ArticlePDF Available

An Updated Check List of the Cochylina (Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Euliini) of North America North of Mexico Including Greenland, with Comments on Classification and Identification

Authors:
  • US NMNH (Smithsonian)
  • National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC

Abstract

We present an updated list of the members of the subtribe Cochylina (Tortricidae) in North America north of Mexico. We summarize the proposed changes in the classification since about 1983. We propose revised status for two genera, Rolandylis Gibeaux, 1985 and Thyraylia Walsingham, 1897. We propose ten new combinations: Saphenista parvimaculana (Walsingham, 1879), Thyraylia bana (Kearfott, 1907), Thyraylia rhodites (Meyrick, 1912), Thyraylia bunteana (Robinson, 1869), Thyraylia discana (Kearfott, 1907), Thyraylia cricota (Meyrick, 1912), Thyraylia gunnina (Busck, 1907), Thyraylia hollandana (Kearfott, 1907), Thyraylia nana (Haworth, [1811]), and Thyraylia omphacitis (Meyrick, 1912). We propose four revised combinations: Rolandylis fusca Pogue, 2001, Rolandylis maiana (Kearfott, 1907), Rolandylis catalonica Gibeaux, 1985, Rolandylis virilia Pogue, 2001; and three new synonymies: Aethes ziscana Kearfott with A. bomonana (Kearfott), Henricus edwarsiana (Walsingham) with H. contrastana (Kearfott), and Phtheochroa pecosana (Kearfott, 1907) with Phtheochroa cartwrightana (Kearfott, 1907). The described fauna includes 20 genera and 136 species, yet it is likely that the region is home to two to three times that many species; at least six new genera are defined/circumscribed but not yet formally described.
274
274 JOURNAL OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS’ SOCIETY
Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society
68(4), 2014, 274–282
AN UPDATED CHECK LIST OF THE COCHYLINA (TORTRICIDAE, TORTRICINAE, EULIINI) OF
NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO INCLUDING GREENLAND, WITH COMMENTS ON
CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION
ERIC H. METZLER
Michigan State University Adjunct Curator Of Lepidoptera, Research Collaborator U.S. National Museum Of Natural History, P.O. Box 45,
Alamogordo, NM 88311-0045 U.S.A., e-Mail: Metzlere@Msu.Edu
AND
JOHN W. BROWN
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20017-3012 U.S.A.,
e-mail: tortricidae.jwb@gmail.com
ABSTRACT.
We present an updated list of the members of the subtribe Cochylina (Tortricidae) in North America north of
Mexico. We summarize the proposed changes in the classification since the end of 1978. We propose revised status for two genera,
Rolandylis Gibeaux, 1985 and Thyraylia Walsingham, 1897. We propose eleven revised combinations: Saphenista parvimaculana
(Walsingham, 1879), unplaced Cochylina omphacitis (Meyrick, 1912) [Cochylis], unplaced Cochylina voxcana (Kearfott, 1907)
[Phalonia], Thyraylia bana (Kearfott, 1907), Thyraylia rhodites (Meyrick, 1912), Thyraylia bunteana (Robinson, 1869), Thyraylia
discana (Kearfott, 1907), Thyraylia cricota (Meyrick, 1912), Thyraylia gunniana (Busck, 1907), Thyraylia hollandana (Kearfott,
1907), and Thyraylia nana (Haworth, [1811]). We propose four revised combinations: Rolandylis fusca Pogue, 2001, Rolandylis ma-
iana (Kearfott, 1907), Rolandylis catalonica Gibeaux, 1985, Rolandylis virilia Pogue, 2001; and three new synonymies: Aethes zis-
cana Kearfott with A. bomonana (Kearfott), Henricus edwarsiana (Walsingham) with H. contrastana (Kearfott), and Phtheochroa
pecosana (Kearfott, 1907) with Phtheochroa cartwrightana (Kearfott, 1907). The described fauna includes 20 genera and 137
species, yet it is likely that this region of North America includes two to three times that many species; at least six new genera are
defined, but not yet formally described.
Additional key words:
Cochylidae, Cochylini, Rolandylis,Saphenista,Thyraylia,Phtheochroa, new synonymy, new combination
The most comprehensive, contemporary list of the
North American members of the family “Cochylidae”
was provided by Powell (1983) in his contribution to the
Check list of the Lepidoptera of America North of
Mexico (Hodges et al. 1983). In 1986, a PhD thesis
completed by Michael Pogue at the University of
Minnesota provided a thorough review of the
classification of the North American fauna at the
generic level, including manuscript descriptions of
several new genera and many new combinations. The
phylogenetic analysis portion of the thesis was published
by Pogue and Mickevich (1990), but the descriptive and
taxonomic portions were not. As a consequence, the
nomenclatural changes and descriptions were not
“formally” proposed, and the new names and actions
remained unavailable. Brown (2005) compiled the first
list of Cochylini worldwide, and his treatment of the
North American fauna basically followed that developed
by Pogue (1986). The new genera recognized by Pogue
(1986) were identified as “Cochylini new genus 1,”
“Cochylini new genus 2,” and so forth in order to
provide a more meaningful taxonomic framework for
the fauna, i.e., this action seemed a better alternative to
leaving the associated species “unplaced.”
Taxonomic changes proposed by Razowski (2009,
2011), Metzler & Albu (2013), and others over the last
decade resulted in the generic reassignments of many
species. Many of the changes proposed by Pogue (1986)
were formalized through various publications (e.g.,
Pogue 2001, Brown 2005), and new species were added
to the faunal list through introduction (e.g., Agapeta
zoegana) (Powell et al. 2000) or description of the native
fauna (e.g., Metzler & Forbes 2012, Brown 2013,
Metzler & Albu 2013). In a phylogenetic analysis of
Tortricidae based entirely on molecular data, Regier et
al. (2012) revealed that Cochylini are a monophyletic
lineage embedded within the larger Euliini and should
be treated as the subtribe Cochylina until further
evidence contradicts this proposed change in
classification. Because so much information has
accumulated since Powell (1983), we deem it advisable
to recap the current list of species from North America
and their generic assignments.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Consistent with the Moths of North America
(MONA) project, we treat the fauna of Canada, the
United States, and Greenland. This geographical region
VOLUME 68, NUMBER 4
275
is ca. 99% congruent with the Nearctic ecozone.
Notable differences are the southern tip of peninsular
Florida, which is Neotropical, and most of central
Mexico south to approximately 18° north latitude, which
is considered Nearctic.
We examined the original descriptions and genital
preparations of all species of Cochylina that might be
found within the study region. Whenever possible, we
examined genitalia of types with the proviso that not all
types are extant. If types are not available, we examined
the genitalia of specimens overwhelmingly considered
to be conspecific. In some cases, a judgment of generic
assignment seemed to be a matter of convenience
rather than based on scientific facts, thus a few species
are considered unplaced pending more evidence. We
know from experience that many species cannot be
placed to genus without examination of the genitalia,
thus our conservative approach is justified. While we
recognize it is inconvenient to have species names
without generic assignments, it would introduce
imprecision to pretend we have information not
available. Combinations without merit will not help
settle the confusion in Cochylina classification.
We examined the literature for species descriptions
and revised generic assignments published subsequent
to Brown (2005). We followed the most recently
published combinations, although as more species are
examined and described, the combinations are subject
to change.
Most of the new genera recognized (but not formally
described) by Pogue (1986) and subsequently used by
Brown (2005) are retained for stability in the
classification. We emphasize that the manuscript names
in Pogue (1986) are not published, we do not publish
them here, and they are not available. We use original
orthography in the spelling of species names.
