Ocean engineering special issue: Yacht engineering
It is with much pleasure that we write the editorial for this
special issue devoted to Yacht Engineering, arising from the 3rd
International Conference on Innovation in High Performance Sailing
Yachts (Innov'sail 2013), held in Lorient, France. The conference
took place during 26–28 June 2013 and was chaired by Dr Patrick
Bot from the Naval Academy Research Institute, France. A keynote
lecture was given by an expert in full-scale testing of yachts,
Professor Y. Masuyama. There were 28 presentations, one panel
discussion, and eight poster presentations over the period of three
days. This conference series is now well established, and an
agreement has recently been concluded with two other important
conferences, the High Performance Yacht Design Conference in
Auckland, and the Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium in Anna-
polis, to coordinate and run each one in sequence so that they are
held at three yearly intervals. This goal to coordinate activities in
yacht engineering and to help networking has also provided the
momentum to create the International Association for Yacht Engi-
neering, whose details were presented during the conference.
The special issue contains 15 selected articles from among
those presented at the conference, pre-selected by the editors.
All articles were submitted to the normal peer review procedure of
the journal. There are four papers on hydrodynamics, seven papers
on aerodynamics, two papers on ﬂuid-structure interaction, and
one paper on each of materials for structures, and racing tactics.
The editors feel that this issue represents a comprehensive over-
view of the state-of-the-art of yacht engineering.
The hydrodynamics papers have an interesting mix of contribu-
tions. Campbell et al. describe dagger-board evaluation for an IMOCA
60 yacht from model scale tank tests and Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD). Bohm and Graf describe advances in free surface
RANSE simulations. Tank testing and comprehensive CFD test pro-
grammes can be expensive and time consuming, and for design it is
often helpful to have input from a range of hull and appendage shapes.
This issue is addressed in a paper by Huetz and Guillerm who present
work on building a database of numerical simulation results for VPP
applications. Narrow ship wakes and wave drag for planning hulls are
discussed in a paper by Rabaud and Moisy.
There are a range of areas covered in the papers in aerodynamics
including a simulation which compared the performance of a kite and
classical sailing rig. The use of rigid wings in current America's Cup
yachts motivated a paper by Graf et al. to compare full 3D-RANS
simulations with a faster 2D-RANS/lifting line method. The paper by
Campbell focuses on downwind sail coefﬁcients from tests in different
wind tunnels. This comprehensive paper on ﬁve different tests on
model sailing yacht rigs and sails showed that the results were
relatively similar, and thus helps to validate the technique of wind
tunnel testing of sailing yacht rigs. Wind tunnel testing was also the
subject of a paper by Bot et al. where pressure measurements on an
asymmetric spinnaker with high spatial resolution are described. A
similar shaped sail is examined by Viola et al. using Detached Eddy
Simulation and the predictions compared with wind tunnel results.
A comprehensive examination of the role of full-scale tests as
the bridge between model tests and CFD is provided by Masuya-
ma's paper where the extensive work achieved on the sail
dynamometer yacht “Fujin”is summarized. Motta et al.'s paper
describes simultaneous measurements of pressures and shapes of
sails in order to determine aerodynamic forces, and this work is an
international collaboration involving researchers from both France
and New Zealand.
The two papers in the special issue on ﬂuid structure interaction
both result from research in France. One paper is a numerical study
of a ﬂexible sail plan submitted to pitching, and the other investi-
gates the stability of downwind sails with an automatic dynamic
trimming. Both papers describe very challenging simulations, and
illustrate the power of numerical methods in yacht engineering
We need to be aware of the environment and the life-cycle of
the materials that are used to make sailing vessels. The paper by Le
Duigou et al. describes research into long term immersion in
natural seawater of Flax/PLA bio-composite, and one can be sure
that more research in this area will develop with time.
The ﬁnal paper in the special edition describes a study of optimal
yacht routing tactics and it explores the interesting area of the effect of
the skipper's risk attitude when leading or trailing another boat, and
how different risk attitudes can improve their chances of winning.
These papers cover a wide range of valuable material associated
with yacht engineering, and we trust that the readership will ﬁnd
this volume a useful resource.
We would like to thank the authors and referees for their hard
work, as well as the staff at Elsevier for their help in preparing this
special volume. It is hoped by the editors that this special issue
will be referred to by researchers and practitioners alike, and will
serve as a milestone to yacht engineering.
Dr. Patrick Bot
Institut de Recherche de l’Ecole Navale, France
Richard G.J. Flay
Yacht Research Unit, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng
0029-8018/&2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ocean Engineering 90 (2014) 1