental friendliness. The driver’s characteristics were the least consistent with the classic image of typical Y’s, and those using the active commute—the most. In turn, the largest group were people using public transport, which partially presented convergent opinions with drivers and users of the active commute. It turned out that the car drivers, active commuters and respondents utilizing public transport differed not only in their behavior and presentation of Y Gen characteristics but also in their attitude towards categories such as comfort, desire for luxury, economy or ecology. This study is a complex analysis of the mobility patterns of students in the Tricity area. It presents the set of variables influencing the travel demand of the chosen age group. The study also compares the presented travel choices with those declared by representatives of other nations. Finally, it indicates the next research problems to be addressed in future research.
... A well-known fact from the field of marketing is: "Consumer is the king" and it is hard to expect that consumers will accept new technology which brings more discomfort. However, a recent research shows a significant reduction in distance younger generations travel, which might help EVs to become a preferable option [128]. To conclude; while already today an average distance EVs can cover will satisfy over 90% of consumer needs, it seems that the average range should increase above 350 km (for single battery charging) for EV to reach wider adoption [125]. ...
Article
Although most of energy and environmental policies worldwide have set targets with the goal to shift from classic fossil fuel driven vehicles to electrified transport, the share of electric vehicles (EV) is still rather low. The complexity of changing the human perception of transportation goes beyond technical and economic aspects and very few research activities managed to capture the additional factors. This paper delivers a comprehensive analysis of political, economic, social, technical, legislative and environmental aspects and rigorously assesses achievability of the EV integration goals. In addition to a detailed literature review of all the relevant aspects, this paper presents a hybrid methodology based on techniques from economics and integrated risk management. The results of this hybrid method are expressed as risk matrix and map and point out the most significant obstacles in achieving higher presence of EVs on the roads in the near future.
... They observe that millennials have pragmatic attitudes towards car ownership, are more conscious of the negative externalities of driving, are more informed about environmental and public health issues, prefer closer access to vibrant parts of cities, and are more willing to substitute virtual contacts for physical trips (Couture and Handbury 2017;Delbosc and Currie 2014;Hopkins 2016;Puhe and Schippl 2014;Raymond et al. 2018;Smith and Page 2016;Taylor et al. 2014;Vij et al. 2013). Since these explanations have different implications for planning and policy, it is important to assess the contribution of various factors to current travel patterns of millennials and understand what these mean for possible changes to their travel in the near future (Delbosc and Ralph 2017;Polzin et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Millennials tend to use a variety of travel modes more often than older birth cohorts. Two potential explanations for this phenomenon prevail in the literature. According to the first explanation, millennials often choose travel multimodality at least in part because of the effects of the economic crisis, which affected young adults more severely than their older counterparts. Another explanation points to the fact that millennials may have fundamentally different preferences from those of older birth cohorts. This paper presents an examination of millennials’ travel behavior as compared to the preceding Generation X, based on a survey of 1069 California commuters. It shows that millennials adopt multimodality more often than Gen Xers, on average. However, the analysis also points to substantial heterogeneity among millennials and indicates that, perhaps contrary to expectations and the stereotype in the media, the majority of millennials are monomodal drivers in California. The paper contributes to the literature on millennials’ mobility in several ways. First, it rigorously classifies various forms of travel multimodality (on a monthly basis and distinctively taking trip purpose into account) through the analysis of a rich dataset that includes individual attitudes and preferences; second, it explores gradual changes of multimodality across age and generation; and third, it analyzes the effects of various demographic, built environment, and attitudinal attributes on the adoption of multimodality.
... Young adults distinguish themselves from earlier generations for being less willing to purchase vehicles (Garikapati et al. 2016) as proven by the lower rates of car ownership (McDonald 2015;Polzin et al. 2014). This scenario can be explained by several features that clearly set this generation apart from the previous ones. ...
Article
This paper aims to investigate young adults’ lived experiences about car sharing as a mobility option which may be complementary or substitute to the ownership of a car. We purposefully select a sample of young adults between 18 and 35 years old, living respectively in Milan and Amsterdam, two of the most advanced European towns for sharing services. In interviewing these groups of consumers, we find the emergence of some paradoxical consumption behaviors in relation to mobility choices, thus contributing to consumer culture theory literature about sharing consumption behaviors. First, respondents firmly declare a car is not a means to express their identity or status, but at the same time associate car ownership to social status. Second, they seem to be “sharing proud” as they praise car sharing for being a pragmatic and wise money-saving solution as well as a symbol of innovation, dynamism and youthful lifestyle. Yet, they at the same time perceive a feeling of “sharing shame” they think car sharing is a fallback owing to the inability to afford an own car, therefore there are situations in which they feel ashamed of showing up with a shared car.