For ease of use, and because the phylogeny of
Cochylina is uncertain, the genera and synonyms are
listed in alphabetical order, and the species and
synonyms are listed in alphabetical order within each
genus. We created an index to genus and species names.
Detailed literature references to the original
description, type locality, and disposition of type
specimen(s) can be found in Brown (2005) and Gilligan
et al. (2012). Not all misspellings from the literature are
included here. Brown (2005) should be consulted for
variations of species names found in much of the
literature. We did not attempt to find all spellings
previously used. Footnotes provide details for the
placement of certain taxa subsequent to Pogue (1986)
and indicate areas of ambiguity or disagreement that
require further investigation.
RESULTS
List of genera and associated species from North
America north of Mexico and Greenland
Cochylina Guenée, 1845 (sensu Regier et al. 2012)
Aethes Billberg, 1920
Argyridia Stephens, 1852
Chlidonia Hübner, [1825]
Chrosis Guenée, 1845
Cirriaethes Razowski, 1962, subgenus
Coecaethes Obraztsov, 1943, subgenus
Dapsilia Hübner, [1825]
Loxopera Walsingham, 1900 (emendation of Lozopera)
Lozopera Stephens, 1829
Phalonia Hübner, [1825]
Phelonia; Stephens, 1834 (misspelling of Phalonia)
angulata (Robinson, 1869)
angustana (Clemens, 1860)
augustana; (Powell, 1983) (misspelling of
angustana)
dorsimaculana (Robinson,1869)(unnecessary
replacement name for angustana)
argentilimitana (Robinson, 1869)
labeculana (Robinson, 1869)1
atomosana (Busck, 1907)
baloghi Sabourin & Metzler, 2002
biscana (Kearfott, 1907)
giscana (Kearfott, 1907)
ixeuta (Meyrick, 1912)
(unnecessary replacement name for biscana)
bomonana (Kearfott, 1907)
cyamitis (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for bomonana)
cyanitis Razowski, 2000 (misspelling of
cyamitis)fabicola (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for ziscana)
ziscana (Kearfott, 1907), new synonym2
deutschiana (Zetterstedt, 1839)
chalcana (Packard, 1866)
fuscostriana Razowski, 1997 (misspelling of
fuscostrigana)
fuscostrigana (Clemens, 1864)
lutulentana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1856)
murciana Caradja, 1916
fernaldana (Walsingham, 1879)
floccosana (Walker, 1863)
confusana (Robinson, 1869)
flaccosana; (Powell, 1983) (misspelling of
floccosana)
heleniana Razowski, 1997
intactana (Walsingham, 1879)
interruptofasciata (Robinson, 1869)
276
276 JOURNAL OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS’ SOCIETY
aureana (Busck, 1907)
sublepidana (Kearfott, 1907)
louisiana (Busck, 1907)
matheri Sabourin & Miller, 2002
matthewcruzi Sabourin & Vargo, 2002
monera Razowski, 1886 (nominal species is extra-
limital)
ssp. septentrionalis Razowski,1997 (described
from Canada)
mymara Razowski, 1997
obliquana (Kearfott, 1907)
obliquna; Razowski, 2000 (misspelling of
obliquana)
patricia Metzler, 2000
promptana (Robinson, 1869)
rana (Busck, 1907)
funesta (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for rana)
razowskii Sabourin & Miller, 2002
rutilana (Hübner, [1814]) (nominal species is
extra-limital)
ssp. canadiana Razowski, 1997 (described from
Canada)
interruptana(Klemensiewicz, 1907)
purpurella (Coquebert de Montbret, 1801)
[nomen oblitum]
roridana (Mann, 1867)
ssp. tatricana (Adamszewski, 1936) (extra-limital)
seriatana (Zeller, 1875)
sexdentata Sabourin & Miller, 2002
smeathmanniana (Fabricius, 1781)
achromata (Skala, 1936)
biviana (Duponchel, 1842)
fabricana Hübner, [1796]
obsoletella (Dufrane, 1955)
scissana (Walker, 1863)
sonorae (Walsingham, 1884)
spartinana (Barnes & McDunnough, 1916)
terriae Sabourin & Miller, 2002
vachelliana (Kearfott, 1907)
westratei Sabourin & Miller, 2002
Agapeta Hübner, 1822
Aapeta Anonymous, 1990 (misspelling of Agapeta)
Agapete Hübner 1825 (misspelling of Agapeta)
Euxanthis Hübner, [1825]
Apapeta Razowski, 1977
Xanthosetia Stephens, 1829
Xanthosetia Stephens, 1829 (unnecessary redescription)
zoegana (Linnaeus, 1767)
brunneocycla Razowski, 1961
ferrugana (Haworth, [1811])
Cochylidia Obraztsov, 1956
subroseana (Haworth, [1811])
derosana Razowski, 1960
flammeolana (Tengström, 1848)
phaleratana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847)
(uninominal)
ssp. roseotincta Razowski, 1960 (extra-limital)
rubroseana (Stephens, 1829)
Cochylis Treitschke, 1829
Acornutia Obraztsov, 1944
Brevicornutia Razowski, 1960
Chochylis Duponchel, 1836 (misspelling of Cochylis)
Cochylichroa Obraztsov & Swatschek, 1958
Conchlis Razowski, 2011 (misspelling of Conchylis)
Conchyli Sodoffsky, 1837 (misspelling of Cochylis)
Longicornutia Razowski, 1960
Neocochylis Razowski, 1960 (described as a subgenus of
Cochylis) (extra-limital)
Paracochylis Razowski, 1960 (described as a
subgenus of Cochylis) (extra-limital)
Pontoturania Obratzsov, 1943
arthuri Dang, 1984
aurorana (Kearfott, 1907)3
avita Razowski, 1997
bucera Razowski, 1997
carmelana (Kearfott, 1907)
obispoana (Kearfott, 1907)
caulocatax Razowski, 1984
dormitoria Razowski, 1997
dubitana (Hübner, 1796)
ambiguana (Frölich, 1828)
baseirufana (Bruand, 1850)
formonana (Kearfott, 1907)4
myrinitis (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for formonana)
hoffmanana (Kearfott, 1907)3
baryzela (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for toxcana)
hofmanana Razowski, 1997 (misspelling of
hoffmanana)
magnaedoeagana Gibeaux, 19855
marloffiana (Busck, 1907)
nonlavana (Kearfott, 1907)
telifera (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for zoxcana)
toxcana (Kearfott, 1907)
zoxcana (Kearfott, 1907)
hospes (Walsingham, 1884)3
parallelana (Walsingham, 1879)
paralellana (Razowski, 1964)(misspelling of
parallelana)
ringsi Metzler, 20007
VOLUME 68, NUMBER 4
277
temerana (Busck, 1907)3
cincinnatana (Kearfott, 1907)
transversana (Walsingham, 1879)8
viscana (Kearfott, 1907)3
peganitis (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for viscana)
yinyangana Metzler, 2012
Eugnosta Hübner, [1825]9
Argyrolepia Stephens, 1829
Carolella Busck, 193910
