Article

Capacity, Guidance, and the Implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Programs administered by the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 were designed to spur investment in clean energy and jump-start the economy. There was considerable variation, however, in the proportion of obligated funds that states spent during each year. A primary goal of the ARRA was to infuse as much money as possible into the struggling economy; however, there was significant variation in the success with which states implemented these programs. This article draws on and extends the literature on intergovernmental implementation to explain such variation. The authors argue that jurisdictional capacity and federal guidance were important determinants of the rate at which states spent ARRA funds and, more important, that these factors interacted with one another in the implementation process. This assertion is tested using a mixed-methods approach that includes a regression analysis of state ARRA spending between 2009 and 2012, as well as an evaluation of interviews conducted with 46 state agency representatives responsible for spending ARRA energy funds.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, the administration also intended for the expenditures to help achieve a variety of policy goals, one of which was to help launch the U.S. transition to a cleaner energy economy (Grunwald 2012). To that end, the ARRA targeted approximately $66 billion to energy technology innovation, green jobs, and energy efficiency improvements, representing " the largest federal infusion of fiscal resources into energy-related activities in modern history " (Carley et al. 2015). Many of the energy-related grants and loans were allocated as " pass-through " funds. ...
... States varied substantially in the speed and extent to which these funds were utilized to achieve the Administration's goals. One empirical analysis found that the percentage of funds spent was a function of both state capacity and federal technical guidance (Carley et al. 2015). On the whole, the ARRA appears to have been effective in spurring renewable energy generation (Park 2015). ...
Article
Environmental policy is a central piece of President Obama’s domestic policy agenda. Congressional gridlock, however, has frequently compelled the Obama Administration to turn to the tools of the administrative presidency to achieve its goals. While executive authority has enabled the President to pursue a relatively ambitious environmental agenda, it has often engendered conflict with Congress, industry, and some states. High levels of intergovernmental conflict have plagued the Obama Administration in several areas of environmental policy, including investment in renewable energy, Environmental Protection Agency regulations on air pollution, and executive actions to manage public lands. And, for their part, states have continued to pursue their own policy goals in the absence of federal policy, with episodes of both policy innovation and retrenchment. Although President Obama’s approach continues a trend of presidents primarily using the tools of the administrative presidency, the President’s signature climate change policy, the Clean Power Plan, may signal an evolving intergovernmental partnership in environmental policy.
... The ARRA-era funding with the general principle of "commencing expenditures and activities as quickly as possible", created an immediate need to grow demand for energy efficiency retrofits in low-income communities. 2 However, there was limited programme experience for scaling up low-income weatherisation, more than 1000%, in the midst of diminished state capacity as governors slashed administrative staff levels due to the economic recession, and a host of other political and bureaucratic challenges (Grunwald 2012, Carley et al. 2015, Terman 2015. With no proven formula for motivating massive WAP participation, states exercised considerable discretion in the strategies they used to meet performance goals and disperse their substantial increases in grant funds, such as increasing the number of local subgrantees (e.g. ...
... With no proven formula for motivating massive WAP participation, states exercised considerable discretion in the strategies they used to meet performance goals and disperse their substantial increases in grant funds, such as increasing the number of local subgrantees (e.g. community action agencies, non-profit organisations, and local government agencies) and expanding multifamily unit retrofits (Carley et al. 2015, ORNL 2015b, Terman 2015. ...
Article
Full-text available
Financial barriers are often cited as the principle impediment to the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Since 1976, the US Department of Energy's Weatherisation Assistance Programme (WAP) has provided state block grants for no-cost, low-income energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, millions of low-income American households lack affordable, reliable, and efficient energy access. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 boosted WAP's annual appropriation from $230 million to $5 billion, requiring states to explore innovate approaches to quickly increasing programme participation. Community-based energy programmes have shown success for overcoming various barriers and increasing participation in the adoption of energy technologies. This case study explores a community-based approach to scaling WAP-funded energy efficiency retrofits in a cluster of five urban, low-income, majority African-American neighbourhoods, known as the Green Impact Zone (GIZ), in Kansas City, Missouri. Findings from interviews with GIZ stakeholders suggest that local context is important to how energy efficiency participation barriers manifest. The targeted, community-based approach to WAP created institutional capabilities for increased recognition of participation challenges and facilitated opportunities for alternative solutions that may otherwise have been overlooked under the standard self-referral implementation of WAP. Lastly, effective implementation of WAP required policy workarounds that recognised the unique characteristics and needs of the target community.
... Central organizations designing policies can provide incentives for cooperation in order to encourage implementing organizations to become constructive partners (Stocker, 1991). For instance, scholarship on intergovernmental implementation has suggested that the amount of guidance that higher levels of government give to subnational organizations in terms of emphasizing program goals and the best methods to achieve those goals influence implementation success (Carley, Nicholson-Crotty & Fisher, 2015). In other words, federal guidance and technical assistance have shown to influence the way in which implementing agencies define goals and carry out centrally designed programs (Grogan & Rigby, 2009;Harris, 2010;Carley, Nicholson-Crotty & Fisher, 2015). ...