... For the purpose of the study, alumni from Millennials or Gen-Y generation were examined. Studies on Millennials had gained interest especially in the context of workplace attitude (such as Deal et al., 2010;Myers and Sadaghiani, 2010), consumption patterns (such as Polzin et al., 2014;Smith and Brower, 2012), ethical behaviour (such as Bucic et al., 2012), digital marketing (such as Bergman et al., 2011;Smith, 2012), and lacking in term of social concerns such as on donor and giving. In addition, previous studies on alumni donation claimed that donor behaviour positively associated with age whereby the older alumni would be more willing to donate (Toker and Konkaton, 2008). ...
... We also added a dummy variable for rural area, as some previous works pointed out that travel distances in rural areas are higher than the cities (Polzin et al. (2014)) due to their lack of public transportation system (Kasraiana et al. (2018), Ralph et al. (2016)) and the relatively low level of congestion compared to urban areas (Noland (2011)) eventually consuming more gasoline (Wadud et al. (2010) ...
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We explore factors influencing travel distances in Japan, through investigating income group, region, hybrid interest, travel purposes, vehicle type, and demographics, with the data collected by surveys. Then we estimate whether factors increasing travel distances also increase fuel usages in the transportation sector. We confirm several findings: First, we find that hybrid ownership would increase travel distances regardless of income level and hybrid interest. Second, our results indicate that income has a positive relationship with travel distances. However, we also find the people from the top income group would drive less than the general public. Results also indicate that the factors increasing travel distance would also increase fuel usage, for example, hybrid ownership would both increase travel distances and fuel consumption: which is a form of "Green Paradox". The results imply the existence of travel distance and fuel usage rebounds mainly caused by hybrid vehicle owners and the need for implementing differentiated policies, primarily according to the socio-demographical identity of individuals. JEL Classification: L62, Q40, Q48, Q58
... They tend to drive less miles per year and delay the purchase of vehicles due to economic strains. 868 In many cases, their acquisition power is limited due to the rising proportion of their income needed to cover student debt, which rose from an average of $13,000 in 2005 to $21,000 in 2014. 869 If the penetration of AV relied on twentieth century purchase patterns, then their expected efficiencies could take several generations to become a reality. ...
... Although, this study does not provide a strong evidence about the cause of the increase in walking/bicycling to school proportions, there could be factors beyond the scope of this study that influence most recent travel attitudes. For example, considering that the children who were surveyed during the year 2017 belong to generation Z, they are likely to have differing attitudes from earlier generations (Polzin et al., 2014) and their travel choices are bound to be different Parkany et al., 2004), in a similar way as residential locations and other lifestyles (Circella et al., 2017). Additionally, recent increase in the number of charter schools in the US (Snyder et al., 2019) could also have an impact on school distance and hence school travel modes. ...
Article
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The study explores the recent trends in school travel using the 2017 National Household Travel Survey data. The study also investigates the exogenous factors affecting the school travel mode choice using random parameters multinomial logit (RPMNL) model. The results indicate that urban school trips range between 3 and 5 miles, whereas, average rural trips are longer than 6 miles. School commute times are higher among lower-income households. Further, the share of school bus and auto has declined while that of walking and biking has increased in 2017. This change is significant among high school students. Like other studies, the findings of the RPMNL model confirm that students within shorter distances from school are more likely to walk or bike to school. However, the likelihood of riding a school bus for distances >15 miles is higher than that of auto, indicating a policy implication to support school transportation budgets, especially in rural school districts. Lower-income households have a higher likelihood of riding the school bus. Females are more likely to use a car and less likely to bike to school. Interestingly, households with more than three vehicles are more likely to use the school bus compared to no-vehicle households. Children living in rented houses are less likely to ride the school bus or car. Also, an increase in gas price is indirectly but positively linked with walking, biking, and auto use. The findings from this study will assist policymakers in formulating policies and planning decisions towards improvements in the current school travel trends.
... They are reported to have different attitudes, behaviors, consumption patterns, and lifestyles compared to earlier generations at the same life stage. In transportation research, millennials are reported to have lower rates of driver's license and car ownership (Delbosc & Currie, 2013;Dutzik et al., 2014;Thakuriah et al., 2010), drive less (Frändberg & Vilhelmson, 2013;McDonald, 2015;Kuhnimhof et al., 2012), use alternative modes more often (Blumenberg et al., 2012;Dutzik et al., 2014;Garikapati et al., 2016), and generally undertake fewer trips and travel fewer miles on a daily basis (McDonald, 2015;Polzin et al., 2014). Dramatic socioeconomic changes, such as delayed marriages and transitions into adulthood have contributed to sustainable mobility patterns, e.g. ...