Pharmacis Hübner, 1823
Safra Walker, 1863
argyroplaca (Meyrick, 1931)
beevorana (Comstock, 1940)
bimaculana (Robinson, 1869)11
brownana Metzler & Forbes, 2012
busckana (Comstock, 1939)
deceptana (Busck, 1907)
erigeronana (Riley, 1881)
mexicana (Busck, 1907)
sartana (Hübner, 1823)11
willettana (Comstock, 1939)
Eupinivora Brown, 2013
ponderosae Brown, 2013
Gynnidomorpha Turner, 1916
Pierca Razowski, 1977 (misspelling of Piercea)
Piercea Filipjev, 1940
romonana (Kearfott, 1908)12
officiosa (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for romonana)
Henricus Busck, 1943
Heinrichia Busck, 1939
Irazona Razowski, 196413
cognata (Walsingham, 1914)
comes (Walsingham, 1884)
contrastana (Kearfott, 1907)
edwardsiana (Walsingham, 1884), new
synonym4, 14
fuscodorsana (Kearfott, 1904)
infernalis (Heinrich, 1920)
brevipalpata McDunnough, 1944
macrocarpana (Walsingham, 1895)
umbrabasana (Kearfott, 1908)
Lorita Busck, 1939
baccharivora Pogue, 1988
scarificata (Meyrick, 1917)
abornana Busck, 1939
Phalonidia Le Marchand, 1933
Brevisociaria Obraztsov, 1943
Platphalonidia Razowski, 1985
basiochreana (Kearfott, 1907)4
elderana (Kearfott, 1907)4
helonoma (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for elderana)
felix (Walsingham, 1895)15
latipunctana (Walsingham, 1879)16
lepidana (Clemens, 1860)16
plummeriana (Busck, 1907)16
schwarziana (Busck, 1907)16
zaracana (Kearfott, 1907)16
memoranda Razowski, 1997
ontariana Razowski, 1997
straminoides (Grote, 1873), revised status16, 17
Phtheochroa Stephens, 1829
Arce Joannis, 1919
Durrantia Razowski, 1960 (described as a subgenus of
Hysterosia) (extra-limital)
Hysterosia Stephens, 1852
Idiographis Lederer, 1859
Parahysterosia Razowski, 1960 (described as a subgenus
of Hysterosia) (extra-limital)
Phteochroa Caradja, 1926 (misspelling of Phtheochroa)
Ptheochroa Razowski, 1964 (misspelling of Phtheochroa)
Propira Durrant, 1914
Trachysmia Guenée, 1845
aegrana (Walsingham, 1879)
aureoalbida (Walsingham, 1895)
baracana (Busck, 1907)
tiscana (Kearfott, 1907)
vigilans (Meyrick, 1912)
(unnecessary replacement name for tiscana)
birdana (Busck, 1907)
canariana (Barnes & Busck, 1920)
cartwrightana (Kearfott, 1907)
pecosana Kearfott, 1907, new synonym18
fulviplicana (Walsingham, 1879)
fermentana (Meyrick, 1912 )(unnecessary
replacement name for komonana)
homanana (Kearfott, 1907)
komonana (Kearfott, 1907)
refuga (Meyrick, 1912 ) (unnecessary
replacement name for homonana)
huachucana (Kearfott, 1907)
modestana (Busck, 1907)
perspicuana (Barnes & Busck, 1920)
riscana (Kearfott, 1907)
vincta (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for riscana)
278
278 JOURNAL OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS’ SOCIETY
terminana (Busck, 1907)
merrickana (Kearfott, 1907)
villana (Busck, 1907)
vitellinana (Zeller, 1875)
vulneratana (Zetterstedt, 1839)
exsulana (Lederer, 1855)
meinki (Amsel, 1932)
niponica (Kawabe, 1982) (misspelling of
nipponica)
ssp. nipponica (Matsumura, 1931) (extra-limital)
waracana (Kearfott, 1907)
dicax (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for waracana)
Platphalonia Razowski, 2011
albertae (Razowski, 1997)19
campicolana (Walsingham, 1879)16, 19
dangi (Razowski, 1997)19
lavana (Busck, 1907)16, 19
magdalenae Metzler & Albu, 2013
plicana (Walsingham 1884)16, 19
Rolandylis Gibeaux, 1985, revised combination20
“Clothoa” (unavailable name)21
fusca Pogue, 2001, revised combination22
maiana (Kearfott, 1907), revised
combination22
catalonica Gibeaux, 1985, revised
combination5, 22
virilia Pogue, 2001, revised combination22
Rudenia Razowski, 1985
leguminana (Busck, 1907)
Saphenista Walsingham, 1914
nomonana (Kearfott, 1907)
voluntaria (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for nomonana)
parvimaculana (Walsingham, 1879),
new combination23
saxicolana (Walsingham, 1879)
Spinipogon Razowski, 1967
resthavenensis Metzler & Sabourin, 2002
thes Razowski & Becker, 1983
Thyraylia Walsingham, 1897 revised status24
Thyralia Walsingham 1914 (misspelling of Thyraylia)
bana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination
rhodites (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for bana)
bunteana (Robinson, 1869), new combination
discana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination
cricota (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for discana)
gunniana (Busck, 1907), new combination
hollandana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination
nana (Haworth, [1811]) new combination29
albidana (Walker, 1866)6
altocorsicana (Petry, 1904)
carneana (Guenée, 1845)
cruentana (Guenée, 1845)
ochreoalbana (Walker, 1863)
pallidana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (uninomial)
(nomen nudum)
pallidana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)
pumillana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (uninomial)
(nomen nudum)
winniana (Kearfott, 1905)
Cochylini new genus 1- “Atroposia” (unavailable name)21
oenotherana (Riley, 1881)
Cochylini new genus 2- “Cagiva” (unavailable name)21
cephalanthana (Heinrich, 1921)
Cochylini new genus 3- “Cybilla” (unavailable name)21
hubbardana (Busck, 1907)
Cochylini new genus 4- “Honca” (unavailable name)21
grandis (Busck, 1907)
Cochylini new genus 5 - “Nycthia” (unavailable name)21
pimana (Busck, 1907)
yuccatana (Busck, 1907)
Cochylini new genus 6- “Poterioparvus” (unavailable name)21
wiscana (Kearfott, 1907)
acropeda (Meyrick, 1912) (unnecessary
replacement name for wiscana)
Cochylina unplaced25
baboquivariana Kearfott, 1907 [Tortrix]
dilutana Walsingham, 1879 [Cochylis]
foxcana Kearfott, 1907 [Phalonia]
liquida Meyrick, 1912 [Phalonia] (unnecessary
replacement name for foxcana)
fulvotinctana Walsingham, 1884 [Conchylis]
glaucofuscana Zeller, 1875 [Conchylis]
imitabilis Razowski, 1997 [Platphalonidia]26
punctadiscana Kearfott, 1908 [Phalonia]27
voxcana Kearfott, 1907 [Phalonia]28
VOLUME 68, NUMBER 4
279
Alphabetical list of species, their synonyms,
and their associated genera from North America
north of Mexico.
