In-vitro and in-vivo metabolic studies of the candidate chemopreventative pentamethylchromanol using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
Toxicology and Bioanalytical Science Department, Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL 35205, USA.
The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
10/2009; 61(10):1309-18. DOI: 10.1211/jpp/61.10.0006
This study focuses on the in-vitro metabolic profiles of pentamethylchromanol in human, rat, dog and non-human primates, and characterizes the associated metabolic kinetics and specific human isozymes responsible for metabolism. Additional investigations compare in-vitro data with in-vivo metabolic data from rats and dogs.
In-vitro metabolites were generated from commercially available microsomes, S9 fractions and cytochrome P450 isozymes. Reaction mixtures were analysed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for metabolite identification, stability, phenotyping and kinetic profiles. Plasma samples were collected from 28-day toxicology studies in rats and dogs, and analysed using the same methodology as for the identification of in-vitro metabolites.
Samples from in-vitro experiments produced a total of eight identified metabolites while five were observed in the in-vivo samples. Kinetic analysis of metabolites in human microsomes generated Michaelis constants (K(M)) ranging from 10.9 to 104.9 mum. Pentamethylchromanol metabolic stability varied by species and multiple isozymes were identified for the observed biotransformation pathways. Pentamethylchromanol is susceptible to multiple metabolic pathways and differential metabolic stability, which is species dependent.
In-vitro metabolism was not a strong predictor of in-vivo metabolism for the samples assays but showed glucuronidation and sulfation as common biotransformation pathways.
Available from: Tobias Kind
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ABSTRACT: The structural elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry plays an important role in modern life sciences and bioanalytical approaches. This review covers different soft and hard ionization techniques and figures of merit for modern mass spectrometers, such as mass resolving power, mass accuracy, isotopic abundance accuracy, accurate mass multiple-stage MS(n) capability, as well as hybrid mass spectrometric and orthogonal chromatographic approaches. The latter part discusses mass spectral data handling strategies, which includes background and noise subtraction, adduct formation and detection, charge state determination, accurate mass measurements, elemental composition determinations, and complex data-dependent setups with ion maps and ion trees. The importance of mass spectral library search algorithms for tandem mass spectra and multiple-stage MS(n) mass spectra as well as mass spectral tree libraries that combine multiple-stage mass spectra are outlined. The successive chapter discusses mass spectral fragmentation pathways, biotransformation reactions and drug metabolism studies, the mass spectral simulation and generation of in silico mass spectra, expert systems for mass spectral interpretation, and the use of computational chemistry to explain gas-phase phenomena. A single chapter discusses data handling for hyphenated approaches including mass spectral deconvolution for clean mass spectra, cheminformatics approaches and structure retention relationships, and retention index predictions for gas and liquid chromatography. The last section reviews the current state of electronic data sharing of mass spectra and discusses the importance of software development for the advancement of structure elucidation of small molecules.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12566-010-0015-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Available from: Jonathan Mcdunn
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ABSTRACT: Pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMCol), a chromanol-type compound related to vitamin E, was proposed as an anticancer agent with activity against androgen-dependent cancers. In repeat dose-toxicity studies in rats and dogs, PMCol caused hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hematological effects. The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanisms of the observed toxicity and identify sensitive early markers of target organ injury by integrating classical toxicology, toxicogenomics, and metabolomic approaches. PMCol was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats at 200 and 2000 mg/kg daily for 7 or 28 days. Changes in clinical chemistry included elevated alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, cholesterol and triglycerides-indicative of liver toxicity that was confirmed by microscopic findings (periportal hepatocellular hydropic degeneration and cytomegaly) in treated rats. Metabolomic evaluations of liver revealed time- and dose-dependent changes, including depletion of total glutathione and glutathione conjugates, decreased methionine, and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine, cysteine, and cystine. PMCol treatment also decreased cofactor levels, namely, FAD and increased NAD(P)+. Microarray analysis of liver found that differentially expressed genes were enriched in the glutathione and cytochrome P450 pathways by PMCol treatment. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of six upregulated genes and one downregulated gene confirmed the microarray results. In conclusion, the use of metabolomics and toxicogenomics demonstrates that chronic exposure to high doses of PMCol induces liver damage and dysfunction, probably due to both direct inhibition of glutathione synthesis and modification of drug metabolism pathways. Depletion of glutathione due to PMCol exposure ultimately results in a maladaptive response, increasing the consumption of hepatic dietary antioxidants and resulting in elevated reactive oxygen species levels associated with hepatocellular damage and deficits in liver function.
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