Article
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Although young people’s mobility behaviors and their association with information and communications technologies (ICT) usage have been extensively researched, few studies have considered the relationship between changes in the use of ICT over time and young people’s travel patterns. This paper explores how use of the Internet during adolescence/late childhood and the degree of change while transitioning from late childhood to adulthood is related to sustainable travel patterns in young adults. We are particularly interested in the mediating role that attitudes towards the environment have on the relationship between early age Internet use and sustainable travel in young adults. The use of rich, longitudinal datasets, the 2004 British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the Understanding Society Survey (Wave 4, 2012/14), allow an investigation of these attitudes and relationships for the same people from childhood to adulthood. We use structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the complex interrelationships between young adults’ Internet use over time, their travel modes and attitudes towards the environment, and other related behaviors. Our key finding is that consistently high levels of Internet use between adolescence and young adulthood is associated with the formation of environmental attitudes. While other factors not considered in this study might also have an effect, we find that these attitudes are indirectly but significantly associated with young adults’ sustainable travel patterns and behaviors.
... When compared with older generations, young adults nowadays are more likely to live in densely populated urban areas which are well served by public transport (Delbosc and Nakanishi 2017;Melia et al. 2018;Oakil et al. 2016), and these young adults are said to show a weak preference for cars but are open to any travel modes that are suitable (Delbosc and Nakanishi 2017). The slow rate of economic recovery since the Global Financial Crisis has also contributed to the decreasing automobile orientation (licensure, ownership, and use) among young adults (Polzin et al. 2014;Ralph 2015;Williams 2017). ...
Article
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Objective The UK is one of many high-income countries to experience a decline in driving license acquisition among young adults in the 2000s. This paper draws on newly available nationally representative microdata that captures the progress of individual drivers through the UK driving license acquisition process, to establish socio-demographic correlates. Methods Using the 2016 and 2017 editions of England’s National Travel Survey data, a series of binary logit models were employed to identify factors associated with progression through the various phases of the UK’s driving license acquisition process. Factors that are associated with (1) the frequency of taking the driving license tests, (2) the number of times having failed the theory and driving tests are then identified. Results The socio-demographic explanators considered were each found to be associated with driving license holding in intuitive ways that are consistent with prior literature. However, relatively few factors are significantly associated with progress through the steps of the license acquisition process, and the goodness-of-fit for progress through these intermediate phases are generally lower (indicating that other unobservable idiosyncratic personal or contextual characteristics are dominant in these processes). A consistent theme is the strong relationship with labor market participation. Links between income and the intermediate phases, however, were generally weaker. Age is negatively associated with progress through the early phases when respondents are applying for provisional license and taking theory test, but this relationship turns positive in later stages of the acquisition process. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first opportunity to evaluate this novel data resource covering the UK’s driving license acquisition process. This is an important research direction to help policymakers understand young adults’ delay in acquiring licenses, particularly the extent to which there may be structural inequalities. The main finding is that socio-demographic factors appear to be relatively poor predictors, with employment status the strongest single correlate of the variables that were tested. This paper is concluded with suggestions for designers of household travel surveys in regions where youth license-acquisition is of increasing focus, as well as a brief discussion of future research needs.
... Research considering comparisons among traditional taxis industries and the new mobility as a service MAAS paradigm including services such as Uber or Lyft are limited, which is mainly due to almost all associated technology did not exist before 2010. Nevertheless, there are significant works analyzing MAAS and its possible implications, studies intended to quantify the level of satisfaction perceived by taxi users, and a strong body of literature regarding how users choose their transportation mode [19][20][21]. In addition to this, there is research studying the operative issues of taxis businesses [22,23]. ...
Article
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This paper proposes a modal-shift analysis methodology based on a mix of small-scale primary data and big data sources to estimate the total amount of trips that are reallocated to transportation network companies (TNCs) services in Bogotá, Colombia. The analysis is focused on the following four modes: public transportation, private vehicles, conventional taxis, and TNC services. Based on a stated preferences survey and secondary databases of travel times and costs, the paper proposes a methodology to estimate the reallocation of travel demand once TNCs start operating. Results suggests that approximately one third of public transportation trips are potentially transferred to TNCs. Moreover, potential taxi and private vehicle–transferred trips account for almost 30% of the new TNC demand. Additionally, approximately half of the trips that are reallocated from public transport demand can be considered as complementary, while the remaining share can be considered as potential replacing trips of public transportation. The paper also estimates the potential increase in Vehicle-km travelled in each of the modes before and after substitution as a proxy to the effects of demand reallocation on sustainability, finding increases between 1.3 and 14.5 times the number of Vehicle-km depending on the mode. The paper highlights the role of open data and critical perspectives on available information to analyze potential scenarios of the introduction of disruptive technologies and their spatial, social, and economic implications.
... In particular, the observed decline in car use has been attributed to lower disposable incomes as well as increased vehicle ownership and running costs (Bastian et al. 2016;Klein and Smart 2017;Ralph 2015). In addition, it has been hypothesised that young adults of Generation Y substitute the use of information and communication technologies for physical travel (Kroesen and Handy 2015;Polzin et al. 2014). The second, contrasting view is that members of Generation Y have inherently different preferences, attitudes and values, which manifest in less car-dependent lifestyle choices. ...
