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Customer Service Focus and Mission Articulation as measures of Effectiveness in Higher Education Institutions: Driving Student Success

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  • Kean University and Chamberlain College of Nursing
  • St. John's Univeristy

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http://ijme.cgpublisher.com/product/pub.252/prod.30 Customer Service Focus and Mission Articulation are fundamental measures of organizational effectiveness reflecting the extent to which institutional values are manifested in structures, systems, human resources, and outcomes. Many higher education institutions are interested in better satisfying the needs of students and their families, alumni and benefactors, governments, and employers, to fulfill the aspirations of society at large. To analyze Mission Articulation and Customer Service Focus in higher education, 52 faculty members and administrators from institutions in more than 16 countries were surveyed using the Human Synergistics International Organizational Effectiveness Inventory® (OEI®) Survey. Results revealed that scores from total respondents fell below the Constructive Benchmarks for both parameters, and below the Historical Average (50th percentile) for Customer Service Focus. Subgroup analysis revealed that scores from private and public not-for-profit institutions fell below both the Historical Averages (50th percentiles) and the Constructive Benchmarks for each of the two parameters. By contrast, for-profits approached the Constructive Benchmarks and public for-profits scored significantly higher than not-for-profit subgroups. For Customer Service Focus, scores from faculty, male and female subgroups fell below the Historical Average, while administrators approached the Constructive Benchmark scoring significantly higher than the faculty subgroup. We recommend strengthening the relationship between students and their higher education institutions by improving Mission Articulation and sharpening the focus on student educational needs and outcomes.
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Management Education
An International Journal
ONTHEORGANIZATION.COM
VOLUME 14 ISSUE 1
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Customer Service Focus and Mission
Articulation as Measures of Organizational
Effectiveness in Higher Education Institutions
Driving Student Success
RANA ZEINE, FRANK PALATNICK, CHERYL BOGLARSKY, PATRICK BLESSINGER, BRAD HERRICK, AND MICHAEL HAMLET
MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
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Customer Service Focus and Mission Articulation
as Measures of Organizational Effectiveness in
Higher Education Institutions:Driving Student
Success
Rana Zeine, Saint James School of Medicine, Netherlands
Frank Palatnick, International Agency for Economic Development, USA
Cheryl Boglarsky, Human Synergistics International, USA
Patrick Blessinger, International Higher Education Teaching and Learning Association, USA
Brad Herrick, University of Texas, USA
Michael Hamlet, DeVry College of New York, USA
Abstract: Customer Service Focus and Mission Articulation are fundamental measures of organizational effectiveness
reflecting the extent to which institutional values are manifested in structures, systems, human resources, and outcomes.
Many higher education institutions are interested in better satisfying the needs of students and their families, alumni and
benefactors, governments, and employers, to fulfill the aspirations of society at large. To analyze Mission Articulation
and Customer Service Focus in higher education, 52 faculty members and administrators from institutions in more than
16 countries were surveyed using the Human Synergistics International Organizational Effectiveness Inventory® (OEI®)
Survey. Results revealed that scores from total respondents fell below the Constructive Benchmarks for both parameters,
and below the Historical Average (50th percentile) for Customer Service Focus. Subgroup analysis revealed that scores
from private and public not-for-profit institutions fell below both the Historical Averages (50th percentiles) and the
Constructive Benchmarks for each of the two parameters. By contrast, for-profits approached the Constructive
Benchmarks and public for-profits scored significantly higher than not-for-profit subgroups. For Customer Service
Focus, scores from faculty, male and female subgroups fell below the Historical Average, while administrators
approached the Constructive Benchmark scoring significantly higher than the faculty subgroup. We recommend
strengthening the relationship between students and their higher education institutions by improving Mission Articulation
and sharpening the focus on student educational needs and outcomes.
Keywords: Higher Education, Customer Service Focus, Mission Articulation, Student, Client, Leadership, Management,
Administration, Organizational Effectiveness, Organizational Culture, Not-for-profit, For-profit
Introduction
rticulation of Mission is the extent to which the stated mission is clearly defined,
exemplified and understood by the membership of an organization, while Customer
Service Focus is the extent to which members throughout an organization understand
that they have a responsibility to identify and satisfy the needs of customers/clients (Cooke
1997). These two measures have the potential for impacting organizational outcomes (Szumal
2001). We hypothesize that levels of Mission Articulation and Customer Service Focus are
positively correlated with the organizational effectiveness of higher education institutions,
whether they follow a not-for-profit or a for-profit philosophy. In order to assess Mission
Articulation and Customer Service Focus as indicators of organizational effectiveness in higher
education institutions, we used the Organizational Effectiveness Inventory (OEI®) which is a
validated survey designed to measure attitudinal, behavioral, managerial, and leadership factors
that reliably impact effectiveness (Cooke 1997; Szumal 2001).