Aapeta (misspelling of Agapeta)
abornana, Lorita
achromata, Aethes
Acornutia (synonym of Cochylis)
acropeda, Cochylina new genus 6("Poterioparvus")
aegrana, Phtheochroa
Aethes
Agapeta
Agapete (misspelling of Agapeta)
albertae, Platphalonia
albidana, Cochylis
altocorsicana, Cochylis
ambiguana, Cochylis
angulatana, Aethes
angustana, Aethes
Apapeta
Arce (synonym of Phtheochroa)
argentilimitana, Aethes
Argyridia (synonym of Aethes)
Argyrolepia (synonym of Eugnosta)
argyroplaca, Eugnosta
arthuri, Cochylis
atomosana, Aethes
“Atroposia" (Cochylina new genus 1) (unavailable name)
augustana, Aethes
aureana, Aethes
aureoalbida, Phtheochroa
aurorana, Cochylis
avita, Cochylis
baboquivariana, Cochylina unplaced
baccharivora, Lorita
baloghi, Aethes
bana, Thyraylia
baracana, Phtheochroa
baryzela, Cochylis
baseirufana, Cochylis
basiochreana, Phalonidia
beevorana, Eugnosta
bimaculana, Eugnosta
birdana, Phtheochroa
biscana, Aethes
biviana, Aethes
bomonana, Aethes
Brevicornutia (synonym of Cochylis)
brevipalpata, Henricus
Brevisociaria (synonym of Phalonidia)
brownana, Eugnosta
brunneocycla, Agapeta
bucera, Cochylis
bunteana, Thyraylia
busckana, Eugnosta
“Cagiva" (Cochylina new genus 2) (unavailable name)
campicolana, Platphalonia
canadiana, Aethes
canariana, Phtheochroa
carmelana, Cochylis
carneana, Cochylis
Carolella (synonym of Eugnosta)
cartwrightana, Phtheochroa
catalonica, Rolandylis
caulocatax, Cochylis
cephalanthana, Cochylina new genus 2 ("Cagiva")
chalcana, Aethes
Chlidonia (synonym of Aethes)
Chochylis (mispelling of Cochylis)
Chrosis (synonym of Aethes)
cincinnatana, Phalonidia
Cirriaethes (synonym of Aethes)
“Clothoa” (synonym of Rolandylis)
Cochylichroa (synonym of Cochylis)
Cochylidia
Cochylina unplaced
Cochylis
Coecaethes (synonym of Aethes)
cognata, Henricus
comes, Henricus
Conchlis (misspelling of Cochylis)
Conchyli (misspelling of Cochylis)
Conchylis (misspelling of Cochylis)
confusana, Aethes
contrastana, Henricus
cricota, Thyraylia
cruentana, Cochylis
cyamitis, Aethes
cyanitis, Aethes
“Cybilla” (Cochylina new genus 3) (unavailable name)
dangi, Platphalonia
Dapsilia (synonym of Aethes)
deceptana, Eugnosta
derosana, Cochylidia
deutschiana, Aethes
dicax, Phtheochroa
dilutana, Cochylina unplaced
discana, Thyraylia
dormitoria, Cochylis
dorsimaculana, Aethes
dubitana, Cochylis
Durrantia (synonym of Phtheochroa)
edwardsiana, Henricus
elderana, Phalonidia
erigeronana, Eugnosta
Eugnosta
Eupinivora
Euxanthis (synonym of Agapeta)
exsulana, Phtheochroa
fabicola, Aethes
fabricana, Aethes
felix, Phalonidia
fermentata, Phtheochroa
fernaldana, Aethes
ferrugana, Agapeta
flaccosana, Aethes
flammeolana, Cochylidia
floccosana, Aethes
formonana, Cochylis
foxcana, Cochylina unplaced
fulviplicana, Phtheochroa
fulvotinctana, Cochylina unplaced
funesta, Aethes
fusca, Rolandylis
fuscodorsana, Henricus
fuscostriana, Aethes
280
280 JOURNAL OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS’ SOCIETY
fuscostrigana, Aethes
giscana, Aethes
glaucofuscana, Cochylina unplaced
grandis, Cochylina new genus 4 ("Honca")
gunniana, Thyraylia
Gynnidomorpha
Heinrichia (synonym of Henricus)
heleniana, Aethes
helonoma, Phalonidia
Henricus
hoffmanana, Cochylis
hofmanana, Cochylis
hollandana, Thyraylia
homanana, Phtheochroa
“Honca" (Cochylina new genus 4) (unavailable name)
hospes, Cochylis
huachucana, Phtheochroa
hubbardana, Cochylina new genus 3 ("Cybilla")
Hysterosia (synonym of Phtheochroa)
Idiographis (synonym of Phtheochroa)
imitabilis, Cochylina unplaced
infernalis, Henricus
intactana, Aethes
interruptana, Aethes
interruptofasciata, Aethes
Irazona (synonym of Henricus)
ixeuta, Aethes
komonana, Phtheochroa
labeculana, Aethes
latipunctana, Phalonidia
lavana, Platphalonia
leguminana, Rudenia
lepidana, Phalonidia
liquida, Cochylina unplaced
Longicornutia (synonym of Cochylis)
Lorita
louisiana, Aethes
Loxopera (synonym of Aethes)
Lozopera (synonym of Aethes)
lutulentana, Aethes
macrocarpana, Henricus
magdalenae, Platphalonia
magnaedoeagana, Cochylis
maiana, Rolandylis
marloffiana, Cochylis
matheri, Aethes
matthewcruzi, Aethes
meincki, Phtheochroa
memoranda, Phalonidia
merrickana, Phtheochroa
mexicana, Eugnosta
modestana, Phtheochroa
monera, Aethes
murciana, Aethes
mymara, Aethes
myrinitis, Cochylis
nana, Thyraylia
Neocochylis (synonym of Cochylis)
niponica, Phtheochroa
nipponica, Phtheochroa
nomonana, Saphenista
nonlavana, Cochylis
“Nycthia" (Cochylina new genus 5)
obispoana, Cochylis
obliquana, Aethes
obliquna, Aethes
obsoletella, Aethes
ochreoalbana, Cochylis
oenotherana, Cochylina new genus 1 ("Atroposia")
officiosa, Gynnidomorpha
omphacitis, Cochylina unplaced
ontariana, Phalonidia
pallidana, Cochylis
Paracochylis (synonym of Cochylis)
Parahysterosia (synonym of Phtheochroa)
paralellana, Cochylis
parallelana, Cochylis
parvimaculana, Saphenista
patricia, Aethes
pecosana, Phtheochroa
peganitis, Cochylis
perspicuana, Phtheochroa
phaleratana, Cochylidia
Phalonia (synonym of Aethes)
Phalonidia
Pharmacis (synonym of Eugnosta)
Phelonia (synonym of Aethes)
Phteochroa (misspelling of Phtheochroa)
Phtheochroa
Pierca (synonym of Gynnidomorpha)
Piercea (synonym of Gynnidomorpha)
pimana, Cochylina new genus 5("Nycthia")
Platphalonia
Platphalonidia (synonym of Phalonidia)
plicana, Platphalonia
plummeriana, Phalonidia
ponderosae, Eupinivora
Pontoturamia (synonym of Cochylis)
“Poterioparvus” (Cochylina new genus 6) (unavailable
name)
promptana, Aethes
Propira (synonym of Phtheochroa)
Ptheochroa (misspelling of Phtheochroa)
pumillana, Cochylis
punctadiscana, Cochylina unplaced
purpurella, Aethes
rana, Aethes
razowskii, Aethes
refuga, Phtheochroa
resthavenensis, Spinipogon
rhodites, Thyraylia
ringsi, Cochylis
riscana, Phtheochroa
Rolandylis
romonana, Gynnidomorpha
roridana, Aethes
roseotincta, Cochylidia
rubroseana, Cochylidia
Rudenia
rutilana, Aethes
Safra (synonym of Eugnosta)
Saphenista
sartana, Eugnosta
saxicolana, Saphenista
scarificata, Lorita
schwarziana, Phalonidia
VOLUME 68, NUMBER 4
281
scissana, Aethes
septentrionalis, Aethes
seriatana, Aethes
sexdentata, Aethes
smeathmanniana, Aethes
sonorae, Aethes
spartinana, Aethes
Spinipogon
straminoides, Phalonidia
sublepidana, Aethes
subroseana, Cochylidia
tatricana, Aethes
telifera, Cochylis
temerana, Cochylis
terminana, Phtheochroa
terriae, Aethes
thes, Spinipogon
Thyralia (misspelling of Thyraylia)
Thyraylia
tiscana, Phtheochroa
toxcana, Cochylis
Trachybyris (synonym of Eugnosta)
Trachybyrsis (synonym of Eugnosta)
Trachysmia (synonym of Phtheochroa)
transversana, Cochylis
umbrabasana, Henricus
vachelliana, Aethes
vigilans, Phtheochroa
villana, Phtheochroa
vincta, Phtheochroa
virilia, Rolandylis
viscana, Cochylis
vitellinana, Phtheochroa
voluntaria, Saphenista
voxcana, Cochylina unplaced
vulneratana, Phtheochroa
waracana, Phtheochroa
westratei, Aethes
willettana, Eugnosta
winniana, Cochylis
wiscana, Cochylina new genus 6 ("Poterioparvus")
Xanthosetia (synonym of Agapeta)
yuccatana, Cochylina new genus 5 ("Nycthia")
zaracana, Phalonidia
ziscana, Aethes
zoegana, Agapeta
zoxcana, Cochylis
DISCUSSION
The taxonomy of the subtribe Cochylina is poorly
known. Although the number of described species
worldwide increases every year, mostly as a result of the
efforts of Józef Razowski, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Krakow and his co-authors, the number of described
species from North America has not increased
dramatically since Powell (1983).