Article
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Recent research has contrasted the travel patterns of young adults of Generation Y (or, synonymously, the Millennial Generation) with the travel patterns of earlier generations of young adults such as those belonging to Generation X. Young adults of Generation Y are found to drive less and in some contexts are found to exhibit more multimodal travel patterns and to use public transit more often. Potential causes for these observed shifts in transport mode use have also been theorised: One view is that period effects in the form of contemporaneous changes in socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-technical factors are responsible for the observed shifts in transport mode use; another view is that members of Generation Y have inherently different preferences and values due to formative socio-cultural, socio-economic and historical experiences. Motivated by this yet-to-be-resolved dialectic, this paper uses a hierarchical Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model to examine intergenerational differences in transport mode use among young adults. The model is applied to 23 waves of the German Mobility Panel and captures between-cohort and between-period variation of parameters of interest. The trained model informs a counterfactual prediction exercise aiming to decompose intergenerational differences in transport mode use into demography-, cohort-, and period-specific effects. Our findings suggest that all three sets of effects account for intergenerational differences in transport mode use, while the absolute and relative importance of each set of effects vary across transport modes. For the period from 1998 to 2016, two thirds of the decline in car use can be ascribed to period effects; nearly all of the increase in public transit use and 42% of the increase in bicycling can be ascribed to cohort effects.
... Companies could demonstrate their commitment to safety by requiring CRS use regardless of the state law and providing a CRS when needed. As personal vehicle ownership declines and trips are increasingly likely to take place in ridesharing vehicles and taxis (Polzin et al., 2014), engineering solutions will be needed to provide CRS options that are easily carried and stored, or even built into vehicles. Such added convenience could encourage parents, caregivers and drivers to ensure child passenger safety in rideshare vehicles. ...
Article
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Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young children. Millions of ridesharing trips are taken each day, and use of these services is predicted to increase. Therefore, it is important to examine the safety of children in these vehicles. We conducted a survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged 18 years or older ( N = 2017). Of the total sample, 450 respondents reported being a parent or legal guardian of children below the age of 10. Of these, 307 or 68% had ever used ridesharing. Among those who had used ridesharing, a total of 253 or 82% reported using ridesharing with their children below the age of 10 years. Among this group, rideshare use was significantly higher among individuals with college education, and in higher income households. Given that the majority of U.S. states have legislation exempting rideshare vehicles from child restraint system law coverage, our finding of high rates of rideshare use among parents suggests that a large number of children could be at risk of injury due to a lack of appropriate restraint use.
... Annual household income is also a key predictor to daily driving distance with a relative contribution of 9.8%. This finding implies that higher income not only enables young adults to afford transportation but also allows them to participate in the various discretionary activities that require driving (Polzin et al., 2014). If we cluster the variables into groups, residential location characteristics and economic conditions account for more than 50% of the total contributions to the young adults' daily driving distances. ...
Article
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Whether the Millennials are less auto-centric than the previous generations has been widely discussed in the literature. Most existing studies use regression models and assume that all factors are linear-additive in contributing to the young adults' driving behaviors. This study relaxes this assumption by applying a non-parametric statistical learning method, namely the gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT). Using U.S. nationwide travel surveys for 2001 and 2017, this study examines the non-linear dose-response effects of lifecycle, socio-demographic and residential factors on daily driving distances of Millennial and Gen-X young adults. Holding all other factors constant, Millennial young adults had shorter predicted daily driving distances than their Gen-X counterparts. Besides, residential and economic factors explain around 50% of young adults' daily driving distances, while the collective contributions for life course events and demographics are about 33%. This study also identifies the density ranges for formulating effective land use policies aiming at reducing automobile travel demand.
... Complementary to higher-density living by younger generations in the USA, the rate of car ownership and the miles of driving undertaken by Millennials is less than their older peers (Polzin, Chu, and Godrey, 2014). Higher urban densities support more of the publicly shared experience opportunities afforded by parks, libraries, public squares, museums, art galleries, entertainment and sports venues, spaces for group meetings and public demonstrations, street cafes, and more that provide opportunities for a post-material mode of living (Markusen, 2006;Markusen and Gadwa, 2010;Markusen and Schrock, 2006). ...
... Complementary to higher-density living by younger generations in the USA, the rate of car ownership and the miles of driving undertaken by Millennials is less than their older peers (Polzin, Chu, & Godrey, 2014). Higher urban densities support more of the publicly shared experience opportunities afforded by parks, libraries, public squares, museums, art galleries, entertainment and sports venues, spaces for group meetings and public demonstrations, street cafes, and more that provide opportunities for a post-material mode of living (Markusen, 2006;Markusen & Gadwa, 2010;Markusen & Schrock, 2006). ...
