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... We define fisheries change agents as those involved in facilitating a fish-eries change initiative, such as gear researchers and fisheries experts. They can facilitate either regulatory implementation or voluntary adoption of fieldwork outcomes (Jenkins, 2015). ...
... Extension programmes may elicit affective responses in fishers to a greater or lesser extent (Jenkins, 2015). Still, we know of no deliberate attempts by fisheries change agents to evaluate the affective change readiness of fishers to bycatch or any other change initiative. ...
... These change agents should be incentivized and supported to learn this knowledge, and funding organizations should provide training. Interdisciplinary collaborations are another avenue through which needed expertise can be brought to bear (Macher et al., 2021), although it is vital to consider affective elements in such fisheries collaborations (Jenkins, 2015). ...
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This paper identifies, critiques, and offers suggestions for successful fisheries change initiatives to reduce bycatch. Through analysis of interviews and a workshop with fisheries change agents, we identified six themes. The first theme is that definitions of success varied between change initiatives. The other five themes relate to perceptions of best practices for change initiatives. They are the importance of (1) engaging diverse, motivated stakeholders in the initiative, in addition to fishers, (2) identifying and articulating clear benefits to fishers, (3) communicating with fishers early and throughout the initiative, particularly through face-to-face interactions and videos, (4) demonstrating positive change agent qualities, and (5) executing an appropriate and well-timed project. These best practices are widely recognized but have not consistently yielded widespread change. We hypothesize this is partly due to fisheries change agents being financially constrained, not measuring outcomes, and not having the proper training, such as knowledge of change management and human behaviour theories. We highlight one especially promising theory, change readiness, which includes cognitive and affective change readiness. We discuss the need to develop affective change readiness among fishers, given that change management research shows that emotions play an important role in the uptake of new ideas and changes.
... Nonetheless, there has recently emerged promising new research activities on this topic (e.g. Campbell and Cornwell, 2008;Jenkins, 2015;Eayrs and Pol, 2019;Barz et al., 2020;Calderwood et al., 2021). ...
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Reducing the capture of non-target species and juvenile fishes through a variety of gear modifications and bycatch reduction devices are presumed to provide long-term biological and socioeconomic benefits and improve the reputation of fisheries. The adoption of these technologies by fisheries, however, has been low compared to research and development efforts. Research has focused on technical design and catch rate responses to these technological interventions with a limited focus on assessing fishers’ attitudes towards these technologies. This essay gives a personal reflection, based on an extensive collaboration with fishers, of the perspectives and barriers that may affect their responses. I also provide suggestions on how to genuinely engage fishers in the process that could lead to agreeable solutions. Above all, change should be approached from the perspective of those whose behavior one is seeking to influence, acknowledging the heterogeneity among fisheries and fishers. The essential element for the success is fishers’ motivation and readiness to the change. Fishers need a clear vision of what the changes mean for their livelihood and evidence that the technology to minimize bycatch performs sufficiently well in various conditions.
... Regarding fisheries, the recommendation is to establish a modern management system with a larger perspective over time (Xu and Chang, 2017;Batista and Cabral, 2016;Jenkins, 2015;Linke and Bruckmeier, 2015). It is necessary to incorporate the inexcusable objective of sustainability, and, at the same time, a modern management, which should define the new role played by fishing, both in the economic and social dimensions. ...
Article
The present importance of oceanic topics -fishery included- is characterized by the existence of conflicts at a global, not compartmentalized, level that no country can keep out of. The greatest awareness about questions linked to fishery resource sustainability - such as the need to arbitrate acts designed to regulate fishery access conditions; the application of different business strategies and conflicts among both national and international jurisdictions (high sea and transzonal areas). That is why the need of implementing new enhancements regarding behavior codes applied by producers, as well as regarding the decisions adopted by public authorities within the framework of fishery regulation, in the context of a Global Sustainable Development. The main objective of this work is reviewing the successive policies related to the management of the fishery resources, as well as to determine the key elements of the governance, in relation to the behavior of the actors involved in this activity. Fisheries management is also taken into consideration from the institutional level and from the actors involved. The information analyzed was obtained from an extensive review of the academic literature and through interviews with companies and personalities related to the fishing activity. As a conclusion, some measures are proposed to promote a better organizational functioning of the sector, eliminating the existing dysfunctional ones and reconciling conflicting interests. These measures suggest incorporating dimensions from ecosystems, socio-economic systems and institutional aspects. We conclude that management systems should be institutional agreements and administrative processes with the capacity to articulate a fisheries policy.