Who Are the Customers in Higher Education?
The concept of customer service in teaching and learning has been the subject of vigorous
debates among education professionals (Svensson and Wood 2007). Some universities have
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MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
rejected the notion that students are ‘customers’, arguing that studentship presumes certain roles
and responsibilities, and places limitations on the range of demands that students can make in the
context of ‘customer service’ (Wueste 2009; Schwartzman 1995). However, many higher
education institutions have accepted the analogy that students ought to be treated as clients, and
have developed Student Charters that delineate the student-university relationship accordingly
(Pitman 2000). In our view, clients are very similar to customers, both being persons who
evaluate and pay for products or services that they deem beneficial, while the deliverer aims to
generate repeats of that process as often as possible. There has been a tendency to limit the scope
of ‘customer service’ policies to non-educational services, including dormitories, cafeterias,
bookstores, administration, counseling and support services, lifestyle and recreational attractions,
offered by higher education institutions (Sherry et al. 2004). Yet, the core mission of educational
institutions is the delivery of effective teaching to populations of students within the definition of
each university/college for “effective teaching”. The teaching mission impacts society at large by
developing the human resources needed to sustain it. Students are the primary ‘consumers’ of the
learning experiences offered by educational institutions, and should therefore be at the center of
customer service philosophies that focus on teaching and learning outcomes. In addition to
students, parents, postgraduate trainees, faculty, staff, alumni, benefactors, employers,
governments and the public are all stakeholders who are affected by the effectiveness of Mission
Articulation and the degree of Customer Service Focus manifested by higher education
institutions (Webster and Hammond 2011).
These customer categories hold expectations that may be either harmonious or conflicting
depending on their vested interests; thus, educational institutions might consider the universe of
client needs when formulating their strategic plans (Conway, Mackay, and Yorke 1994).
In response to recent demands by Congress for better analysis of the quality of higher
education in relation to aggregated government investment in higher education institutions, a
model has been proposed that evaluates the value-added through higher education using financial
return on investment for government lenders (Sparks 2011). An elevation in student loan default
rates has occurred over the past several decades and is indicative of the unwillingness of
graduates to pay back their loans due to inadequate earning power. Strengthening the market
orientation of higher education institutions is one approach to improve the chances of success for
graduates. A survey of business school administrators revealed that the higher up the
administrator is within the higher education hierarchy, the higher the levels of reported market
orientation toward students” (Webster, Hammond, and Rothwell 2010).
Student Client Expectations as Primary Customers
When measured together at the end of a term, the extent to which student expectations are
perceived to have been fulfilled has been found to be a good predictor of student satisfaction
(Appleton-Knapp and Krentler 2006). Student satisfaction with educational offerings is a critical
outcome of the exchange between teachers and students, since, as clients, students expect to gain
new insights, knowledge, skills and abilities which empower them to achieve measurable success
(Guolla 1999). Learning, as perceived by students, has been correlated with ‘course satisfaction’,
while instructor enthusiasm has been correlated with levels of instructor satisfaction (Guolla
1999). Furthermore, studies have revealed that when mishaps or mistakes occur in the
classroom, students tend to be primarily concerned with whether or not the professor effectively
solves the problem, regardless of the magnitude of their initial emotional response to the “service
failure” (Iyer and Muncy 2008).
Ways of fostering student satisfaction in higher education have been explored in the short-
term through guaranteeing instructor performance (McCollough and Gremler 1999), and in the
long-term through building customer relationships (Bejou 2005). A broader notion of exchange
may best apply whereby the student-organization relationship constitutes a generalized
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ZEINE ET. AL: CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUS AND MISSION ARTICULATION AS MEASURES OF
ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
exchange which “necessarily entails delayed reciprocity” such that “instead of having a short-
term quid pro quo mentality, people hope they may benefit at some unspecified time in the
future, and obligations are discharged less precisely and over time (Alford 2002, 341). Some
believe that it would be valuable to assess service quality in higher education by using a wider
range of variables to correlate (a) intention to leave, (b) overall satisfaction with the institution,
and (c) trust in its management, with (i) a student focused culture, (ii) internationalization, (ii)
access and approachableness of services, (iii) marketing and support, (iv) infrastructure and (v)
academic quality (De Jager and Gbadamosi 2010).