Article
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A transformation in human values in a ‘post-materialist’ direction by middle-class youth around the world may be setting the stage for a new reality of near-zero economic growth and a sustainable and healthy global biosphere. Evidence from the World Values Survey suggests that a global expansion of post-material values and experiences leads to (1) a reduction in consumption-oriented activities, (2) a shift to more environmentally friendly forms of life that include living at higher, more energy efficient urban densities, and (3) active political support for environmental improvement. Such behavioral shifts provide a foundation for a turn to a slow-growth or even no-growth economy in comparatively affluent countries to the benefit of a healthier global biosphere. To set the stage for a ‘post-growth green economy’ that features climate stability and a substantially reduced ecological footprint, the timing is right for a ‘Green New Deal’ that focuses on de-carbonizing the global economy and has the side-benefit of fostering an economic recovery from the Covid-19 global recession currently underway. The financing of global decarbonization by the world’s wealthiest countries is affordable and could stimulate much needed economic improvements in developing countries by creating within them modern, efficient clean energy systems that can serve as a basis for increased economic prosperity. Such prosperity will in turn accelerate declines in population fertility and result ultimately in reduced global population growth.
... As expected, younger individuals appear to be more comfortable with technology, confirming earlier findings reported by Kang et al. (21). Older individuals exhibit a greater likelihood of enjoying driving, which is also consistent with recent literature which suggests that younger generations are eschewing driving in favor of alternative modes of transportation (22,23). The middle age group of 31 to 65 years is less likely to be environmentally conscious relative to other age groups. ...
Article
Transportation has been experiencing disruptive forces in recent years. One key disruption is the development of autonomous vehicles (AVs) that will be capable of navigating roadways on their own without the need for human presence in the vehicle. In a utopian scenario, AVs may enter the transportation landscape and foster a more sustainable and livable ecosystem with shared autonomous electric vehicles (SAEV) serving mobility needs and eliminating the need for private ownership. In a more dystopian scenario, AVs would be personally owned by households-enabling people to live farther away from destinations , inducing additional travel, and roaming roadways with zero occupants. Concerned with the potential deleterious effects of having personal AVs running errands autonomously, this paper aims to shed light on the level of interest in sending AVs to run errands and how that variable affects the intent to own an AV. Using data from a survey conducted in 2019 in four automobile-oriented metropolitan regions in the United States, the relationship is explored through a joint model system estimated using the generalized heterogeneous data model (GHDM) methodology. Results show that even after accounting for socioeconomic and demographic variables as well as latent attitudinal constructs, the level of interest in having AVs run errands has a positive and significant effect on AV ownership intent. The findings point to the need for policies that would steer the entry and use of AVs in the marketplace in ways that avoid a dystopian future.
... Annual household income is also a key predictor to daily driving distance with a relative contribution of 9.8%. This finding implies that higher income not only enables young adults to afford transportation but also allows them to participate in the various discretionary activities that require driving (Polzin et al., 2014). If we cluster the variables into groups, residential location characteristics and economic conditions account for more than 50% of the total contributions to the young adults' daily driving distances. ...
Preprint
Whether the Millennials are less auto-centric than the previous generations has been widely discussed in the literature. Most existing studies use regression models and assume that all factors are linear-additive in contributing to the young adults' driving behaviors. This study relaxes this assumption by applying a non-parametric statistical learning method, namely the gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT). Using U.S. nationwide travel surveys for 2001 and 2017, this study examines the non-linear dose-response effects of lifecycle, socio-demographic and residential factors on daily driving distances of Millennial and Gen-X young adults. Holding all other factors constant, Millennial young adults had shorter predicted daily driving distances than their Gen-X counterparts. Besides, residential and economic factors explain around 50% of young adults' daily driving distances, while the collective contributions for life course events and demographics are about 33%. This study also identifies the density ranges for formulating effective land use policies aiming at reducing automobile travel demand.
... Whites are more car-oriented, Blacks embrace a more diverse lifestyle, and Native Americans are more environmentally friendly. These findings are consistent with those reported in the literature (e.g., Polzin et al. [20,21], Rentziou et al. [22]) and the finding about Native Americans reflects their sensitivity to preserving their lands and ecosystems (23). Hispanics are also found to embrace a more diverse lifestyle, consistent with previous research (24). ...
Article
How does the extent of automobile use affect the level of satisfaction that people derive from their daily travel routine, after controlling for many other attributes including socio-economic and demographic characteristics, attitudinal factors, and lifestyle proclivities and preferences? This is the research question addressed by this paper. In this study, data collected from four automobile-dominated metropolitan regions in the United States (Phoenix, Austin, Atlanta, and Tampa) are used to assess the impact of the amount of driving that individuals undertake on the level of satisfaction that they derive from their daily travel routine. This research effort recognizes the presence of endogeneity when modeling multiple behavioral phenomena of interest and the role that latent attitudinal constructs reflecting lifestyle preferences play in shaping the association between behavioral mobility choices and degree of satisfaction. The model is estimated using the generalized heterogeneous data model (GHDM) methodology. Results show that latent attitudinal factors representing an environmentally friendly lifestyle, a proclivity toward car ownership and driving, and a desire to live close to transit and in diverse land use patterns affect the relative frequency of auto-driving mode use for non-commute trips and level of satisfaction with daily travel routine. Additionally, the amount of driving positively affects satisfaction with daily travel routine, implying that bringing about mode shifts toward more sustainable alternatives remains a formidable challenge—particularly in automobile-centric contexts.