... For instance, scholarship on intergovernmental implementation has suggested that the amount of guidance that higher levels of government give to subnational organizations in terms of emphasizing program goals and the best methods to achieve those goals influence implementation success (Carley, Nicholson-Crotty & Fisher, 2015). In other words, federal guidance and technical assistance have shown to influence the way in which implementing agencies define goals and carry out centrally designed programs (Grogan & Rigby, 2009;Harris, 2010;Carley, Nicholson-Crotty & Fisher, 2015). For Van Meter and Van Horn (1973), communication between designers and implementers influences implementers' perceptions which, in turn, determines performance. ...
... For the analysis of implementation performance I control for variables that have been studied previously in the implementation literature as predictors of successful implementation. I include a measure of the number of homeless providers in the county to account for the relationships between implementing organizations Goggin et al. 1990;Carley, Nicholson-Crotty, and Fisher 2015). I also include a measure for the size of the grant, to account for grant funding levels (Chubb 1985;Hines and Thaler 1995), whether the state was visited by HUD officials to receive federal guidance (Carley, Nicholson-Crotty, and Fisher 2015), the number of other homeless grants administered by the organization, as a measure of the capacity ...
... I include a measure of the number of homeless providers in the county to account for the relationships between implementing organizations Goggin et al. 1990;Carley, Nicholson-Crotty, and Fisher 2015). I also include a measure for the size of the grant, to account for grant funding levels (Chubb 1985;Hines and Thaler 1995), whether the state was visited by HUD officials to receive federal guidance (Carley, Nicholson-Crotty, and Fisher 2015), the number of other homeless grants administered by the organization, as a measure of the capacity ...
... Central organizations designing policies can cooperate with implementing organizations in order to encourage them to become constructive partners (Stoker, 1991). For instance, scholarship on intergovernmental implementation has suggested that the amount of guidance higher levels of government give to subnational organizations in terms of emphasizing program goals and the best methods to achieve those goals influence implementation success (Carley, Nicholson-Crotty & Fisher, 2015). In other words, federal guidance and technical assistance have shown to influence the way in which implementing agencies define goals and carry out centrally designed programs (Carley et al., 2015;Grogan & Rigby, 2009). ...
... For instance, scholarship on intergovernmental implementation has suggested that the amount of guidance higher levels of government give to subnational organizations in terms of emphasizing program goals and the best methods to achieve those goals influence implementation success (Carley, Nicholson-Crotty & Fisher, 2015). In other words, federal guidance and technical assistance have shown to influence the way in which implementing agencies define goals and carry out centrally designed programs (Carley et al., 2015;Grogan & Rigby, 2009). Goggin et al. (1990) propose a communications model in which federal-level inducements and constraints, such as policy clarity and consistency, affect the subnational organizations' capacities to generate outcomes. ...
Article
The push to make governments more transparent extends worldwide, as transparency is expected to boost citizens’ trust in government and participation in public affairs. Recent transparency laws and open-government initiatives have encouraged local governments to share more information with their constituents. A growing number of recent studies have investigated the drivers of local governments’ transparency, but have not yet addressed the role of higher levels of government in making local governments more transparent. In light of implementation scholarship arguing the success of centrally designed programs is a function of higher-level involvement, this study contributes to the transparency literature by approaching local governments’ transparency as an intergovernmental implementation process. We assess the explanatory power of two central government strategies: enforcement mechanisms and central government guidance on Chilean municipalities’ transparency levels. Results show that both types of central government strategies can have a substantial impact on transparency over time.
... Challenges implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) following the 2008-09 economic crisis demonstrate how differences in technical and administrative capacity can impact efficient and equitable program implementation (Carley 2016;Carley et al. 2015). For example, ARRA funded the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program to disburse grants to local governments to reduce energy use and emissions. ...
Article
This issue brief discusses existing energy injustice in the United States, related to longstanding and intersectional discrimination based on race, income, gender, and location, and how federal investment in the clean energy transition can address energy equity issues. The brief considers how targeted investment and other spending and policy considerations can direct and retain benefits of clean energy for households and communities that, historically and currently, have not benefited equitably from the energy system.
... As one of the Obama Administration's early high-profile economic initiatives, the ARRA directed $57.7 billion worth of financial incentives toward the clean energy industry, with the explicit intent of creating jobs and stimulating economic momentum. While both the federal government and some state governments seek to boost clean energy industry sectors and thus green job growth, states that have greater jurisdictional capacity and previous energy policy experience were more prepared to spend ARRA energy program funds (Carley et al., 2014). ...