... Resource users are more likely to support marine conservation efforts when their concerns are met, and this is more likely to happen when planning processes are participatory, transparent and equitable (e.g. Ferse et al. 2010;Pollnac et al. 2010;Jenkins 2015). When environmental and socioeconomic benefits are not fairly distributed, elite capture for short-term gains can lower legitimacy and increase conflict (e.g. ...
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Because the Anthropocene by definition is an epoch during which environmental change is largely anthropogenic and driven by social, economic, psychological and political forces, environmental social scientists can effectively analyse human behaviour and knowledge systems in this context. In this subject review, we summarize key ways in which the environmental social sciences can better inform fisheries management policy and practice and marine conservation in the Anthropocene. We argue that environmental social scientists are particularly well positioned to synergize research to fill the gaps between: (1) local behaviours/needs/worldviews and marine resource management and biological conservation concerns; and (2) large-scale drivers of planetary environmental change (globalization, affluence, technological change, etc.) and local cognitive, socioeconomic, cultural and historical processes that shape human behaviour in the marine environment. To illustrate this, we synthesize the roles of various environmental social science disciplines in better understanding the interaction between humans and tropical marine ecosystems in developing nations where issues arising from human–coastal interactions are particularly pronounced. We focus on: (1) the application of the environmental social sciences in marine resource management and conservation; (2) the development of ‘new’ socially equitable marine conservation; (3) repopulating the seascape; (4) incorporating multi-scale dynamics of marine social–ecological systems; and (5) envisioning the future of marine resource management and conservation for producing policies and projects for comprehensive and successful resource management and conservation in the Anthropocene.
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Two bycatch reduction initiatives in Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery were evaluated through the lens of a comprehensive change management model. This model combines the constructs of change Type, Readiness, Process, Inertia, and Time, and was developed because gear researchers have a poor record facilitating the voluntary uptake of proven fishing gear, including bycatch reduction devices. This evaluation identified where efforts by gear researchers to facilitate change in this fishery did and did not achieve desired outcomes. It identified differences in change type, precursors to change, and readiness of fishers to change, although extension activities were similar for both initiatives. No attempts were made to influence their affective readiness to change. During the second initiative, the process of overcoming inertia was influenced by a well-respected industry body. With a clear vision and improved fisher readiness to change, achievement of desired outcomes was relatively straightforward and less controversial. The proactive application of this model in the fishing industry awaits. However, this evaluation implies it is a useful road map to guide and inspire change in this industry. In the future, efforts to realize change must include consideration of affective change readiness, establishment of a guiding coalition, and promulgation of a clear vision.
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The success of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) depends on the effective participation of small-scale fishers (SSFs), and the extent to which marine governance in general can address the problems they face. As Poland’s MSP in areas that are key to small-scale fisheries are yet to begin,this paper explores tensions in the country’s looming coastal MSP processes through clarifying both the risks faced by SSFs and their perspectives on MSP. Using semi-structured interviews with SSFs and analytical literature reviews on small-scale fisheries, it is found that Poland’s MSP is cast against a contentious history of marine resource management that shapes negative perceptions of and attitudes towards both the European Union-mediated MSP and marine scientists. Notably, SSFs believe that (1) authorities often undervalue and underutilize their experiential knowledge, (2) MSP is intended primarily to facilitate the siting of offshore wind farms and, (3) scientific knowledge is either not effectively communicated or is at the service of investors. A discussion follows that proposes measures through which planners can ensure procedural fairness. The paper concludes by offering TURF-Reserves as a novel and integrated co-management system within MSP which has potentials for empowering SSFs and revitalizing Poland’s small-scale fisheries, while ensuring effective marine protection.