In this study, we examined perceptions of faculty and administrators regarding Mission
Articulation and customer satisfaction at their higher education institutions. We advised
participants to consider their primary, secondary, internal and external clients when evaluating
Customer Service Focus.
Methods
Participants in this study were 52 higher education faculty and administrators who individually
completed the Human Synergistics Organizational Effectiveness Inventory as an online survey
(Cooke 1997, ; OEI®, web-based version, http://www.humansynergistics.com/) between March
1st and April 2nd of 2012. Likert-type scales were used to quantitate responses. Respondents were
affiliated with institutions located in North America, Europe, India, Australia, Latin America,
Africa and the Middle East, representing higher education professionals in at least 16 countries
(Human-Synergistics 2012). The OEI® probes 43 effectiveness measures including mission and
philosophy; 29 causal factors encompassing systems, structures, human resources,
communications, supervisory leadership; and 12 outcomes relating to individual, departmental
and organizational performance (Cooke and Szumal 2000; Szumal 2001). Demographics data
and score results for the two measures of mission and philosophy, Mission Articulation (n=52),
and Customer Service Focus (n=51), are presented and analyzed in this paper (Figures 1&2). The
mean scores and standard errors were computed and plotted for total respondents (n=52,51) and
for eight subgroups: not-for-profit-private (n=8), not-for-profit-public (n=30,29), for-profit-
private (n=10), for-profit-public (n=4), administrators (n=20), faculty (n=25), male (n=26) and
female (n=25,24) (Figures 1&2). OEI® results were compared to the Historical Average (50th
percentile), taken as the median of the OEI® scores of members from 1084 organizational units,
and to Constructive Benchmarks, based on the median of OEI® results for 172 organizational
units with predominantly Constructive operating cultures (Human-Synergistics 2012). For each
of the two parameters, the Constructive Benchmark score was greater than the Historical
Average score, and any results falling below the value for the Historical Average were
considered undesirable. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance of inter-
subgroup differences.
Results
Demographics of Respondents
The respondents’ institutions were distributed internationally across many countries including the
United States (n=23), India (n=4), United Kingdom (n=3), France (n=2), Australia (n=2),
Canada, Wales, Spain, Denmark, Greece, Macedonia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Egypt, Jordan and
Costa Rica. Different institutional levels were represented including 56% Doctorate-granting
universities, 19% Master’s colleges/universities, 13% Bachelor’s colleges, 6% Associate’s
colleges, 2% Special Focus and 4% other. The majority of participants were in the 40-59 years
age bracket (56%), followed by the 60 years (21%) and the < 39 years (17%) age groups.
Respondents served as faculty/professors (48%), directors (19%), associate deans (6%), chairs
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MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
(4%), deans (4%), provost/deans academic affairs (4%), presidents (2%) and undetermined
(13%). Those who had spent more than 15 years at their current institution constituted 15%,
while 6% had spent 10 to15 years, 19% had served for 6 to10 years, 23% for 4 to 6 years, 19%
for 2 to 4 years, 6% for 1 to 2 years and 6% for 0.5 years with 4% having spent less than 6
months in their current position. The male to female ratio was 1:1.
Mission Articulation is Undesirable in Not-For-Profit Higher Education
Institutions
Scores for Mission Articulation were above the Historical Average (50th percentile, 3.55) but
below the Constructive Benchmark (4.01) for total respondents (mean 3.65 ± 0.13 SE), and for
faculty (mean 3.57 ± 0.19 SE) , administrators (mean 3.71 ± 0.24 SE), male (mean 3.68 ± 0.21
SE) and female (mean 3.62 ± 0.17 SE) subgroups as shown in Figure 1. As compared to the
faculty subgroup, a trend for higher scores was noted in the administrator subgroup.
Scores for private not-for-profit (mean 3.15 ± 0.26 SE) and public not-for-profit (mean 3.47
± 0.17 SE) subgroups fell below the Historical Average (Figure 1). By contrast, scores for
private for-profits (mean 4.08 ± 0.30 SE) and those for public for-profit (mean 4.85 ± 0.15 SE)
rose above the Constructive Benchmark (Figure 1). The differences between the small public for-
profit subgroup and the two private institutional subgroups reached statistical significance at p-
value < 0.05 (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Articulation of Mission. OEI® Mean score ± standard error (SE) for total respondents, and for female, male,
faculty, administrator, public for-profit, private for-profit, public not-for-profit and private not-for-profit subgroups
compared to the Historical Average and the Constructive Benchmark. Differences are statistically significant between the
public for-profit and each of the two private subgroups (p<0.05).