... There is a need for further elaboration and empirical analysis of the variation of ICT impacts on travel behavior across people from different walks of life (Lachapelle and Jean-Germain, 2019;Maat and Konings, 2018). Despite the fact that online shopping may increase freight traffic (Polzin et al., 2014), this study focuses on individual-level activity-travel patterns and travel demand. Induced traffic due to the evolution of e-commerce, such as package deliveries and returns, is beyond the scope of this study. ...
Article
There has been a growing interest in the association between online activities and daily activity-travel patterns. An analysis of this relationship is even more crucial considering the major disruptions to out-of-home activity participation and travel due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study contributes to the literature by exploring the relationships between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use (focusing on telework and online shopping) and time spent traveling using different transportation modes. Using Tobit regression models, we investigate the impacts of ICT use on three travel alternatives: (1) automobile, (2) public transit, and (3) active travel. The results show that the effects of ICT use vary across these three travel modes. For example, all else being equal, respondents with higher durations of telework tend to spend less time on auto and transit. Respondents with higher durations of online shopping spend more time walking and bicycling. This study also explores whether the effects of ICT use on travel durations vary across groups with different socio-demographics and residential location characteristics. For instance, the study finds the greater the level of land-use mixture, the stronger the association between online shopping and time spent bicycling and walking. The research findings can inform planners and decision-makers on the relationships between ICT use and overall travel behavior in order to assess travel demand under different levels of ICT use.
... 295 (Martens, Golub, & Robinson, 2012;Thomopoulos et al., 2009; (Essebo, 2013;Ferreira, Bertolini, & Naess, 2017;Holden & Linnerud, 2015). 305 (Polzin, Vhu, & Godfrey, 2014) 306 (Svedberg, 2013) 307 (Trafikanalys, 2016b) en fortsatt regionförstoring leder till en ökad polarisering av dagens situation 308 eller till att nya problem uppstår. 309 ...
Technical Report
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Trafikanalys fick i regleringsbrevet 2018 uppdraget att ta fram ett kunskapsunderlag om persontransportsituationen i Sverige inom olika trafikslag och färdsätt, såväl nationellt som i storstadsregionerna, i små och medelstora städer samt i gles- och landsbygder. Även internationella resor ska belysas med fokus på övriga länder i Norden. Denna rapport utgör uppdragets slutredovisning och innehåller en kartläggning och analys av möjligheterna att resa för olika grupper i samhället, med ett översiktligt utvecklingsperspektiv till 2050.
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This study aims at investigating public perceptions towards the safety and security implications that will arise after the future introduction of flying cars in the traffic fleet. In this context, we focus on individuals’ opinions about possible safety benefits and concerns as well as about policy measures that can potentially enhance the security of flying car. Due to the emergent nature and lack of public exposure of this technology, individuals’ perceptions and opinions regarding flying cars might be subject to several layers of unobserved heterogeneity, such as shared unobserved variations across interrelated perceptions, grouped effects, and interactive effects between various sources of unobserved heterogeneity. To explore individuals’ perceptions accounting, at the same time, for such heterogeneity patterns, grouped random parameters bivariate probit and correlated grouped random parameters binary probit models with heterogeneity in means are estimated. In this context, data collected from an online survey of 584 individuals from the United States are statistically analyzed. The estimation results revealed that a number of individual-specific socio-demographic, behavioral and driving attributes affect the perceptions towards the safety aspects of flying cars, along with the attitudes towards potential security interventions. Despite the exploratory nature of the analysis, the findings of this study can provide manufacturers, policy-makers and regulating agencies with valuable information regarding the integration and acceptance challenges that may arise with the introduction of flying cars.
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Millennials are the largest generation in the current U.S. population. Their travel preferences and choices have profound implications for the travel industry and transportation policy making. The existing literature, however, has presented mixed findings on whether Millennials differ from their preceding generations in vehicle usage, walking or biking, and transit riding. Furthermore, the majority of the existing studies investigated generational travel at the national level; few have explored the spatial variation of generational travel at the subnational scale. This study examines individuals’ modal shares in daily travel by Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers across megaregions. A unique dataset is assembled with national travel surveys from 1977 to 2017, covering the age spectrum from five years to 71 years for the three generations. The study applies multilevel modeling to capture the dynamic effects associated with generational, megaregional, and period variations on individuals’ modal share. Results of the study show the varying trends of modal shares in different life stages between generations. Millennials in adulthood maintain the highest walk/bike share and the lowest share of vehicle travel among all generations. Megaregional variations exert differentiated influences on individuals’ mode share patterns across generation subgroups. The varying trends of modal shares over the age spectrum across generations highlight the importance of having cohort-tailored initiatives to achieve sustainable transportation objectives. The study’s quantification of megaregional and generational variations on modal shares provides useful information for modal split analysis and other transportation planning practices at the level between states and metropolitan areas.