Michael G. Pogue (pers. comm.) repeated anecdotal
information provided by J. F. G. Clarke that
approximately 2/3 of the species from North America
are undescribed, suggesting that the North American
fauna may include more than 300 species. Identifying
specimens of Cochylina is problematic because of the
number of undescribed species, lack of diagnostic
illustrations, and a list of current names.
The frustration of not knowing the identity of an
individual specimen of a “Cochylina” in the sea of
named and unnamed species is an unresolved issue.
Jason Dombroskie (pers. comm.), who is a consultant
for Bug Guide (2013), finds that users are not satisfied if
they do not receive a specific identification based on
photographs of specimens that are neither spread nor
dissected. Many species of Cochylina cannot be placed
to genus without examination of the genitalia (Brown
2006). Identification is no less complicated because
many species of Cochylina, even within a single genus,
e.g., Aethes Billberg, 1820, often have forewing patterns
that are incongruous. Many species’ descriptions do not
include illustrations of adults.
Photographs on Moth Photographers Group (2013)
are useful for guidance on the habitus of many species.
Genitalic illustrations of the types for many species are
lacking. Information about descriptions, with references
to literature, subsequent to Brown (2005), along with
illustrations of type specimens is available at Gilligan et
al. (2013). We caution that without examination aided
by microscopy, many species simply cannot be
identified.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Jerry Powell for offering insights into preparation
of the Cochylidae section of the Hodges (1983) Check List. We
especially appreciate the tolerance of our spouses and colleagues
during our emotional outbreaks while attempting to identify the
bewildering number of undescribed and cryptic species in this
group of moths. We thank the following for useful comments on
the manuscript; Michael Sabourin, Joaquin Baixeras, and one
anonymous reviewer.
LITERATURE CITED
AARVIK, L. 2010. Review of East African Cochylini (Lepidoptera, Tor-
tricidae) with description of new species. Norweg. J. Entomol. 57:
81–108.
BROWN, J. W. 2005. World Catalogue of Insects, Volume 5: Tortricidae
(Lepidoptera). Apollo Books. Stenstrup, Denmark. 741 pp.
────. 2006. A new species of Cochylis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae:
Cochylini) from Argentina: a potential biocontrol agent against
pompom weed (Asteraceae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 108:
899–904.
────. 2013. A new genus of pine-feeding Cochylina from the
western United States and northern Mexico (Lepidoptera: Tortri-
cidae: Euliini). Zootaxa 3640: 270–283
BUG GUIDE. 2013. Bug Guide, Identification, Images, & Information
for Insects, Spiders & their Kin for the United States & Canada.
Available at http://bugguide.net/node/view/15740 (Accessed 7
May 2013).
GILLIGAN, T. M., J. BAIXERAS, J. W. BROWN & K. R. TUCK. 2012.
T@RTS: Online World Catalogue of the Tortricidae (Ver. 2.0).
http://www.tortricid.net/catalogue.asp (accessed 2 Sept 2014 ).
HODGES, R. W., T. DO MINICK, D. R. DAVIS, D. C. FERGUSON, J. G.
FRANCLEMONT, E. MUNROE & J. A. POWELL. 1983. Check List of
282
282 JOURNAL OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS’ SOCIETY
the Lepidoptera of American North of Mexico. E. W. Classey
Ltd. and the Wedge Entomological Research Foundation. Lon-
don, England. 284 pp.
METZLER, E. H. & V. ALBU. 2013. The description of Platphalonia
magdalenae (Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Euliini, Cochylina) found
nectaring diurnally on Centromadia pungens (Asteraceae) in the
Central Valley of California along with a list of species of Plat-
phalonia. J. Lepid. Soc. 67: 156-160.
METZLER, E. H. & & G. S. FORBES. 2012. The Lepidoptera of White
Sands National Monument 5: Two new species of Cochylini (Lep-
idoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae). Zootaxa 3444: 51–60.
MOTH PHOTOGRAPHERS’ GROUP
. 2013. North American Moth Photog-
raphers’ Group. Available at http://mothphotographersgroup.
msstate.edu/MainMenu.shtml (Accessed 2 Sept. 2014)
POGUE, M. G. 1986. A generic revision of the Cochylidae (Lepi-
doptera) of North America. Ph.D. thesis, University of Min-
nesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, 280 pp.
────. 2001. Revised status of Rolandylis Gibeaux (Lepidoptera:
Tortricidae: Cochylini), with descriptions of two new species from
North America. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 103: 788–796.
POGUE, M. G. & M. F. MICKEVITCH. 1990. Character definitions and
character state delineation: the bete noire of phylogenetic infer-
ence. Cladistics 6: 319–361.
POWELL, G. W., B. M. WIKEEM & A. STURKO. 2000. Biology of
Agapeta zoegana (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae), propagated for the
biological control of knapweeds (Asteraceae). Can. Entomol.
132: 223–230.
POWELL, J. A. 1983. Tortricoidea, pp. 31-42. In R. W. Hodges et al.,
ed., Check list of the Lepidoptera of America north of Mexico. E.
W. Classey, Ltd., and Wedge Entomological Research Founda-
tion, London, England.
RAZOWSKI, J. 1985. On the generic groups Saphenista and Cochylis.
Nota Lepid. 8: 55–60.
────. 1997. Cochylini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Canada. Acta
Zoologica Cracoviensia 40: 107–163.
────. 2002. Tortricidae of Europe Volume 1 Tortricinae and
Chlidanotinae. Frantisek Slamka, Bratislava, Slovakia. 247 pp.
────. 2009. Tortricidae of the Palaearctic Region, Volume 2.
Cochylini. Frantisek Slamka, Bratislava, Slovakia. 195 pp.
────. 2011. Diagnoses and remarks on genera of Tortricidae, 2:
Cochylini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). SHILAP Revista de Lepi-
dopterologia. 39: 397–414.
REGIER, J. C., J. W. BROWN, C. MITTER, J. BA IXERAS, S. CH O, M. P.
CUMMINGS, & A. ZWICK. 2012. A molecular phylogeny for the
leaf-roller noths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its implications
for classification and life history evolution. PLoS ONE 7: e35574.
SABOURIN, M., W. E. MILLER, E. H. METZLER, & J. T. VARGO. 2002.
Revised identities and new species of Aethes from Midwestern
North America (Tortricidae). J. Lepid. Soc. 56: 216-233.
END NOTES
1Aethes labeculana was listed as a separate species by Pogue (1986);
it was synonymized with A. argentilimitana by Sabourin et al. (2002).
2The synonymy of Aethes ziscana with A. bomonana is based on
examination of photographs of the types and male genitalia of both
species.
3These species were placed in "Recavicula" by Pogue (1986).
4These species were listed as "incertae sedis" by Pogue (1986).