... The EECBG Program was a one-time grant program funded by the ARRA and administered by DOE directly to local governments with a primary goal to create jobs in the new green economy. Grantees received considerable implementation guidance (Carley, Nicholson-Crotty, & Fisher, 2015) with access to the project and performance data of other municipalities. They also had the opportunity to meet in technical information forums set up by DOE. ...
Article
In the last two decades, local governments have increasingly engaged in energy conservation and sustainability programs and policy. However, the benefits of these policies (i.e., cleaner air, less congestion, etc.) are often perceived as dispersed and costly. As such, localities consider collaborating with one another. However, decisions to collaborate pose considerable risks that can be magnified or mitigated by the mechanisms through which collaboration occurs. We investigate decisions to engage in formal and informal collaboration in the area of energy efficiency and conservation as a response to collaboration risks.
... As one of the Obama Administration's early high-profile economic initiatives, the ARRA directed $57.7 billion worth of financial incentives toward the clean energy industry, with the explicit intent of creating jobs and stimulating economic momentum. While both the federal government and some state governments seek to boost clean energy industry sectors and thus green job growth, states that have greater jurisdictional capacity and previous energy policy experience were more prepared to spend ARRA energy program funds (Carley et al., 2014). ...
... Implicit in these two identification strategies is the assumption that the introduction and funding level of the HPRP in a particular county-year is uncorrelated with other county-year determinants of outcomes. A relatively large body of research has shown that the manner in which grants are awarded to and spent by subgrantees is a function of state-level characteristics, political preferences, federal guidance, and local government capacities (Carley & Nicholson-Crotty, 2015;Terman et al. 2015;Collins & Gerber, 2006;Hall, 2008). If the amount and 11 Unlike the district level data, we favor this identification strategy over using the distance to an organization providing HPRP services for two reasons. ...
... A body of literature has started to examine the implementation of decentralized intergovernmental grants, and the view has started to emerge that insufficient experience with grants and limited administrative capacity may have affected timely implementation (Carley, 2016;Carley et al., 2015;Terman and Feiock, 2015). Previous implementation studies have underscored that the ARRA, in particular, was significantly more difficult to implement in a timely manner than policy makers had anticipated (Carley and Hyman, 2014;Terman et al., 2016). ...
Article
President Barack Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law in 2009. It awarded massive temporary funding for the objective of reviving the national economy. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of some of the ARRA funds in terms of stimulating innovative activities specifically in renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. The research question was about whether federal ARRA expenditures issued through decentralized state and local intergovernmental grant programs and designed to spur new energy technologies effectively achieved their legislatively stated objectives. The analysis was based upon a first differenced regression model with instrumental variables using data from 2005 to 2015. The analytical evidence indicates that all else held equal, the ARRA funds successfully stimulated innovative activities in these technology fields. We conclude that a decentralized delivery system conducted through intergovernmental grants can effectively allocate federal expenditures for promoting innovative activity in energytechnology-related fields. We also suggest that short-term and temporary funds such as those supplied by the ARRA can provide a positive longerterm return vis-a-vis innovative activity in these fields.
... Thus, many studies have presented their measurement methods without a thorough discussion on the definition of GC. Carley, et al. [17] demonstrated capacity in terms of relevant technical skills, relevant organizational experiences, adequate resources, cognitive skills, and human capital (p. 116). ...
Article
Full-text available
Local infrastructure development is a crucial goal for sustainable development, for which local governments take charge of developmental policies. This implies that the capacity of the local government determines the performance of the developmental policies—local infrastructure development. In this sense, this study investigated the impact of local government capacity, measured via the quantity and the quality of human and financial resource factors, on its performance. Moreover, the study examined which of the multidimensional government capacity components affect performance, controlling a competition effect or spillover effect among localities. The study analyzed panel data containing six years (2013–2018) of information on 152 local bodies in Korea, employing the spatial autoregressive model, which is useful for controlling geographical spatial effects. The data show that, unlike the quality factors, the quantity of government capacity does not have a significant effect on its performance. Furthermore, the data also indicated that there are competition effects in relation to the performance of local development. The results imply that local governments need to improve the quality of managerial government capacity in order to increase their sustainable development performance.
... Similarly, intergovernmental relations literature also has studied government effectiveness of program implementation by focusing on goal attainment (O'Toole 2000). Some of the studies addressing U.S. state-level implementation of federal programs suggest that success of program implementation is a function of program design, type of oversight mechanisms, aligning incentive structures across funding levels, (Chubb 1985, Hines and Thaler 1995, Kassekert et al. 2012, and program characteristics (Goggin et al. 1990, Carley et al. 2015. ...
Article
Nonprofit property tax exemption has become a major policy issue as the collapse of the housing market, the Great Recession, and property tax caps have threatened local tax collections. Consequently, many local governments have sought to obtain payments in lieu of taxes (PILOTs) from charities that are formally exempt from property taxes. Using a 2010 survey of local government officials in Indiana, this article examines whether support for PILOT policies is related to officials’ personal involvement with nonprofits, their views on government–nonprofit relationships, the type of position they hold, the level of economic distress in the county, local political conditions, and local nonprofit wealth. The findings support most of these hypotheses but also show that attitudes toward PILOTs appear to be shaped by somewhat different concerns than attitudes toward services in lieu of taxes (SILOTs).