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Generation effects play a key role in shaping long-term trends in travel behaviors. Though cohorts born until the 1970s have been increasingly car-focused, a reversal of this trend was noticed among the millenials. Determining whether this break-in-trend resulted from changes in living conditions and economic difficulties, or demonstrates a shift in attitudes away from the car, is critical to future travel trends. We bring a contribution to this debate in the French context, through a literature review followed by empirical findings, using the French Base of Local Household Travel Surveys. Through age-cohort analysis, we find evidence of changing travel patterns among the millenials, taking the form of a shift from driving to transit, along with a decline of car ownership. However, travel attitudes of the millenials play little role, as they do not differ substantially from their elders. Besides, we show that generation effects disappear once a large number of structural factors are controlled for. It looks like the main driver of change in travel behaviors comes from a shift in residential patterns, in relation with longer studies and a delayed entrance into the workforce, and possibly because of increasing work pressure, degraded transport conditions and changes in residential attitudes and desired lifestyles. In the end, these assumptions should be further explored, along with complementary research tracks, including the role of economic factors, the effects of learning experience, as well as heterogeneity in travel patterns, in relation with issues of social and spatial equity.
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Several studies have shown that the travel behavior of young adults in the United States in the past two decades differed from that of prior generations. On average, recent young adults drove fewer miles, owned fewer vehicles and made use of public transit more often. A higher share of young adults also chose to live in cities. This study examines the relationship between the location decision of young adults and their travel behavior. We examine how being a young adult and other socioeconomic variables are associated with residential location decisions, and how these in turn affect vehicle ownership, mode choice and travel distance. Our analysis uses household travel survey data from the Seattle regions collected in 2006 and 2017 and employs a recursive structural equation model to examine these questions. We find that young adult households were more likely to live closer to the city center and to have fewer vehicles than older ones. Fewer young adults also chose to own vehicles in 2017 than in 2006. While young adults made more use of non-automobile modes and had fewer person miles traveled, we find that these effects were more due to their residential location and vehicle ownership decisions than due to direct preferences about mode or distance traveled. These findings suggest that significant changes would be expected in the mode use and miles traveled among young adults if their residential location or vehicle ownership preferences change significantly due to life cycle or other factors.
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Chapter 2 explores the social and economic developments that lead to the emergence of mobility-as-a-service. This chapter focuses on the outcomes and implications of the digital transformation, particularly how software has become the main source of value creation and competitive advantage in the automotive industry. Ongoing urbanization serves as a catalyst for creativity, innovation, and job creation but decades of a car-centered policy entail severe negative outcomes. This chapter explores the challenges of urbanization, the rise of superstar cities, and the promise of smart cities. It further delves into how younger generations like millennials or generation Z perceive and value other things than previous generations. They appear less car-crazed, but are also confronted with a striking intergenerational wealth gap, which influences mobility behavior on various levels.
Article
Relatively inexpensive vehicles and public policies that favored a vehicle-centric infrastructure facilitated the movement of families from the confines of urban centers to the periphery of cities in the twentieth century. This phenomenon became known as the first wave of urban sprawl. Its negative effects inspired local policymakers to develop a playbook to fight it, including measures such as zoning and pricing mechanisms directed at commuters, developers, and real estate owners. The advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) in the twenty-first century promises to benefit society in many ways, including reducing congestion and improving access to transportation. Alternatively, this technology may also instigate a new sprawl that jeopardizes the most important source of local government revenue, property taxes. Using scenario development, this article explores the consequences of a future where residents are willing to trade their AV-generated time savings for homes outside of their local government’s jurisdiction, depriving these entities of valuable property tax revenue. It examines how the US policy playbook developed to curtail the first generation of urban sprawl fares in limiting the revenue repercussions of a theoretic AV-induced sprawl.
Article
Millennials will soon become the biggest tourist group to be served because of their sheer numbers as well as their current and potential future income. At the same time, previous studies have shown a decline in national park visitation worldwide which necessitates an investigation into why these numbers are dwindling and how to attract different consumers to the Parks so that appropriate marketing and operational strategies can be drafted. The purpose of this paper was thus to identify the marketing channels that millennials are most likely to use, the types of information that they look for and the marketing methods that will inform and persuade them to visit a holiday destination, and more specifically a National Park. Six focus groups were held with millennials from different life stages, with findings showing that social media seems to be the most popular channel and marketing method to use. The research holds implications for destinations. Proactive participation in social media is needed and tourism marketers should consider how to incorporate millennials' requirements into their general marketing plans and specifically their social media engagement. © 2019 Texas A and M University.