5This name is supposedly based on a mislabeled specimen
(Razowski, 2002).
6Cochylis albidana was listed as a synonym of Cochylis dubitana by
Pogue (1986).
7The date was incorrectly listed as 1999 by Brown (2005).
8Cochylis transversana was placed in Saphenista by Pogue (1986).
9Trachybyrsis Meyrick, 1927 was listed as a separate genus by
Brown (2005) and Aarvik (2010). It was listed as a synonym of Eugnosta
by Razowski (2011). Because species of Trachybyrsis occur in Africa
rather than in our faunal region, we make no further comments.
10 Carolella was synonymized with Eugnosta by Razowski (2009).
11 This species was placed in Carolella by Pogue (1986) and Brown
(2005). The combination listed here was created by Razowski (2009).
12 Gynnidomorpha romonana was listed in Saphenista by Pogue
(1986).
13 Irazona was treated as a separate genus by Pogue (1986) and
synonymized with Henricus by Razowski (1997).
14 Henricus edwardsiana is synonymized with H. contrastana based
on examination of the types of both species.
15 Phalonidia felix was placed in Saphenista by Pogue (1986), it was
placed in Platphalonidia by Razowski (1985) and Brown (2005), and it
was placed in Phalonidia by Razowski (2011).
16These species were listed in Saphenista by Pogue (1986).
17The relationship between lepidana, plummeriana, schwarziana,
straminoides, and zaracana was variously presented (Pogue 1986,
Razowski 1997, Brown 2005). We examined photographs of the types of
lepidana, plummeriana, schwarziana, straminoides, and zaracana. We
propose that straminoides is not conspecific with the others.
18Pogue (1986) listed Phtheochroa pecosana as a synonym of P.
cartwrightana. Razowski (1997) did not include pecosana in the
synonymy of cartwightana. Brown (2005) listed cartwrightana and
pecosana as separate species. We validate the synonymy proposed by
Pogue (1986).
19These species were listed in Platphalonidia by Brown (2005).
When Razowski (2011) transferred P. felix, the type species of
Platphalonidia, to Phalonidia the action resulted in the synonymy of
Platphalonidia with Phalonidia. However, all other species of
Plaphalonidia were left without a generic assignment. Metzler & Albu
(2013) transferred some of the unplaced species to Platphalonia. More
analysis is needed.
20 Rolandylis was synonymized with Cochylis by Razowski (2009),
and restated (2011). We consider Rolandylis to be a separate genus.
21 These genera were proposed by Pogue (1986) in his unpublished
Ph.D. thesis and used without descriptions or designation of type
species in a phylogenetic analysis by Pogue & Mickevitch (1990). We
retain the names here for the sake of continuity and clarity, but we do
not publish the names here.
22 These species were listed in Rolandylis by Brown (2005).
23 Saphenista parvimaculana was listed in Platphalonidia by Brown
(2005). When Razowski (2011) transferred P. felix, the type species of
Platphalonidia, to Phalonidia the action resulted in the synonymy of
Platphalonidia with Phalonidia. However, all other species of
Plaphalonidia were left without a generic assignment. We follow Pogue
(1986), and we place P. parvimaculana in Saphenista. More analysis is
needed.
24 Thyraylia was listed as a synonym of Cochylis by Razowski (1997,
2009, 2011). However, Pogue (1986) and Brown (2005) both listed
Thyraylia as a separate genus. We follow the latter concept.
25 Clepsis listerana, listed as incertae sedis” in Pogue (1986), is in
the tribe Archipini (Tortricidae).
26 Platphalonidia imitabilis was listed in Platphalonidia by Brown
(2005). When Razowski (2011) transferred felix, the type species of
Platphalonidia, to Phalonidia the action resulted in the synonymy of
Platphalonidia with Phalonidia. However, all other species of
Plaphalonidia were left without a generic assignment. We propose that
more study is needed before P. imitabilis can be placed in a genus.
27 Phalonia punctadiscana was listed in “Recavicula” (unavailable
name) in Pogue (1986). It was listed in “Cochylini Unplaced Species”
by Brown (2005).
28 Phalonia voxcana was listed as a synonym of Thyraylia hollandana
by Pogue (1986), placed in Cochylis in Razowski (1997) and Brown
(2005). The genitalia illustrated by Razowski (1997) are congeneric
with Thyraylia. Our examination of the wings of the types of
hollandana and voxcana indicate they are not conspecific.
29 This species was listed in Thyraylia by Pogue (1986), and it was
listed in Cochylis by Razowski (1997) and Brown (2005). Our
examination of the male genitalia shows that it should be listed in
Thyraylia.
Submitted for publication 29 August 2013; revised and
accepted 2 September 2014.
... As recently as 1983, North American species of Saphenista were included in Phalonidia Le Marchand, 1933 (Powell 1983), where they had been placed by Razowski (1964). Brown (2005) included two North American species in Saphenista (i.e., S. nomonana (Kearfott, 1907) and S. saxicolana (Walsingham, 1879)), and Metzler and Brown (2014) transferred a third to the genus (i.e., S. parvimaculana (Walsingham, 1879)). While examining North American specimens of Saphenista in several collections, I discovered two new species from the western United States and two misplaced species that belong in the genus. ...
... Phalonidia latipunctana: Razowski 1964Powell 1983: 42;Brown 2005: 489;Metzler and Brown 2014: 277. Described in Phalonia and treated as such by McDunnough (1939), P. latipunctana was transferred to Phalonidia by Razowski (1964: 367), where the species has resided ever since (e.g., Powell 1983;Brown 2005;Metzler and Brown 2014). The male genitalia of the lectotype, illustrated by Razowski (1964: fig. ...
... Jerry Powell (Brown et al. 2010 (1939), C. dilutana was treated as "incertae sedis" by Razowski (1964: 359), who designated a lectotype (NHMUK) and illustrated its female genitalia. Powell (1983) transferred it to Phalonidia, and Brown (2005) and Metzler and Brown (2014) followed Razowski (1964), treating it as "unplaced Cochylini." ...
Article
Full-text available
Saphenista bartellae Brown, new species (TL: Colorado), and S. powelli Brown, new species (TL: California) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), are described and illustrated. Two other western North American species, S. latipunctana (Walsingham, 1879), new combination, and S. dilutana (Walsingham, 1879), new combination, are transferred to Saphenista based on morphology of the genitalia.
... Originally described in Conchylis Sodoffsky, 1837 (an unjustified emendation of Cochylis), the species was assigned to Phalonia Hübner, [1825], 1816 by McDunnough (1939) and placed in "incertae sedis" by Powell (1983). Pogue (1986) proposed the genus Atroposia for the species in his unpublished Ph.D. dissertation; Razowski (1997) treated oenotherana under "Unplaced Cochylini"; and Brown (2005) and Metzler & Brown (2014) treated it as "Cochylini New Genus". According to Pogue (1986), Atroposia is most closely related to Spinipogon among North American genera. ...
... The monotypic genus Cagiva was proposed by Pogue (1986) in his unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Brown (2005) and Metzler and Brown (2014) followed that concept, designating the manuscript name Cagiva as "Cochylini New Genus". ...