Article
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act injected approximately $840 billion into the U.S. economy to provide both short-term economic stimulus and longer term technological advancement and infrastructure development. One of the primary recipients of stimulus funds in the United States and elsewhere around the world was the energy sector. This analysis reviews states' experiences with Recovery Act energy programs, and highlights the perceived challenges and accomplishments that state officials encountered with these programs. Based on semi-structured interviews conducted with state officials involved in Recovery Act implementation, the analysis focuses on the following main themes: compliance difficulties, spending preparedness, degree and quality of federal guidance, timing, efficiency, and perceptions of success and lasting benefits.
Article
The relationship between contract management capacity and implementation success in local government contracting is well established. However, less is known about how specific contract mechanisms are linked to this success. This study uses implementation of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program to examine the use of formal and informal contract management techniques in the implementation of energy projects. The use of formal contract mechanisms, such as full and open competitive bidding, contact rescission and outcome-based performance measures, exhibits a statistically significant effect on implementation performance. The findings advance contracting theory and have practical implications for local government contracting and implementation success in fiscal federalism.
Article
This paper conceptualizes the US federal government's response to the 'Great Recession' as a 'natural experiment' whose broad emphasis on counter-cyclical spending contrasts with the tendency towards stratification within the quasi-market for academic research support. Regression results indicate that resources tended to flow towards a few already advantaged universities, but also supported universities with lower levels of investment in research equipment and smaller bases of support from business and industry. Because the extent to which these results describe quasi-market mechanisms generally or merely reflect the peculiarities of the US system is unclear, the paper concludes with propositions that could be critiqued and refined through studies in other national contexts.
Article
Full-text available
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act’s Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) spent $4.7 billion during 2009–2013 to, inter alia, increase broadband adoption in underserved communities. We characterize the BTOP grants and examine the impact of the awards on broadband adoption. Econometric specifications controlling for award endogeneity related to observed and unobserved county-level factors find that spending is apparently associated with increased broadband adoption. Further investigation, however, reveals that the impacts of spending are nonlinear and even nonmonotonic over the range of county-level BTOP spending in the data. Controlling for trends to reduce the potential for spurious correlation between spending and outcomes removes most of the significance of the results. We conclude with three lessons for policymakers derived from the uncertain outcomes of BTOP spending found in our exploration.
Article
The federal government relies on states and localities to implement federal policy. The Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program is one case in point. As a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), over $3.2 billion was directed to local government energy efficiency and sustainability efforts. However, local governments have struggled to achieve timely implementation—one of the key goals of the program as specified by the federal government. We find that using contractors and the complications associated with using these third-party implementers influenced achievement of this federal goal. The insights for intergovernmental grant implementation derived from this analysis provide a foundation for integrating the fiscal federalism and contracting literatures into a broader theory of third-party federalism.
Article
This article examines whether and how the capacity of a street-level organization moderates its ability to perform effectively in the context of a public program reform. We use the case of California probation departments during the phased implementation of the state’s Low-Income Health Program, a major Medicaid reform that offered critical new services for many probation citizens/clients, namely, mental health and substance abuse treatment. We exploit six years of monthly California county-level probation department data to conduct quasi-experimental difference-in-differences analyses. Results indicate that in those counties that had activated the reform, probation departments with greater capacity achieved higher rates of probation completion success when compared to departments with lower capacity. The analysis implies that organizations improved most when departments benefitted from a combination of reform-generated resources and more robust organizational capacity.
Article
Although scholars have assessed how the electoral connection of legislators and chief executives affects their support for performance measurement, we know less about how electoral considerations might influence agency administrators’ focus on performance measurement. I suggest that independently elected administrators’ attention to their agency's performance measurement system may be conditional on the likelihood that their efforts in this area will help them realize their electoral goals. Because there is a greater electoral incentive to focus on performance issues when government performance is deficient, elected administrators should be as likely as, if not more likely than, their non-elected counterparts to focus on performance measurement when the government is performing poorly and less likely to do so when the government is performing well. I find evidence that supports this expectation. This article provides insight into the implications of electoral incentives for management decisions.