Customer Service Focus is Undesirable in Higher Education Institutions
Scores for Customer Service Focus were below both the Historical Average (50th percentile,
3.71) and the Constructive Benchmark (3.96) for total respondents (mean 3.42 ± 0.13 SE), and
for public not-for-profits (mean 3.11 ± 0.19 SE), private not-for-profits (mean 3.66 ± 0.17 SE),
faculty (mean 3.15 ± 0.20 SE), male (mean 3.51 ± 0.18 SE) and female (mean 3.40 ± 0.20 SE)
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ZEINE ET. AL: CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUS AND MISSION ARTICULATION AS MEASURES OF
ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
subgroups as shown in Figure 2. Private for-profits (mean 3.75 ± 0.22 SE) achieved scores at the
Historical Average. By contrast, administrators (mean 3.88 ± 0.15 SE) scored above the
Historical Average, and significantly higher than the faculty subgroup (p-value < 0.05, Figure 2).
Notably, the scores for the public for-profit (mean 4.44 ± 0.41 SE) subgroup rose markedly
above the Constructive Benchmark, and were significantly higher than those for the public not-
for-profit subgroup (p-value < 0.1, Figure 2).
Figure 2: Customer Service Focus. OEI® Mean score ± standard error (SE) for total respondents, and for female, male,
faculty, administrator, public for-profit, private for-profit, public not-for-profit and private not-for-profit subgroups
compared to the Historical Average and the Constructive Benchmark. Differences reached statistical significance
between for-profit- and not-for-profit public subgroups (p < 0.10), and between faculty and administrator subgroups (p <
0.05).
Discussion
In this study we probed higher education professionals at colleges and universities worldwide
regarding their perceptions of Mission Articulation and Customer Service Focus at their
institutions using the OEI® survey (Cooke 1997). Our findings revealed that the overall levels of
Mission Articulation exhibited by higher education institutions were comparable to current
benchmarks for this organizational measure (Figure 1). However, not-for-profit institutions had
weaker levels of Mission Articulation than for-profit institutions, and levels for both private- and
public-not-for-profits were lower than the benchmarks (Figure 1). The reasons for having
superior Mission Articulation at for-profit higher education institutions are most likely related to
corporate leadership and management practices that place a high priority on clearly defining,
illustrating, and widely disseminating their mission statements. Heightened awareness of the
precise mission can increase motivation and stimulate individual and collective activity towards
fulfilling that mission. Our observation that not-for-profit institutions have lower than ideal levels
of Mission Articulation suggests that not-for-profits are not truly fulfilling their missions at the
desired levels, and could therefore better their outcomes by adopting attitudes and behaviors that
improve the articulation of their missions.
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Our results revealed weakness in Customer Service Focus with overall levels that were
clearly lower than the benchmarks (Figure 2). The greatest contributors to this unfavorable result
were the public-not-for-profits, and the non-administrator faculty, men and women (Figure 2).
By contrast, administrators exhibited a markedly superior level of Customer Service Focus as
compared to faculty members (Figure 2), an observation that is consistent with various other
perceptual differences that have been described in the literature between academicians and non-
academic administrators. The reasons for these differences stem from the nature of academic life
which is largely centered on competitive academic achievement. Academicians are generally
reluctant to develop a service-provider identity or to view their relationships as client-based. It is
our position that valuable improvements in organizational effectiveness, including quality of
teaching and research outcomes, could be achieved by sensitizing non-administrator faculty to
the customer/client dimension of their relationships with their students, trainees and juniors.
Thus, sharpening the focus on satisfying the needs of various stakeholders at higher education
institutions would be a justifiable prescription for remedying serious deficits uncovered for
public-not-for-profits and faculty subgroups.