... Described in Phalonia by Busck (1907), it was treated as such by McDunnough (1939) and was placed in "incertae sedis" by Powell (1983). Pogue (1986) proposed the name Cybilla, and Brown (2005) and Metzler and Brown (2014) treated it as "Cochylini New Genus". Pogue (1986) concluded that Cybilla is most closely related to Decuma (now recognized as Monoceratuncus), and that the two are the most derived Cochylina genera in North America. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seven new genera of North American Cochylina are described and illustrated: Anacochylidia Brown, new genus (type species: Anacochylidia maderana Brown, new species); Atroposia Pogue, new genus (type species: Conchylis oenotherana Riley, 1881), resulting in Atroposia oenotherana (Riley), new combination; Cagiva Pogue, new genus (type species: Phalonia cephalanthana Heinrich, 1921), resulting in Cagiva cephalanthana (Heinrich), new combination; Cybilla Pogue, new genus (type species: Phalonia hubbardana Busck, 1907), resulting in Cybilla hubbardana (Busck), new combination; Honca Pogue, new genus (type species: Phalonia grandis Busck, 1907), resulting in Honca grandis (Busck), new combination; Nycthia Pogue, new genus (type species: Phalonia pimana Busck, 1907), resulting in Nycthia pimana (Busck), new combination, and N. yuccatana (Busck, 1907), new combination; and Pogospinia Brown, new genus (type species: Pogospinia floridana Brown, new species), with three new combinations: Pogospinia spinifera (Razowski, 1967), new combination; P. veracruzanus (Razowski and Becker, 1986); new combination, and P. signata (Razowski, 1967), new combination. The Palearctic genus Cochylichroa Obraztsov & Swatschek, 1958, revised status (type species: Eupoecilia atricapitana Stephens, 1852), is redefined based on North American congeners, resulting in the following new combinations: Cochylichroa arthuri (Dang, 1984), new combination; C. atricapitana (Stephens, 1852), revised status; C. aurorana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination; C. avita (Razowski, 1997), new combination; C. foxcana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination; C. hospes (Walsingham, 1884), new combination; C. hoffmanana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination; C. temerana (Busck, 1907), new combination; and C. viscana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination. Monoceratuncus Razowski, 1992, is reported for the first time from the U.S.A. as Monoceratuncus lantana Pogue, new species. Mimcochylis Razowski, 1985, is reported for the first time from the U.S.A. as Mimcochylis fulvotinctana (Walsingham, 1884), new combination and senior synonym of M. planola Razowski, 1985, new synonym. One new species is described in Aethes Billberg, 1820 (i.e., A. triassumenta Pogue, new species), and one new combination (i.e., A. ringsi (Metzler, 2000), new combination, is proposed. Two other new combinations are proposed: Thyraylia wiscana (Kearfott, 1907), new combination, and Eupinivora parotanus (Razowski and Becker, 2010), new combination.
... However, Thyraylia has long been considered a valid genus in North America (e.g. Powell, 1983;Metzler & Brown, 2014) with the following species: bana (Kearfott), bunteana (Robinson), discana (Kearfott), gunniana (Busck), hollandana (Kearfott), nana and voxcana (Kearfott). The included species have an elongate, somewhat upcurved, distally attenuate valva; a sacculus with a long, free distal tip; and a slender phallus that lacks cornuti. ...
... Although it was considered a synonym of Cochylis by Razowski (2011), Pogue (1986 recognized it as a distinct North American genus (under the manuscript name 'Clothoa') in his unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, and he (Pogue, 2001) later revised the genus, adding two more species. Metzler & Brown (2014) likewise considered the genus as valid. ...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents a multiple‐gene phylogenetic analysis of 70 species representing 24 genera of Cochylina and eight species representing eight genera of Euliina, and a maximum‐likelihood analysis based on 293 barcodes representing over 220 species of Cochylina. The results confirm the hypothesis that Cochylina is a monophyletic group embedded within a paraphyletic Euliina. Six major monophyletic lineages are recognized and defined within Cochylina: a Phtheochroa Group, a Henricus Group, an Aethes Group, a Saphenista Group, a Phalonidia Group and a Cochylis Group. The work summarizes the groups (including related genera not included in our analysis), provides morphological characters that support the molecular data, and compares results to previous phylogenies of Cochylina. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Brevicornutia, rev.stat.; Neocochylis, rev.stat.; Paracochylis, rev.stat.; Pontoturania, rev.stat.; and Platphalonidia, rev.stat. The previously proposed hypothesis that Cochylina is a monophyletic group embedded within a paraphyletic Euliina is confirmed. Six major monophyletic lineages within Cochylina are recognized and defined: a Phtheochroa Group, a Henricus Group, an Aethes Group, a Saphenista Group, a Phalonidia Group and a Cochylis Group. The elevation of several subgenera of Cochylis to generic status vastly improves monophyly within the Cochylis Group.
... Because Eugnosta and Carolella are now considered synonyms [68], with Eugnosta being the senior synonym, the generic assignment of the species has stabilized. Nonetheless, in a recent list of the Cochylini (Cochylina) of the U.S. and Canada, Metzler and Brown [72] incorrectly returned it to "Cochylini unplaced" without comment. Based on the male genitalia of the holotype, the species is unquestionably assigned correctly to Eugnosta. ...
Article
Full-text available
In support of a comprehensive update to the checklist of the moths of North America, we attempt to determine the status of 151 species of Tortricidae present in North America that may be Holarctic, introduced, or sibling species of their European counterparts. Discovering the natural distributions of these taxa is often difficult, if not impossible, but several criteria can be applied to determine if a species that is present in both Europe and North America is natively Holarctic, introduced, or represented by different but closely related species on each continent. We use DNA barcodes (when available), morphology, host plants, and historical records (literature and museum specimens) to make these assessments and propose several taxonomic changes, as well as future areas of research. The following taxa are raised from synonymy to species status: Acleris ferrumixtana (Benander, 1934), stat. rev.; Acleris viburnana (Clemens, 1860), stat. rev.; Acleris pulverosana (Walker, 1863), stat. rev.; Acleris placidana (Robinson, 1869), stat. rev.; Lobesia spiraeae (McDunnough, 1938), stat. rev.; and Epiblema arctica Miller, 1985, stat. rev. Cydia saltitans (Westwood, 1858), stat. rev., is determined to be the valid name for the "jumping bean moth," and Phiaris glaciana (Möschler, 1860), comb. n., is placed in a new genus. We determine that the number of Holarctic species has been overestimated by at least 20% in the past, and that the overall number of introduced species in North America is unexpectedly high, with Tortricidae accounting for approximately 23-30% of the total number of Lepidoptera species introduced to North America.
... Poole and Gentili (1996) transferred all species treated by Powell (1983) as Hysterosia and Incertae Sedis to Phtheochroa because the latter subsequently was determined to be the senior synonym of Hysterosia. Brown (2005) listed baboquivariana (following Powell's emendation) under "Cochylini unplaced," and this treatment recently was followed by Metzler and Brown (2014). Therefore, the species continues to lack a contemporary generic assignment. ...
Book
Full-text available
A definitive species list is the foundation of biodiversity and conservation work. As we deal with massive climatic changes in the Anthropocene, knowing which species make up our diverse ecosystems will be critically important if we wish to protect and restore them. The Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies, are the fourth-largest insect order in terms of global diversity, with approximately 158,000 described species. Here we report the distributions of 5431 species that occur in Canada and Alaska, as well as 53 species that have been reported from the region but not yet verified. Additionally, 19 species are listed as interceptions or unsuccessful introductions, and 52 species are listed as probably occurring in the region. The list is based on records from taxonomic papers, historical regional checklists, and specimen data from collections and online databases. All valid species and their synonyms, and all Nearctic subspecies and synonyms are included, except for butterfly subspecies (and their synonyms) that have never been reported from the region. The list is presented in taxonomic order, with the author, date of description, and original genus provided for each name.