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Understanding how industry-science collaborations work and how the resulting knowledge is used is critical for improving the incorporation of fishers' knowledge in policy-making. We use the concept of 'trading zones' to analyze a collaborative effort to integrate fishers' and scientists' expertise in the Northeast U.S.: the Trawl Survey Advisory Panel. The aim of this collaboration was to improve the production of knowledge for fisheries management by developing a new and improved trawl system (survey net and gear) for the routine data-gathering survey carried out by the federal government. The collaboration was expected to increase the legitimacy and credibility of the science by increasing transparency through a participatory process that made use of fishers' contributory knowledge. We describe how this collaboration shifted among “trading zones,” as well as the role of boundary processes in this transition. Although the government scientists invested heavily in the collaboration, they were ultimately not able keep the process going, as industry members left, sensing that their expertise was not appreciated, boundaries had been erected, and the trading zone for genuine collaboration was closed.
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Past research has shown specific situational interventions can reduce implicit prejudice against outgroups, but nothing is known about who is most sensitive to these situations and whether they influence behavior. The present study examined the combined influence of short-term situational exposure to admired outgroup members (gays and lesbians) and individual differences in prior long-term contact on implicit antigay attitudes and discriminatory behavioral intentions (voting). Results snowed that in the absence of any intervention, participants with little contact with gays and lesbians showed more implicit antigay attitudes and discriminatory voting intentions than participants with high contact. However, after the short-term intervention, participants, regardless of prior contact, showed low levels of implicit prejudice and discriminatory voting intentions. The observed reduction of bias in implicit attitudes and behavioral intentions occurred independently; attitude change did not mediate behavioral change. We suggest that different underlying mechanisms drive changes in implicit attitudes versus explicit behavioral intentions.
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Many researchers have observed the paradox of the decline in trust of experts alongside the increasing use of expertise in Western society. This research argues for the division of expertise into a defined category, “expert-source”, separating experts from other sources who do not possess expertise. Using a normative concept of expertise to provide categories can offer a more coherent and consistent method of assessing a source's expertise and how to present their statements. This research presents findings based on a media analysis of television, radio and newspapers, interviews with journalists and sources and the results of national surveys and focus groups with parents and uses a recent medical controversy in the UK as a backdrop to explore expertise. In 1998 a scientist claimed there might be a link between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. His claims received significant media attention and vaccination rates fell across the UK. This case study examines how journalists constructed expertise, how key sources presented themselves as expert-sources and the effect of balancing expert-sources with sources. This research encourages journalists and academics to question how expertise affects media coverage.
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The main cloud of radioactive contamination from Chernobyl passed over the United Kingdom on May 2-3, 1986. Rainfall was the major factor affecting local deposition of radioactivity, especially radioactive cesium. Sheep were being contaminated by ingesting grass contaminated with radioactive cesium. British government officials first reacted to this deposition by ignoring and denying the facts and then by recommending impractical solutions stemming from their ignorance of hill sheep farming. This study illustrates the need for improved, two-way communication between scientists and the involved public, particularly during national emergencies.
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This chapter describes a framework for understanding and managing complex systems that couple human beings, nature and technology. The framework includes five major components; the first three are necessary capabilities for accomplishing the last two.  Superordinate goals: Human beings have to see the urgent necessity of working together to solve problems like climate change and depletion of natural resources.  Moral imagination: Differences in values can prevent adoption of a superordinate goal. Moral imagination is the equivalent of interactional expertise concerning values; it involves being able to 'step into the shoes' of another stakeholder and see the problem from her or his perspective.  Trading zones: Linking multiple stakeholders will require setting up a series of trading zones for exchanging ideas, resources, and solutions across different communities and interests. Developing the three capabilities above will permit:  Adaptive management: This strategy involves treating management interventions like hypotheses, subjecting them to empirical tests, and revising the strategy based on the results. Adaptive management is difficult in tightly coupled human-technological-natural systems, where hypotheses should be constructed not only about environmental impacts, but also about effects on stakeholders.  Anticipatory governance: Global problems and opportunities will require adding more anticipatory, adaptive capability to governance mechanisms, linking decision makers with other stakeholders. These exchanges will have to be motivated by a superordinate goal so urgent that governance structures can be transformed, if necessary.