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Reducing vehicle travel distances may eventually be a promising option for reducing oil dependence. However, the factors affecting travel distances have not yet been investigated, which makes the development of effective transportation-related policy difficult. Therefore, we explore factors influencing travel distances in Japan, namely, income group, region, interest in purchasing a hybrid car, travel purposes, vehicle type, and demographics, using data collected through surveys. Subsequently, we examine whether the factors increasing travel distances also increase fuel usage in the transportation sector. Several findings emerge: First, hybrid ownership is positively correlated to travel distances regardless of income level and interest in purchasing a hybrid car (hybrid interest). Second, income level has a positive relationship with travel distances. However, individuals in the high-income group show negative coefficients towards travel distances. The results also show that factors increasing travel distance also positively affect fuel usage except for hybrid ownership. For example, hybrid ownership is positively correlated with both travel distances and fuel consumption, which is a form of the ``green paradox.'' Thus, the contribution of this study is that it provides evidence for the existence of direct rebound effects and wealth inequality in travel behavior and indicates the need for implementing policies based on individuals' socio-demographical identity and type of vehicle ownership.
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Airbnb is viewed as an advocate of small micro medium enterprises (SMMEs) in order to boost their revenue. For instance, in 2016, Airbnb released a report stating that its community generated R2.4 billion in economic activity in SA, which is the estimated sum of guest spending and host income. It is important to elucidate that SA’s tourism fraternity has been amongst the best performing sectors amid the challenges it is faced with. The sharing economy concept requires all tourism stakeholders to work together (public-private partnership) in order to see its fruition. The sharing economy represents the power of the collaborative consumption and become a means to create an additional value chain for the tourism industry, by decreasing the barriers of entry. The Airbnb Africa Academy is a pro-poor skills development and support initiative that was piloted in South Africa, and it has increased access and the success of hosts on the Airbnb platform
Article
China’s cities have witnessed rapid growth of the consumption economy in recent years. The millennials (defined in this study as those born between 1980 and 2000, also known as Generation Y) have become one of the main forces of domestic consumption. Thus, shopping trips of millennials significantly influence the transportation sector in the context of the consumption society. Previous studies intensively investigated the determinants of non-work travel. However, only a few empirical analyses were conducted on the shopping travel behavior of millennials in China’s cities. In addition, few studies integrated the influence of life stages and shopping habits in their analysis of travel behavior. The purpose of the study is to fill these research gaps by taking Beijing as a case. By using travel survey data in Beijing, this study explores the characteristics and determinants of shopping travel by millennials. A multinomial logistic (MNL) model is applied to investigate the travel mode choice of millennials for shopping purposes. A latent class (LC) model is used to further specify segment preferences according to individual life stages and shopping habits. The impacts of several major factors are addressed. These factors include neighborhood built environments, individual subjective attitudes toward travel, and household attributes. Results show that the completed commercial facilities and public transportation connections surrounding the neighborhoods would encourage shopping by walking or cycling. The findings and conclusions could enhance the knowledge of millennials’ travel behavior and contribute to policy-making to encourage sustainable transport by integrating land use and transportation planning strategies.
Article
We investigate consumer preferences for domestically produced white wines compared to foreign wines in Australia. A discrete choice experiment was used to analyze young Australian consumers’ preferences regarding white wine and a latent class model was estimated to take preference heterogeneity into account. We examine the relationship between consumers’ ethnocentrism and preferences for wine from a specific origin. Highly ethnocentric Australian wine consumers are found to strongly prefer Australian wines and to a lesser extent wine from New Zealand compared to otherwise identical French wine, confirming a country-of-origin effect. Carefully considering the information to include on wine labels helps to stimulate consumer demand in certain market segments. Producers can use information regarding consumer preferences for specific wine characteristics to put an attractive and profitable product on the market. For instance, Australian wines might have a domestic advantage over similar foreign wines, if this ‘country of origin’ is brought to the consumers’ attention. Hence, labeling wine as ‘Made in Australia’ is likely to increase the willingness to buy wines amongst a significant subgroup of Australian consumers aged 18–38. Adding other specific labels such as gold or silver medals to the bottle can also attract specific customer segments.
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On current trends in national mobility, underlying socio-demographic conditions and travel behaviour, more moderate rates of annual vehicle miles of travel (VMT) growth will occur in the future. However, congestion growth may remain. This report looks at the factors that influence travel behaviour. Three major categories: socio-economic conditions, land use conditions, and transportation system conditions are addressed. This report concentrates most on the role of the socio-economic conditions and travel behaviour. Many factor trends appear to be reversing. In addition, average travel speeds are declining and this may provide additional dampening of VMT growth. Two forecasts of future VMT are produced presented in the body of the report. [Country: USA]
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