He J, Gu D, Chen J, Wu X, Kelly TN, Huang JF et al.. Premature deaths attributable to blood pressure in China: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 374, 1765-1772

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 10/2009; 374(9703):1765-72. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61199-5
Source: PubMed


Hypertension is a major global-health challenge because of its high prevalence and concomitant risks of cardiovascular disease. We estimated premature deaths attributable to increased blood pressure in China.
We did a prospective cohort study in a nationally representative sample of 169,871 Chinese adults aged 40 years and older. Blood pressure and other risk factors were measured at a baseline examination in 1991 and follow-up assessment was done in 1999-2000. Premature death was defined as mortality before age 72 years in men and 75 years in women, which were the average life expectancies in China in 2005. We calculated the numbers of total and premature deaths attributable to blood pressure using population-attributable risk, mortality, and the population size of China in 2005.
Hypertension and prehypertension were significantly associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (p<0.0001). We estimated that in 2005, 2.33 million (95% CI 2.21-2.45) cardiovascular deaths were attributable to increased blood pressure in China: 2.11 million (2.03-2.20) in adults with hypertension and 0.22 million (0.19-0.25) in adults with prehypertension. Additionally, 1.27 million (1.18-1.36) premature cardiovascular deaths were attributable to raised blood pressure in China: 1.15 million (1.08-1.22) in adults with hypertension and 0.12 million (0.10-0.14) in adults with prehypertension. Most blood pressure-related deaths were caused by cerebrovascular diseases: 1.86 million (1.76-1.96) total deaths and 1.08 million (1.00-1.15) premature deaths.
Increased blood pressure is the leading preventable risk factor for premature mortality in the Chinese general population. Prevention and control of this condition should receive top public-health priority in China.
American Heart Association (USA); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (USA); Ministry of Health (China); and Ministry of Science and Technology (China).

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    • "This number is expected to rise to 1.56 billion by 2025 [1]. In China, hypertension is the leading preventable risk factor for premature mortality [3]. The majority of cardiovascular (CV) deaths in China were attributed to hypertension (2.11 million) in 2005 [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Single-pill combination (SPC) therapy of two drugs is recommended by international guidelines, including the Chinese guidelines (2010), for the treatment of hypertension in high-risk patients who require marked blood pressure (BP) reductions. Real-world data on the efficacy and safety of valsartan/amlodipine (Val/Aml) SPC are scarce. The present study is the first observational study in China to evaluate the efficacy (primary endpoint) and safety of Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC in Chinese patients with hypertension whose BP was not adequately controlled by monotherapy in a real-world setting. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, open-label, post-marketing observational study included 11,422 Chinese adults (≥18 years) with essential hypertension from 238 sites of 29 provinces who were prescribed once-daily Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC. Patients were treated for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy variable of the study included changes in mean sitting systolic BP (MSSBP) and mean diastolic BP (MSDBP) from baseline to week 8 (end point). The secondary efficacy variable of the study included BP control rate and response rate at week 4 and 8. Safety assessments included recording and measurement of all adverse events (AEs) and vital signs in the safety population. Results: A significant reduction of 27.1 mmHg in MSSBP (159.6 vs. 132.5 mmHg; P < 0.0001) and 15.2 mmHg in MSDBP (95.6 vs. 80.4 mmHg; P < 0.0001) from baseline was observed at week 8. The BP-lowering efficacy of Val/Aml SPC was independent of age and comorbidities. BP control of <140/90 mmHg was achieved in 76.8% (n = 8,692) of the patients. The most frequently reported AEs were dizziness (0.2%), headache (0.2%), upper respiratory tract infection (0.2%), and edema (0.2%). Only three serious AEs were reported and they were not drug-related. Conclusion: This is the first evidence-based real-world data in Chinese hypertensive patients which demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Advances in Therapy
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    • "The association between high BP and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality is well established [5]–[7]. BP is strongly related to vascular mortality, down to at least 115/75 mm Hg [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative associations between prehypertension or its two separate blood pressure (BP) ranges and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or all-cause mortality have not been reliably documented. In this study, we performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess these relationships from prospective cohort studies. We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed (1966-June 2012) and the Cochrane Library (1988-June 2012) without language restrictions. This was supplemented by review of the references in the included studies and relevant reviews identified in the search. Prospective studies were included if they reported multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVD or all-cause mortality with respect to prehypertension or its two BP ranges (low range: 120-129/80-84 mmHg; high range: 130-139/85-89 mmHg) at baseline. Pooled RRs were estimated using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model depending on the between-study heterogeneity. Thirteen studies met our inclusion criteria, with 870,678 participants. Prehypertension was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality either in the whole prehypertension group (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.15, P = 0.667) or in its two separate BP ranges (low-range: RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.02, P = 0.107; high range: RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.06, P = 0.951). Prehypertension was significantly associated with a greater risk of CVD mortality (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.50, P<0.001). When analyzed separately by two BP ranges, only high range prehypertension was related to an increased risk of CVD mortality (low-range: RR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.30, P = 0.287; high range: RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.41, P<0.001). From the best available prospective data, prehypertension was not associated with all-cause mortality. More high quality cohort studies stratified by BP range are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "As a consequence of inadequate access to and poor quality of health care, the age- and sex- standardised mortality rate from stroke in 2004 in China was more than three times as high as in Japan and other high income countries [8]. In China, 60% of deaths from CVD were attributable to high blood pressure [9]. It has been recommended that adequate control of hypertension in developing countries could be achievable by community based programmes and by upgrading primary healthcare systems [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a serious public health problem in China and in other developing countries. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of studies on the effectiveness of community interventions for hypertension management in China. China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and references of retrieved articles were searched to identify randomised or quasi-randomised controlled studies that evaluated community hypertension care in mainland China. One reviewer extracted and a second reviewer checked data from the included studies. We included 94 studies, 93 of which were in Chinese language, that evaluated the following interventions: health education, improved monitoring, family-support, self-management, healthcare management changes and training of providers. The study quality was generally poor, with high risk of biased outcome reporting and significant heterogeneity between studies. When reported, the vast majority of the included studies reported statistically significantly improved outcomes in the intervention group. By assuming zero treatment effects for missing outcomes, the weighted reduction in the intervention group was 6.9 (95% CI: 4.9 to 8.9) mm Hg for systolic BP, and 3.8 (95% CI: 2.6 to 5.0) mm Hg for diastolic BP. Exploratory subgroup analyses found no significant differences between different interventions. After taking account of possible reporting biases, a wide range of community interventions for hypertension care remain effective. The findings have implications for China and other low and middle income countries facing similar challenges. Because of significant heterogeneity and high risk of bias in the available studies, further well designed studies should be conducted in China to provide high quality evidence to inform policy decisions on hypertension control.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · BMC Health Services Research
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