Article
This study examines goal setting in the federally funded, state-implemented Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). Specifically, using federally determined criteria that states are supposed to use to set expected performance targets, I model the predicted performance targets and compare them against the observed performance targets. The purpose is to examine the determinants of performance target overestimation and underestimation in the WAP. The findings suggest that, where credible commitment to achieving performance targets is important (i.e., when grantees want to show top performance to attract grant money and federal partners), grantee governments are more likely to underestimate goals. However, where the aspirational nature of performance targets is more important than the credible commitment of achieving them (i.e., in an election year or partisan congruence with federal government), grantee governments are more likely to overestimate goals.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review We review recent studies on intergovernmental grants for energy efficiency in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)’s clean energy package, which has been the biggest federal investment in the energy sector over the past few decades. Our review provides a holistic picture of the implementation process of ARRA’s energy intergovernmental grants and their impacts on energy efficiency. Recent Findings State and local governments experienced challenges on implementing their grant programs efficiently. The implementation delay was affected by recipient administrative capacity, political support, use of contractors, and red tape in grant compliance. Existing evaluation studies are mostly conducted for two programs that subsidize the weatherization of low-income homes and the purchase of Energy Star appliances. The impacts of these programs on energy efficiency adoption and energy savings vary across jurisdictions. However, low participation and marginal energy savings are reported as common issues, which might be related to program designs and implementation. Summary There has been a lack of integration between implementation studies and grant program evaluation. To better inform energy efficiency intergovernmental grant design, further research is needed to understand the link between program design, implementation, and program effectiveness. In addition, rigorous evaluation regarding other outcome metrics, such as energy efficiency, technology innovation, and green jobs, are desirable.
Article
In February 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the largest single expenditure package in U.S. history. The ARRA was legislatively intended as a macroeconomic stimulus to temporarily revive the economy after the Great Recession of 2008. At a microeconomic level, much of the package took the form of grants intended to stimulate the country's energy economy. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the effectiveness of these large-scale federally-funded-grants in terms of creating jobs related to the energy efficiency and renewable energy sectors throughout the country. The focus was specifically upon the grants implemented through the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The results show that all else held equal, these ARRA expenditures were, by-in-large, successful at stimulating job creation in the relevant energy sectors.
Article
Employee training is often viewed as essential for incorporating performance management practices into public organizations, but few studies directly link training programs to subsequent changes in organizational outcomes. Typically, evaluations of the impact of training and management innovations more broadly focuses narrowly on improvements at the mean of the distribution, ignoring isomorphic pressures that may spur divergent responses at opposite tails of the distribution. We examine these notions by testing whether training local government personnel on the use of financial performance information in decision-making influences fiscal outcomes. Specifically, we compare the outcomes of North Carolina local governments whose employees participated in training on a new fiscal benchmarking tool at the University of North Carolina School of Government to peer governments that did not participate. Municipal governments with at least one trained employee experienced modest changes, on average, across most of the financial ratios reported in the benchmarking tool. By comparison, the dispersion of the reported outcomes declined considerably among municipal governments whose employees participated in training in comparison to control governments. The strength of this response increased with the number of public officials trained. The results indicate that employee training can facilitate the use of performance benchmarking systems in public sector decision-making. They also suggest that benchmarking without explicit performance targets may encourage convergence toward the average outcome.
Article
Different levels of government often interact on the ground, providing closely related services. While multilevel governance arrangements have been studied broadly, scarce literature has explored the contribution of national governments to achieving subnational policy goals. By reconceptualizing administrative decentralization as coexisting devolution (to subnational governments) and deconcentration (through field units), this research explores the indirect national contribution to subnational performance by delivering associated services. This article tests the following hypotheses: (1) there is a positive effect of national deconcentrated capacity on subnational policy outputs, and (2) under policy overlap, this contribution diminishes with increasing levels of subnational capacity. While Colombian schooling is decentralized, the national government indirectly contributes to education through a national agency that administers child protection services. Analyzing data for Colombian subnational governments over a decade reveals that national capacity boosts education provision while the least endowed regions benefit the most, thus providing evidence supporting both hypotheses.
Article
A normative assumption of government reform efforts such as New Public Management is that fostering a more innovative, proactive, and risk-taking organizational culture—developing what has been described as an “entrepreneurial orientation” (EO)—improves performance. But in arenas like urban sustainability, performance can be an ambiguous, multifaceted concept. Managers’ assessments of their own nimbleness, innovative thinking, and risk culture are also likely to influence how they interpret the risk-reward balance of opportunities to enhance organizational performance. This study examines how meso-level organizational decisions impact managers’ individual risk-assessments of sustainability initiatives. We do so through a combination of Bayesian structural equation modeling of US local government survey data collected over two time periods, and an artifactual survey experiment with empaneled local government employees. This multimethod design allows us to examine the role of organizational performance and EO—meso-level learning heuristics—in shaping the micro-foundations of managerial risk assessment. The organization-level observational results indicate that local governments engage in risk-seeking behavior in order to minimize their potential for losses of prior effort. Experimental results confirm local government administrators are loss-averse when asked to evaluate the merits of initiating a hypothetical sustainability program.