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After the last few decades in which the importance of `local' knowledge has been emphasized, attention must now turn to better understanding how such knowledge is communicated to certified experts (scientists) and vice versa. This paper examines how expert knowledge is co-produced in agriculture by local and non-local experts for the benefit of both. The argument is informed by an empirical case study of sustainable farmers and agriculture professionals in Iowa. While much has been written about how the conventional and sustainable models of agriculture rest upon different epistemological orientations, little has yet been said about how those different experts (local and certified) interact with each other. Building upon the work of H. M. Collins and Robert Evans, and their tripartite model of expertise (of no , contributory , and interactional expertise), I investigate the different forms of expertise that exist within agriculture. In doing so, specific focus is placed upon interactional expertise for creating meaningful exchanges (or interactions ) between scientists and non-scientists.
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For a variety of reasons, social perceivers may often attempt to actively inhibit stereotypic thoughts before their effects impinge on judgment and behavior. However, research on the psychology of mental control raises doubts about the efficacy of this strategy. Indeed, this work suggests that when people attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts, these thoughts are likely to subsequently reappear with even greater insistence than if they had never been suppressed (i.e., a "rebound" effect). The present research comprised an investigation of the extent to which this kind of rebound effect extends to unwanted stereotypic thoughts about others. The results provide strong support for the existence of this effect. Relative to control Ss (i.e., stereotype users), stereotype suppressors responded more pejoratively to a stereotyped target on a range of dependent measures. We discuss our findings in the wider context of models of mind, thought suppression, and social stereotyping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Trust is a central concept in the philosophy of science. We highlight how trust is important in the wide variety of interactions between science and society. We claim that examining and clarifying the nature and role of trust (and distrust) in relations between science and society is one principal way in which the philosophy of science is socially relevant. We argue that philosophers of science should extend their efforts to develop normative conceptions of trust that can serve to facilitate trust between scientific experts and ordinary citizens. The first project is the development of a rich normative theory of expertise and experience that can explain why the various epistemic insights of diverse actors should be trusted in certain contexts and how credibility deficits can be bridged. The second project is the development of concepts that explain why, in certain cases, ordinary citizens may distrust science, which should inform how philosophers of science conceive of the formulation of science policy when conditions of distrust prevail. The third project is the analysis of cases of successful relations of trust between scientists and non-scientists that leads to understanding better how ‘postnormal’ science interactions are possible using trust.
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The evidence for whether intentional control strategies can reduce automatic stereotyping is mixed. Therefore, the authors tested the utility of implementation intentions--specific plans linking a behavioral opportunity to a specific response--in reducing automatic bias. In three experiments, automatic stereotyping was reduced when participants made an intention to think specific counterstereotypical thoughts whenever they encountered a Black individual. The authors used two implicit tasks and process dissociation analysis, which allowed them to separate contributions of automatic and controlled thinking to task performance. Of importance, the reduction in stereotyping was driven by a change in automatic stereotyping and not controlled thinking. This benefit was acquired with little practice and generalized to novel faces. Thus, implementation intentions may be an effective and efficient means for controlling automatic aspects of thought.
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Science studies has shown us why science and technology cannot always solve technical problems in the public domain. In particular, the speed of political decision-making is faster than the speed of scientific consensus formation. A predominant motif over recent years has been the need to extend the domain of technical decision-making beyond the technically qualified elite so as to enhance political legitimacy. We argue, however, that theProblem of Legitimacy' has been replaced theProblem of Extension.' This is a tendency to dissolve the boundary between experts and the public so that there are no longer any grounds for limiting the indefinite extension of technical decision-making rights. We argue that a Third Wave of science studies -- Studies of Expertise and Experience (SEE) -- is needed to solve the Problem of Extension. SEE will include a normative theory of expertise and will disentangle expertise from political rights in technical decision-making. The theory builds categories of expertise starting with the key distinction between interactive expertise and contributory expertise. A new categorisation of types of science is also needed. We illustrate the potential of the approach by re-examining existing case studies including Wynne's study of Cumbrian sheep farmers. Sometimes the new theory argues for more public involvement, sometimes for less. An Appendix describes existing contributions to the problem of technical decision-making in the public domain.