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing systematic study of Nearetic Tortricidae revealed several historical misidentifications and new species of Aethes in the Midwest. We redefine A. promptana (Robinson), A. angulatana (Robinson), A. argentilimitana (Robinson), and A. atomosana (Busck); resurrect A. interruptofasciata (Robinson); and synonymize A. labeculana (Robinson) with the prior A. argentilimitana, and A. sublepidana (Kearfott) with the prior A. interruptofasciata. We describe as new species A. sexdentata Sabourin & Miller, A. razowskii Sabourin & Miller, A. westratei Sabourin & Miller, A. matheri Sabourin & Miller, A. terriae Sabourin & Miller, A. baloghi Sabourin & Metzler, and A. matthew- cruzi Sabourin & Vargo. The status of six species previously considered incertae sedis is resolved, and the number of recognized Nearctic Aethes species is increased from 27 to 34. Conclusions are based on type study as well as on more than 500 pinned specimens and more than 300 genitalia preparations in 29 museums and private collections. A comprehensive definition of Aethes also is presented.
Article
Full-text available
Platphalonia Razowski, 2011 (Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Euliini, Cochylina) was proposed for Saphenista mystica Razowski & Becker, 1983 (type species) and several species previously assigned to Platphalonidia Razowski, 1985. However, with the exception of the type species, none of the other purported congeners have been listed. We formally transfer 16 species to Platplialonia, resulting in the following new combinations: P. albertae (Razowski, 1997), P. assector (Razowski, 1967), P. californica (Razowski, 1986), P. campicolana (Walsingham, 1879), P. dangi (Razowski, 1997), P. decrepita (Razowski & Becker, 2002), P. dubia (Razowski & Becker, 1983). P.fusifera (Meyrick, 1912), P. galbanca (Meyrick, 1917), P. lavana (Busck, 1907), Platphalonidia luxata (Razowski & Becker, 1986), P. mendora (Clarke, 1968), P. ochraceana (Razowski, 1967), P. paranae (Razowski & Becker, 1983), P. plicana (Walsingham, 1884), and P. sublimis (Meyrick, 1917). We describe Platplialonia magdalenae Metzler & Albu, new species, from a series of specimens that were discovered nectaring on Centromcdia (=Hemizonia) pungens (Hook. & Arn.) Greene ssp. pungens (Asteraceae) during the day-time on 2 May 2011 in Tulare County, in the Central Valley of California. Adults and male and female genitalia of P. magdalenae are illustrated.
Article
Full-text available
Cochylis campuloclinium, new species, is described and illustrated from Argentina. The new species was discovered during efforts to find biological control agents against pompom weed, Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a perennial of the New World tropics that recently has invaded South Africa. The new species is similar to C. argentinana Razowski but can be distinguished by the shape of the sacculus in the male genitalia: a hooked-shaped process in C. campuloclinium, a broad, distally excavated plate in C. argentinana.
Article
Full-text available
In 2006, 10-year studies of the moths in two park units of the U.S. National Park Service in southern New Mexico were initiated: White Sands National Monument in Otero County, New Mexico, USA; and Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in Eddy County, New Mexico, USA. Two new species of Cochylini, Eugnosta brownana Metzler &Forbes and Cochylis yinyangana Metzler, are described. Adults and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated.
Article
Full-text available
Eupinivora, new genus, is described and illustrated from the montane regions of western United States (Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas) and Mexico (Nuevo León, Durango, and Estado de Mexico). As presently defined, the genus includes seven species: E. ponderosae, n. sp. (USA: Arizona) (type species); E angulicosta, n. sp. (Mexico: Nuevo León); E. albolineana, n. sp. (Mexico: Durango); E. thaumantias (Razowski, 1994), n. comb. (Mexico: Estado de Mexico); E. hamartopenis (Razowski, 1986), n. comb. (Mexico: Durango); E. unicolora, n. sp. (Mexico: Durango); and E. rufofascia, n. sp. (Mexico: Durango). The new genus is most closely related to Henricus Busck, 1943, from which it can be distinguished by the short upturned labial palpi, the presence of a variable cluster of long spine-like external setae from near the middle of the phallus in the male genitalia, the absence of cornuti in the vesica, the absence of the subgenital sex scales in the male, and a forewing pattern that in most of the included species is reminiscent of that of Argyrotaenia ponera Walsingham and its relatives. Four of the new species were reared from the cones of Pinus arizonica var. cooperi Blanco (Pinaceae) and one from Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson; all of the species occur in habitats dominated by conifers at elevations between ca. 1700 and 2750 m. Two specimens from New Mexico were collected in traps baited with a synthetic pheromone for the bud worm Choristoneura lambertiana (Busck, 1915) (Archipini)-90% 92:8E:Z11-14AC, 10% 90:10E:Z11OH--which is consistent with that recorded for other Cochylina.
Article
The following new species are described: Phtheochroa lonnvei sp. n., P. kenyana sp. n., Cochylimorpha africana sp. n., Eugnosta unifasciana sp. n., E. marginana sp. n., Actihema jirani sp. n., A. msituni sp. n., A. fibigeri sp. n., A. simpsonae sp. n., Diceratura complicana sp. n. and Falseuncaria aberdarensis sp. n. The new genus Afropoecilia gen. nov. is established for Afropoecilia kituloensis sp. n. Three species are transferred to the genus Cochylimorpha Razowski, 1959; C. cataracta (Aarvik, 2004) comb. nov., C. namibiana (Aarvik, 2004) comb. nov. and C. exoterica (Meyrick, 1924) comb. nov.
Article
The genus Rolandylis Gibeaux is considered a valid genus (revised status) with three species based on the following autapomorphies: 1) maxillary palpus absent, 2) valve broad at base with an erect proximal costal process with spiculations, and 3) base of aedoeagus with winglike lateral projections. Two new species of Rolandylis from eastern United States are described, R. fusca and R. virilia. The type species of Rolandylis, R. catalonica Gibeaux, is a new synonym of R. maiana (Kearfott). The head and wing venation are illustrated, as well as the habitus and genitalia of all species. The genus is known from the United States, (Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, and Maine), Canada (Nova Scotia), and France. The phylogenetic relationships of Rolandylis within Nearctic Cochylini are discussed.
Article
Diagnoses of the 68 described genera of Cochylini are provided along with redescriptions and comments where necessary. Platphalonidia is synonymized with Phalonidia, and Platphalonia Razowski, gen. n. is described.
Article
We examined the influence of temperature and release density on the root-boring moth, Agapeta zoegana L., a biological control agent of diffuse knapweed, Centaurea diffusa Lam., and spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa Lam. Moths were released at six densities (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 adult male–female pairs) in each of 2 years (1992 and 1993 cohorts) into outdoor, caged plots containing spotted knapweed. Air temperature, larval establishment and mass, and adult emergence, mass, and body dimensions were measured. Larval production increased linearly with adult release density in both cohorts. Larval survival ranged from 0 to 100% and was not correlated with release density or accumulated degree-days in either year. Date of first emergence occurred earlier as both release density and larvae per plant increased, but only for the 1992 cohort. Declining resources or increased contact among the larvae may induce early pupation. Peak emergence rate increased with release density in both cohorts. First emergence was related more closely to calendar date than accumulated degree-days. In contrast, peak emergence rates were more consistent with degree-day accumulations between cohorts than calendar date. Adult production increased with parental release density in both cohorts. Females were heavier, wider, and longer than males. Optimal A. zoegana production will be achieved with releases of greater than 1.6 male–female adult pairs per spotted knapweed plant.
Article
Common systematic practice tends to synthesize character states by combining or dividing observed conditions. This process we refer to as the "synthetic' method for character definition. Character definitions derived for the genera of North American Cochylini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using "synthetic' character states postulated that the cochylines were not monophyletic. The use of cladogram characters and nearest neighbor matrices in uncovering potential flaws in character state declineation is demonstrated. The "synthetic' set of character definitions proved deficient. A new means for summarizing multiple solution cladograms, are introduced. -from Authors