Collectively, these measures determine the degree of market orientation by assessing the
level of commitment of organizational members to the customer, and their readiness to adapt to
meet clients’ changing needs (Webster, Hammond, and Rothwell 2010). Our results offer
original insight delineating clearly two trends: firstly those higher education administrators tend
to express more favorable perceptions of market orientation than non-administrator faculty, and
secondly that for-profits express stronger market orientation than not-for-profit higher education
institutions (Figures 1&2). Our findings revealing weaknesses in both Mission Articulation and
Customer Service Focus, more marked in not-for-profits (Figures 1&2), are in agreement with
the findings of Taylor and Morphew, 2010, which suggest a lack of confidence on the part of
many higher education institutions in market orientation compelling them to generate multiple
mission statements for presentation to different audiences (Taylor and Morphew 2010).
Mission Articulation requires deliberate efforts to communicate the mission and institutional
goals to all of the faculty and staff members. To foster the link between the mission statement,
goals, student-learning outcomes, and faculty-development programs, a framework has been
proposed that uses the faculty development plan as a means to operationalize mission-driven
strategic initiatives” (Legorreta, Kelly, and Sablynski 2006, 8). The process of linking faculty
development and school mission is best accomplished through four distinct phases of activity
(FAIR): (1) focus on deriving a list of ranked and rated goals of the school, (2) alignment of
faculty resources with the mission and goals, (3) integration of the current institutional needs
with those of individual faculty, and (4) review of the process through improved iterations and
disseminated best practices (Legorreta, Kelly, and Sablynski 2006; Witcher 2003).
Mission statements have become increasingly critical to the accountability, assessment, and
accreditation of higher education programs as evidenced by correlations that have been observed
between mission statement content and measures of business school performance (Palmer and
Short 2008). For-profit organizations usually include eight components in their mission
statements identifying their (1) customers and markets, (2) products and/or services, (3)
technologies utilized, (4) geographic territories, (5) profitability and concern for firm survival,
(6) values and philosophy, (7) self-concept and (8) desired public image (Fugazzotto 2009;
Pearce II and David 1987). Not-for-profit organizations, including higher education institutions,
necessarily consider their own history and distinctive competencies, constituencies, resources
and environment in developing their mission (Fugazzotto 2009; Kotler and Fox 1995; Lunenburg
2010). Unfortunately, communication patterns in higher education institutions are “vague and
idiosyncratic”, with most 4-year colleges opting to alter their official mission statements in order
to create more customer-focused versions prior to submission to the U.S. News and World Report
(Taylor and Morphew 2010).
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ZEINE ET. AL: CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUS AND MISSION ARTICULATION AS MEASURES OF
ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
Beyond articulating the mission, higher education institutions seek to engage their members,
customers and stakeholders to establish loyalty (Hoyt and Howell 2011). Because student loyalty
has been shown to be most strongly determined by psychological attachment and a sense of
belonging to the brand (affective commitment), higher education institutions are urged to adopt a
relationship marketing approach to the management of education services (Bowden 2011). We
are in agreement with Bowden’s observations that there is a need for a more comprehensive,
involved, and proactive strategy to developing, managing, and maintaining the studentuniversity
relationship” (Bowden 2011, 211) in light of our findings that, as perceived by higher education
faculty, their own relationships with primary and secondary customers could be strengthened to
improve service focus (Figure 2).
Furthermore, the application of marketing theory has introduced the concept of customer
prioritization which encourages the classification of ‘right’, ‘at-risk right’, and ‘wrong’
customers as targets for profitability in the higher education industry, wrong customers being
those who require extra servicing and are more costly for the organization due to
incompatibilities (Harrison-Walker 2010). With this in mind, administrators and faculty members
could play a role in the selection of new students, staff and faculty to recruit those whose
individual goals are naturally aligned with organizational objectives. Evidently, studies have
demonstrated that perceptions of shared responsibility for learning positively impact attitudinal,
emotional, and behavioral responses toward the educational experience (Sierra 2010).
Conclusion
We have detected weaknesses in two measures of organizational effectiveness that make higher
education institutions, especially not-for-profits, susceptible to unnecessary shortfalls. To
improve higher education outcomes, we recommend the adoption of corporate-type leadership
and managerial practices intended to strengthen Mission Articulation and to support Customer
Service Focus. Opposing points of view have questioned the consequences of treating students as
customers/clients. There are concerns arising from the possibility of developing a sense of
entitlement once a provider-client relationship is established. However, we have previously
argued for the need to develop more constructive organizational cultures, to apply more robust
internal decision-making processes, and to adopt more considerate leadership styles in higher
education institutions (Zeine et al. 2011; Zeine, Boglarsky, Blessinger, et al. 2014; Zeine,
Boglarsky, Daly, et al. 2014). We further encourage not-for-profit institutions to study the
management practices of for-profit higher education institutions, and to continue exploring new
paradigms. Our study is limited by a small sample size, and future research is warranted to
further elucidate best practices for improving the organizational effectiveness of higher education
institutions.