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The primary aim of the present research was to examine the effect of training in negating stereotype associations on stereotype activation. Across 3 studies, participants received practice in negating stereotypes related to skinhead and racial categories. The subsequent automatic activation of stereotypes was measured using either a primed Stroop task (Studies I and 2) or a person categorization task (Study 3). The results demonstrate that when receiving no training or training in a nontarget category stereotype, participants exhibited spontaneous stereotype activation. After receiving an extensive amount of training related to a specific category, however, participants demonstrated reduced stereotype activation. The results from the training task provide further evidence for the impact of practice on participants' proficiency in negating stereotypes.
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The present research suggests that automatic and controlled intergroup biases can be modified through diversity education. In 2 experiments, students enrolled in a prejudice and conflict seminar showed significantly reduced implicit and explicit anti-Black biases, compared with control students. The authors explored correlates of prejudice and stereotype reduction. In each experiment, seminar students' implicit and explicit change scores positively covaried with factors suggestive of affective and cognitive processes, respectively. The findings show the malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes and suggest that these may effectively be changed through affective processes.
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Research on implicit stereotypes has raised important questions about an individual's ability to moderate and control stereotypic responses. With few strategies shown to be effective in moderating implicit effects, the present research investigates a new strategy based on focused mental imagery. Across 5 experiments, participants who engaged in counterstereotypic mental imagery produced substantially weaker implicit stereotypes compared with participants who engaged in neutral, stereotypic, or no mental imagery. This reduction was demonstrated with a variety of measures, eliminating explanations based on response suppression or shifts in response criterion. Instead, the results suggest that implicit stereotypes are malleable, and that controlled processes, such as mental imagery, may influence the stereotyping process at its early as well as later stages.
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Two experiments examined whether exposure to pictures of admired and disliked exemplars can reduce automatic preference for White over Black Americans and younger over older people. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to either admired Black and disliked White individuals, disliked Black and admired White individuals, or nonracial exemplars. Immediately after exemplar exposure and 24 hr later, they completed an Implicit Association Test that assessed automatic racial attitudes and 2 explicit attitude measures. Results revealed that exposure to admired Black and disliked White exemplars significantly weakened automatic pro-White attitudes for 24 hr beyond the treatment but did not affect explicit racial attitudes. Experiment 2 provided a replication using automatic age-related attitudes. Together, these studies provide a strategy that attempts to change the social context and, through it, to reduce automatic prejudice and preference.
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The present article presents a meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. With 713 independent samples from 515 studies, the meta-analysis finds that intergroup contact typically reduces intergroup prejudice. Multiple tests indicate that this finding appears not to result from either participant selection or publication biases, and the more rigorous studies yield larger mean effects. These contact effects typically generalize to the entire outgroup, and they emerge across a broad range of outgroup targets and contact settings. Similar patterns also emerge for samples with racial or ethnic targets and samples with other targets. This result suggests that contact theory, devised originally for racial and ethnic encounters, can be extended to other groups. A global indicator of Allport's optimal contact conditions demonstrates that contact under these conditions typically leads to even greater reduction in prejudice. Closer examination demonstrates that these conditions are best conceptualized as an interrelated bundle rather than as independent factors. Further, the meta-analytic findings indicate that these conditions are not essential for prejudice reduction. Hence, future work should focus on negative factors that prevent intergroup contact from diminishing prejudice as well as the development of a more comprehensive theory of intergroup contact.
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Research on implicit stereotypes has raised important questions about an individual's ability to moderate and control stereotypic responses. With few strategies shown to be effective in moderating implicit effects, the present research investigates a new strategy based on focused mental imagery. Across 5 experiments, participants who engaged in counterstereotypic mental imagery produced substantially weaker implicit stereotypes compared with participants who engaged in neutral, stereotypic, or no mental imagery. This reduction was demonstrated with a variety of measures, eliminating explanations based on response suppression or shifts in response criterion. Instead, the results suggest that implicit stereotypes are malleable, and that controlled processes, such as mental imagery, may influence the stereotyping process at its early as well as later stages.