Article
Full-text available
Budget cuts are nearly ubiquitous threats to government agencies in today’s world. This study develops and tests contingency hypotheses on the effects of the use of cutback strategies on public manager’s evaluations of organizational capacities. We conduct and analyze a nationwide survey of health and human services directors in U.S. county governments. The results show cutback strategies have divergent effects on public managers’ perceptions of multifaceted organizational capacities, suggesting that policymakers should pay attention to how to better design cutback programs to mitigate adverse side effects.
Article
Objective We examine whether Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs, an innovative financing mechanism using municipal bonds to finance the up‐front cost of household energy conservation projects, reduced conventional energy purchases by residential customers and increased energy generated through residential solar panel and fuel cell installations. Methods Using data on municipal bond issuances, electricity and natural gas purchases, and self‐generated energy, we use a difference‐in‐differences design to estimate the effect of PACE bonds issued in California between 2009 and 2017 on purchases and self‐generation. Results We find more residential energy self‐generation in counties with PACE programs. Results are inconclusive for conventional energy purchases, suggesting a possible rebound effect. Conclusion While innovative financing mechanisms facilitate access to otherwise prohibitively expensive technologies, governments must consider that behavioral responses may result in lower efficacy than desired and should consider pairing financing tools with instruments that concurrently promote reduced energy consumption.
Article
Full-text available
Many of the world’s most pressing issues lay at the intersection of law and public administration. However, many have long lamented the relatively weak and atomized state of law and public administration scholarship. In this article, we use bibliometric and content analyses to systematically assess the last 20 years of literature, exploring the extent to which law and public administration have developed as a coherent paradigm. In short, we provide a contemporary assessment of the past assertion that “public administration has largely abandoned or forgotten its roots in public law—in the Constitution, statutes, and case law.” While we conclude that little changed in the last two decades, we offer some insights on the theoretical integration of law and public administration identifying strengths, weaknesses, and future avenues to advance paradigm building. Many of these recommendations necessitate better cross- and inner-field integration of voices and ideas.
Article
Strategic plans are widely used by municipalities as a means of directing their own activities, but relatively few studies have examined factors associated with cities’ decisions to embed sustainability principles within them. Drawing from literature on planning processes and organizational capacity, this paper tests whether perceived staff support for sustainability initiatives influences the integration of sustainability into strategic plans, and whether administrative capacity has a moderating effect on this relationship. This study presents new findings about how cities are advancing sustainability objectives and about the role that designated sustainability offices can play in the strategic planning process.
Article
In the U.S. intergovernmental system, state governments can voluntarily and strategically align with federal government strategies and objectives. This study examines the effect of intergovernmental alignment on federal homelessness program outcomes. In 2010, the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness started the first national-level comprehensive strategic plan on homelessness: Opening Doors. The Opening Doors plan highlights intergovernmental partnerships as effective tools to implement federal homeless programs to different levels of governments in order to achieve federal outcomes. Using a difference-in-differences methodology, we find that county governments that align their homelessness program with the federal and state government have better program outcomes than those that do not align intergovernmentally. Our findings help to expand our understanding of intergovernmental mechanisms as effective policy tools to achieve federal program outcomes at the local level in the absence of financial inducements or legal mandates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CSF Associates: Publius, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
Medicaid reform, which has been central to state government reform throughout the United States, represents conceptual and implementation challenges for practitioners and scholars. This article investigates one such reform, in Kansas, where the state contracted with nonprofit agencies for Medicaid case management services. We examine policy rationales for this social service reform in light of the actual economic and management environments. We offer a typology of contract management complexity which articulates how structural factors affect contract management challenges; it indicates that this social service reform presents substantially greater complexity than more traditional service contracting. Our analysis shows that key aspects of the market model of contracting are absent in this reform, reflecting a gap between the political rhetoric which surrounds the reform and the reality of the contracting experience. The lack of market conditions to impose discipline on contractors raises questions about contract management capacity and administrative accountability. The level of management complexity suggests the need for well trained contract management staff and especially sensitive accountability structures to facilitate contract monitoring and minimize principal-agent complications.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors argue that the notion of local capacity needs to be rethought in light of the extraordinary demands for learning imposed on local educators by the current wave of instructional reforms. Confining their discussion to the local education agency (LEA), the authors argue that the LEA’s capacity to support ambitious instruction consists to a large degree of LEA leaders’ ability to learn new ideas from external policy and professional sources and to help others within the district learn these ideas. Drawing on a study of nine school districts, they identify three interrelated dimensions of this capacity—human capital, social capital, and financial resources.
Article
Full-text available
We use state and county level variation to examine the impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on employment. A cross state analysis suggests that one additional job was created by each $170,000 in stimulus spending. Time series analysis at the state level suggests a smaller response with a per job cost of about $400,000. These results imply Keynesian multipliers between 0.5 and 1.0, somewhat lower than those assumed by the administration. However, the overall results mask considerable variation for different types of spending. Grants to states for education do not appear to have created any additional jobs. Support programs for low income households and infrastructure spending are found to be highly expansionary. Estimates excluding education spending suggest fiscal policy multipliers of about 2.0 with per job cost of under $100,000.Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at www.nber.org.