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MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Dr. Rana Zeine: Assistant Professor, Basic Medical Sciences Pathology, Saint James School
of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire Caribbean Netherlands
Frank Palatnick: Consultant, International Agency for Economic Development, USA
Dr. Cheryl Boglarsky: Research Director, Human Synergistics International, Plymouth,
Michigan, USA
Patrick Blessinger: Founder, International Higher Education Teaching and Learning
Association, New York, USA
Dr. Brad Herrick: Professor, University of Texas, USA
Dr. Michael Hamlet: Professor, Keller Graduate School of Management at DeVry College of
New York, USA
10
Management Education: An International Journal is
one of four thematically focused journals in the
collection of journals that support The Organization
knowledge community—its journals, book series,
conference and online community.
The journal explores the dimensions of learning to
lead in organizations that manage their knowledge
resources ef fectively, have developed highly productive
cultures and negotiate change effectively.
As well as papers of a traditional scholarly type, this
journal invites case studies that take the form of
presentations of management practice—including
documentation of organizational practices and
exegeses analyzing the effects of those practices.
Management Education: An International Journal is a
peer-reviewed scholarly journal.
ISSN 2327-8005
... Our findings of low Consideration levels are consistent with our results showing undesirably high levels of Job Insecurity in Higher Education institutions (data not shown, manuscript in preparation), since Job Insecurity is negatively correlated with developmental leadership (Individualized Consideration) and is an antecedent factor for supervisory abuse (Rafferty and Griffin 2006). Furthermore, our findings are also consistent with our results revealing undesirably low levels of Customer Service Focus in higher education institutions (Zeine, Palatnick et al. 2014). ...
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http://ijmoc.cgpublisher.com/product/pub.258/prod.55 Supervisory/Managerial Leadership characterizes many academic relationships within higher education institutions. Students and trainees in many fields, including healthcare and graduate studies, often experience humiliation and workplace aggression resulting from belittlement, bullying and abusive supervision which reflect defensive organizational cultures. We and others have previously shown that higher education institutions, including medical teaching centers, have detrimentally high levels of Aggressive/Defensive and Passive/Defensive cultural styles as measured by the Human Synergistics International Organizational Culture Inventory® (OCI® & OCI-Ideal®) Surveys. Central to effective undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate training are supervisory/managerial leadership practices which are negatively impacted by the current higher education operating cultures. In this paper, we analyze Consideration, one measure of supervisory/managerial leadership that assumes empathy in supportive/participative leadership communications. Faculty and administrators at public and private higher education institutions were surveyed using the Human Synergistics International Organizational Effectiveness Inventory® (OEI®). Results revealed Consideration scores undesirably below both the Historical Average and the Constructive Benchmark in for -profit and not-for-profit higher education institutions. To improve the effectiveness of higher education institutions we recommend changing the dynamics of internal professional interactions by promoting the (a) adoption of Constructive organizational culture norms, (b) application of Individualized Consideration and Positive Affect Transferal behaviors from transformational leadership theory, and (c) institutionalization of path-goal theory-based Considerate Leadership supervision.
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http://ijmc.cgpublisher.com/product/pub.253/prod.36 External Adaptability is an outcomes measure of organizational effectiveness reflecting proficiency levels in responding to external change. Many higher education institutions are interested in reshaping their goals to better meet the needs of a growing global market. To analyze External Adaptability, 52 higher education faculty and administrators from institutions in more than 16 countries were surveyed using the Human Synergistics International Organizational Effectiveness Inventory® (OEI®) Survey. Results revealed that External Adaptability scores fell below both the Historical Average (50th percentile) and the Constructive Benchmark. Subgroup analysis revealed that scores were below the Historical Average for faculty, administrators, males, females, and private- and public not-for-profits. By contrast, scores approached the Historical Average (50th percentile) in private for-profits, and exceeded the Constructive Benchmark in public for-profits. Trends for slightly higher scores were noted for administrators and males as compared to faculty and females respectively. To improve agility in higher education institutions, further diagnostic analysis of organizational decision making is warranted. The Performance Triangle diagnostic model is discussed and the use of the Agilityinsights Diagnostic™ Survey from Sphere Advisors AG is recommended. Attaining high External Adaptability is critical for the future of higher education.
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