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Congratulations to H. Russell Bernard, who was recently elected as a member of the National Academy of Sciences"This book does what few others even attempt—to survey a wide range of systematic analytic approaches. I commend the authors for both their inclusiveness and their depth of treatment of various tasks and approaches." —Judith Preissle, University of Georgia "I appreciate the unpretentious tone of the book. The authors provide very clear instructions and examples of many different ways to collect and analyze qualitative data and make it clear that there is no one correct way to do it." —Cheryl Winsten-Bartlett, North Central University "The analytical methodologies are laid out very well, and I will definitely utilize the book with students regarding detailed information and steps to conduct systematic and rigorous data analysis." —Dorothy Aguilera, Lewis & Clark College This book introduces readers to systematic methods for analyzing qualitative data. Unlike other texts, it covers the extensive range of available methods so that readers become aware of the array of techniques beyond their individual disciplines. Part I is an overview of the basics. Part II comprises 11 chapters, each treating a different method for analyzing text. Real examples from the literature across the health and social sciences provide invaluable applied understanding.
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On the face of it, the directors of new large scientific projects have an impossible task. They have to make technical decisions about sciences in which they have never made a research contribution—sciences in which they have no contributory expertise. Furthermore, these decisions must be accepted and respected by the scientists who are making research contributions. The problem is discussed in two interviews conducted with two directors of large scientific projects. The paradox is resolved for the managers by their use of interactional and referred expertise. The same analysis might be applicable to management in general. An Appendix, co-authored with Jeff Shrager, compares the notion of referred expertise with contributory expertise.
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The author claims to have developed interactional expertise in gravitational wave physics without engaging with the mathematical or quantitative aspects of the subject. Is this possible? In other words, is it possible to understand the physical world at a high enough level to argue and make judgments about it without the corresponding mathematics? This question is empirically approached in three ways: (i) anecdotes about non-mathematical physicists are presented; (ii) the author undertakes a reflective reading of a passage of physics, first without going through the maths and then after engaging with it and discusses the difference between the experiences; (iii) the aforementioned exercise gives rise to a table of Levels of Understanding of mathematics, and physicists are asked about the level mathematical understanding they applied when they last read a paper. Each phase of empirical research suggests that mathematics is not as central to gaining an understanding of physics as it is often said to be. This does not mean that mathematics is not central to physics, merely that it is not essential for every physicist to be an accomplished mathematician, and that a division of labour model is adequate. This, in turn, suggests that a stream of undergraduate physics education with fewer mathematical hurdles should be developed, making it easier to train wider groups of people in physical science comprehension.
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This article presents a cooperative fisheries research effort aimed to improve the science and management of the U.S. Illex squid fishery. This collaboration between government scientists, the squid industry, and a consultant scientist produced new biological information about squid and improved the assessment of this species. This case illustrates the challenges and possibilities of involving nonscientific citizens in scientific research for policymaking. The involvement of the lead government assessment scientist for Illex squid was critical to the utility of the data collected. In this case, the integration of fishermen's contributory expertise in science occurred through the work of key boundary spanners with interactional expertise. Here this included a consultant scientist and key fishermen who were able to communicate with government scientists and the industry. The collaboration also provided some fishermen with interactional expertise related to doing science such that they were able to communicate their contributory expertise to scientists.
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Past research has demonstrated the powerful influence other people have on the thoughts and behaviors of individuals. However, the study of intergroup attitudes has focused primarily on the influence of direct exposure to out-group members as determinants of stereotypes and prejudice. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that learning that others share one's intergroup beliefs influences intergroup attitudes and behavior as well as stereotype representation. Experiment 1 demonstrated that learning that one's beliefs are shared or not shared with others influences attitudes, behavior, and the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship. Experiment 2 demonstrated a potential mechanism for such effects by showing that learning about whether others share one's stereotypes influences the accessibility of those stereotypes and related stereotypes.