Article
Full-text available
Major elements of the Obama administration's health care, education, economic recovery, climate change, and financial reform initiatives have important intergovernmental consequences. This article reviews this broad intergovernmental agenda and analyzes its potential to shape the contours and future direction of American federalism. Utilizing a policy instruments framework, it examines trends in fiscal federalism, federal mandating, preemption, and other policy tools. We conclude that the most significant feature of President Obama's approach to intergovernmental relations thus far may be his hybrid model of federal policy innovation and leadership, which mixes money, mandates, and flexibility in new and distinctive ways. At the same time, political constraints on the scope and sustainability of the Obama administration's intergovernmental policies may limit this strategy's future development. Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press.
Article
Full-text available
Social scientists study complex phenomena about which they often propose intricate hypotheses tested with linear-interactive or multiplicative terms. While interaction terms are hardly new to social science research, researchers have yet to develop a common methodology for using and interpreting them. Modeling and Interpreting Interactive Hypotheses in Regression Analysis provides step-by-step guidance on how to connect substantive theories to statistical models and how to interpret and present the results. "Kam and Franzese is a must-have for all empirical social scientists interested in teasing out the complexities of their data." ---Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier, Ohio State University "Kam and Franzese have written what will become the definitive source on dealing with interaction terms and testing interactive hypotheses. It will serve as the standard reference for political scientists and will be one of those books that everyone will turn to when helping our students or doing our work. But more than that, this book is the best text I have seen for getting students to really think about the importance of careful specification and testing of their hypotheses." ---David A. M. Peterson, Texas A&M University "Kam and Franzese have given scholars and teachers of regression models something they've needed for years: a clear, concise guide to understanding multiplicative interactions. Motivated by real substantive examples and packed with valuable examples and graphs, their book belongs on the shelf of every working social scientist." ---Christopher Zorn, University of South Carolina "Kam and Franzese make it easy to model what good researchers have known for a long time: many important and interesting causal effects depend on the presence of other conditions. Their book shows how to explore interactive hypotheses in your own research and how to present your results. The book is straightforward yet technically sophisticated. There are no more excuses for misunderstanding, misrepresenting, or simply missing out on interaction effects!" ---Andrew Gould, University of Notre Dame Cindy D. Kam is Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of California, Davis. Robert J. Franzese Jr. is Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Michigan, and Research Associate Professor, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. For datasets, syntax, and worksheets to help readers work through the examples covered in the book, visit: www.press.umich.edu/KamFranzese/Interactions.html
Article
Full-text available
During the period of the Bush Presidency, the federal government proceeded to centralize and nationalize policy in major areas formerly controlled by states and localities. The extension of federal goals and standards to such areas as education testing, sales tax collection, emergency management, infrastructure, and elections administration were among the areas of significant mandates and preemptions. The continuation of policy centralization in areas under a conservative and unified political regime shows how strong and deep the roots are for centralizing policy actions in our intergovernmental system.
Article
Various forces have led to new thinking about approaches to intergovernmental regulation, emphasizing a shift from the heavy hand of coercive mandates to more cooperative approaches. This research examines the implementation of cooperative policies addressing aspects of environmental management in New South Wales, Australia, and in New Zealand. Analyses are undertaken of the cooperative policy designs, government agencies' implementation efforts and styles, and local government officials' perceptions of intergovernmental cooperation. Bringing about intergovernmental cooperation is not automatic, nor does it appear to be easy. An empirical modeling shows that high levels of agency commitment and capacity are required in order to foster facilitative implementation styles. The design of policy mandates is important in signaling cooperative desires and structuring implementation to foster appropriate agency implementation styles.
Article
This article presents the Clinton/Gore administration's philosophy on federalism and details specific improvements for services to citizens through strengthened intergovernmental partnerships among the federal, state, tribal, and local governments. The article defines accomplishments toward achieving the National Performance Review recommendations for new intergovernmental partnerships in delivering services to the public, and it provides a direction for federalism in the 104th Congress and beyond.
Article
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act injected approximately US$840 billion into the U.S. economy for job creation, technological advancement, and infrastructure development. This study examines energy-related Recovery Act program implementation. The Recovery Act provided many immediate benefits to the economy, environment, and energy sector, but implementation was hindered by several conditions. This study offers selected case studies and a set of lessons learned for state officials.
Article
Various forces have led to new thinking about approaches to intergovernmental regulation, emphasizing a shift from the heavy hand of coercive mandates to more cooperative approaches. This research examines the implementation of cooperative policies addressing aspects of environmental management in New South Wales, Australia, and in New Zealand. Analyses are undertaken of the cooperative policy designs, government agencies' implementation efforts and styles, and local government officials' perceptions of intergovernmental cooperation. Bringing about intergovernmental cooperation is not automatic, nor does it appear to be easy. An empirical modeling shows that high levels of agency commitment and capacity are required in order to foster facilitative implementation styles. The design of policy mandates is important in signaling cooperative desires and structuring implementation to foster appropriate agency implementation styles.