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In this four part exchange, Evan Selinger starts by stating that Collins’s empirical evidence in respect of linguistic socialization and its bearing on artificial intelligence and expertise is valuable; it advances philosophical and sociological understanding of the relationship between knowledge and language. Nevertheless, he argues that Collins mischaracterizes the data under review and thereby misrepresents how knowledge is acquired and understates the extent to which expert knowers are embodied. Selinger reconstructs the case for the importance of the body in the initial acquisition of language and challenges Collins to show how a disembodied entity could become fluent in any language at all.Collins responds by accepting that his approach does not demonstrate quite as much about the irrelevance of the body as he thought it did but that even though he accepts all of Selinger’s claims, ‘the body’ as needed by the philosophical approach set out by Selinger is still a vestigial thing. Collins’s main point, however, is that the philosophical view of the body—the world is divided into embodied agents and unembodied entities—distracts attention from the more interesting empirically researchable question of how the ability to become socialized diminishes, if it does, as the body become more and more minimal. The right research question is not about whether a person can extrapolate from minimal sensory input but how much extrapolation is possible under different circumstances and how it is done.Dreyfus, having seen the whole of the exchange so far, agrees that both have a point but argues that Collins’s approach still misses the well established importance of bodily engagement for full understanding.Collins responds to this by trying to set out more clearly the position associated with the idea of interactional expertise.
Article
Demands for public participation in technical decision-making are currently high on the agenda of Science & Technology Studies. It is assumed that the democratisation of technical decision-making processes generally leads to more socially desirable and acceptable outcomes. While this may be true in certain cases, this assumption cannot be generalised. I will discuss the case of the so-called ‘South African AZT debate’. The controversy started when President Thabo Mbeki, after reading some scientific papers on the toxicity of AZT, decided to bar the use of the drug in the public health sector as a means to reduce the transmission of HIV from mothers to children. While the scientific mainstream accepts the effectiveness of AZT in reducing the risk of vertical HIV transmission, a few maverick scientists reject the clinical evidence and argue that the risks of using AZT by far outweigh its benefits. Based on various textual sources and using the ‘Periodic Table of Expertises’ developed by Collins and Evans, Mbeki’s expertise at the time of his intervention into the technical question whether AZT is a medicine or a poison can be classified as primary source knowledge. It is shown that this type of expertise is insufficient for technical decision-making. Mbeki’s primary source knowledge legitimated his presentation of the claims of maverick scientists as a serious contribution to the debate—with tragic consequences for tens of thousands of babies.
Article
Although previous work suggests that exposure to other-imposed pressure to respond favorably toward Black people may reduce at least overt expressions of prejudice, the consequences of such pressure beyond initial compliance has not been explored. Across three studies, we examined the implications of complying with pro-Black pressure for people's affective, attitudinal, and behavioral responses as a function of their source of motivation to respond without prejudice. The findings indicate that those who are primarily externally motivated to respond without prejudice (low internal, high external motivation) feel constrained and bothered by politically correct pressure (Study 1). In addition, whether the pressure was imagined (Study 1 and 2) or real (Study 3), these participants responded with angry/threatened affect when pressured to comply with other-imposed pro-Black pressure. Finally, these affective responses resulted in backlash (both attitudinal and behavioral) among the low internal, high external participants, presumably in an attempt to reassert their personal freedom.
Article
Programming languages are, at the same time, instruments and communicative artifacts that evolve rapidly through use. In this paper I describe an online computing platform called BioBike. BioBike is a trading zone where biologists and programmers collaborate in the development of an extended vocabulary and functionality for computational genomics. In the course of this work they develop interactional expertise with one another’s domains. The extended BioBike vocabulary operates on two planes: as a working programming language, and as a pidgin in the conversation between the biologists and engineers. The flexibility that permits this community to dynamically extend BioBike’s working vocabulary—to form new pidgins—makes BioBike unique among computational tools, which usually are not themselves adapted through the collaborations that they facilitate. Thus BioBike is itself a crucial feature—which it is tempting to refer to as a participant—in the developing interaction.
Article
This paper examines a scientific decision making process that was used as the basis of management decisions for Atlantic bluefish (Pomatomus saltator) in the United States. It is derived from a sociological case study of the use of scientific claims by both scientists and non-scientists in a debate over the management of this species along the US East Coast between 1996 and 1998. This paper focuses on how legal mandates, and responses to these mandates by management agencies, shaped the debate among fisheries scientists about the condition of the bluefish stock. It suggests that these mandates had a distorting effect that kept the scientists from making use of what they felt was their best scientific judgement. The paper also examines the difficulties encountered by the scientists in assigning an appropriate role to the precautionary principle.
Article
I analyse the case of three Japanese-Portuguese interpreters who have given support to technology transfer from a steel company in Japan to one in Brazil for more than thirty years. Their job requires them to be ‘interactional experts’ in steel-making. The Japanese–Portuguese interpreters are immersed in more than the language of steel-making as their job involves a great deal of ‘physical contiguity’ with steel-making practice. Physical contiguity undoubtedly makes the acquisition of interactional expertise easier. This draws attention to the lack of empirical work on the exact way that the physical and the linguistic interact in the acquisition of interactional expertise, or any other kind of expertise.
Article
This paper explores the evolution of a trading zone by organizing the case study of turtle excluder devices within the model proposed by Collins et al. (2007). The case study offers evidence that trading zones do evolve and that the concepts of enforced and fractionated trading zones hold practical utility for describing and defining the complexities of actual exchanges. In this case a trading zone evolved from enforced to fractionated and ultimately diverged into two trading zones. For each step of the evolution I describe the forces that drove these transitions. Finally, I present an adapted trading zone model that is conceptually a better fit for the turtle excluder device case study.
Article
The burgeoning field of studies in expertise and experience (SEE) is a useful theoretical approach to complex problems. In light of SEE, examination of the controversial and well known case study of dolphin bycatch in the US tuna fishery, reveals that effective problem- solving was hindered by institutional tensions in respect of decision-making authority and difficulties with the integration of different expertises. Comparing the profiles of four individuals, who played distinct roles in the problem-solving process, I show that (1) to address a complex problem, a suite of contributory expertises—rarely found in one individual—may be required; (2) formal credentials are not a reliable indicator of who possesses these necessary expertises; (3) interactional expertise and interactive ability are useful tools in combining the contributory expertises of others to yield a desirable collective outcome; and (4) the concepts of contributory expertise and no expertise are useful tools for understanding the actual contribution of various parties to the problem-solving process.
Article
A change in the audition procedures of symphony orchestras--adoption of "blind" auditions with a "screen" to conceal the candidate's identity from the jury--provides a test for sex-biased hiring. Using data from actual auditions, in an individual fixed-effects framework, we find that the screen increases the probability a woman will be advanced and hired. Although some of our estimates have large standard errors and there is one persistent effect in the opposite direction, the weight of the evidence suggests that the blind audition procedure fostered impartiality in hiring and increased the proportion women in symphony orchestras.
The third wave of science studies Bycatch: interactional expertise, dolphins and the US tuna fishery The evolution of a trading zone: a case study of the turtle excluder device
  • S Jasanoff
Jasanoff, S., 2003. Breaking the waves in science studies: comment on H.M. Collins and Robert Evans, 'The third wave of science studies'. Soc. Stud. Sci. 33, 389e400. Jenkins, L.D., 2007. Bycatch: interactional expertise, dolphins and the US tuna fishery. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. 38, 698e712. Jenkins, L.D., 2010a. The evolution of a trading zone: a case study of the turtle excluder device. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. 41, 75e85. Jenkins, L.D., 2010b. Profile and influence of the successful fisher-inventor of marine conservation technology. Conserv. Soc. 8, 44e54.
Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quanti-tative Approaches Analyzing Qualitative Data: Systematic Approaches Imagining stereotypes away: the moderation of implicit stereotypes through mental imagery
  • H R Bernard
  • Ca Creek
  • H R Bernard
  • G W Ryan
Bernard, H.R., 2002. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quanti-tative Approaches. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA. Bernard, H.R., Ryan, G.W., 2010. Analyzing Qualitative Data: Systematic Approaches. SAGE Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks. Blair, I.V., Ma, J.E., Lenton, A.P., 2001. Imagining stereotypes away: the moderation of implicit stereotypes through mental imagery. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 81, 828e841. Boyce, T., 2006. Journalism and expertise. J. Stud. 7, 889e906.
An unconscious bias: women in math and science
  • R Gee
Gee, R., 2011. An unconscious bias: women in math and science. Turnstyle News. http://turnstylenews.com/2011/03/09/an-unconscious-bias-women-in-mathand-science/.