Article
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included more than $90 billion in strategic clean energy investments intended to promote job creation and deployment of low-carbon technologies. In terms of spending, the clean energy package has been described as the nation’s “biggest energy bill in history.” This article provides a preliminary assessment of the Recovery Act’s clean energy package through a review of the act’s rationale, design, and implementation. The article first surveys the policy principles for a clean energy stimulus and describes the process of crafting the clean energy package during the 2008–9 presidential transition. Then the article reviews the initial employment, economic activity, and energy outcomes associated with these energy investments, and it provides a more detailed case study of the Recovery Act’s support for renewable power through grants and loan guarantees. The article concludes with a discussion of lessons learned. (JEL: E61, Q48, Q54)
Article
This article presents results from a case study of hydropower licensing, a program that was transformed during the period 1978-1988. New legislation promoted extensive development of hydropower projects and stimulated reactions by a threatened environmental community. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission altered virtually every significant aspect of its licensing program in response to these external pressures. More than remarkable adaptability, this case demonstrates that regulatory institutions may yield their discretionary powers in order to maintain productivity and responsiveness. While they are closely related in most regulatory situations, productivity and responsiveness are sometimes incompatible. When such a conflict occurs, this research suggests that the agency may sacrifice a degree of productivity to maintain responsiveness. This study also shows that through the creative use of familiar regulatory tools, notably rule making and negotiation, an agency can enlist external agencies and groups in its efforts to be productive and responsive.
This article presents the Clinton/Gore administration's philosophy on federalism and details specific improvements for services to citizens through strengthened intergovernmental partnerships among the federal, state, tribal, and local governments. The article defines accomplishments toward achieving the National Performance Review recommendations for new intergovernmental partnerships in delivering services to the public, and it provides a direction for federalism in the 104th Congress and beyond.
Article
The enforcement of planning controls in the British planning system is an activity that exhibits a high degree of discretion in decision-making. Local planning authorities are empowered to enforce against breaches of planning control where they consider it 'expedient' to do so. The paper addresses the concepts of discretion and expediency in relation to planning enforcement. It traces the evolution of discretionary enforcement in British planning legislation and relates this to the formally stated purposes of enforcement action, as well as the various considerations of local planning authorities in determining whether it is expedient to take enforcement action. The paper concludes that there is a significant degree of ambiguity in the purposes of enforcement action in Britain, each with their own characteristic basis for discretionary decision-making.
Article
The signature developments in intergovernmental relations and federalism in 2011–2012 were generally found at the state and local levels. Strapped for funds to balance their budgets, states and local governments have made significant cutbacks, taken legal risks, renegotiated labor union contracts, and rejected federal aid. Conversely, subnational governments have created jobs and taken the lead in various policy areas. The U.S. Supreme Court showed strong support for state sovereignty claims, which could perhaps encourage further the bottom-up activism by state and local governments. The president and his administration made deft use of executive powers to influence public K–12 education reforms and energy and environmental policy, but much of the year was spent in budget wrangling over how to reduce the mounting federal debt.
Article
Recent years have been marked by high-profile refusals of federal grant aid by state governments. These refusals raise several questions. First, is there anything new here? Second, does partisanship alone explain these decisions? And finally, do the explanations for recent decisions provide insights into state behavior over the longer term? This article reviews state refusals of federal money over the past fifty years, explores the degree to which partisanship can explain recent grant refusals, and uses those insights to predict state-level applications to three very different grant programs. The results suggest that there is little novelty in recent events and that the interaction of partisan and electoral pressures has been influencing state-level applications for grants-in-aid for decades. Copyright , Oxford University Press.
Article
Much of the attention surrounding local climate protection in the United States is associated with two networks: ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability's Cities for Climate Protection and the U.S. Conference of Mayors’ Climate Protection Agreement (MCPA). However, the impact of these networks on member-city actions has not been clearly established. This paper examines whether, and to what extent, participation in climate networks leads to the implementation of greenhouse gas (GHG)-reducing policies, above and beyond what would have been done in their absence. To account for the possibility that cities which join climate networks are systematically different from those that do not and control for self-selection induced bias, three statistical techniques—propensity score matching, Heckman full information maximum likelihood, and instrumental variables—are employed to estimate the “treatment effect” of participation. Results suggest that impact is network specific: ICLEI membership causes small to moderate increases in cities’ GHG-relevant activity, whereas the MCPA has no such effect. The characteristics of each network are evaluated in light of these findings.
Article
This study analyzes the impact of various forms of "social capital" on governmental performance in the American states. Aspects of social capital that are conceptually identified with generalized reciprocity (such as social trust, volunteering, and census response) are associated with better governmental performance, as measured by ratings constructed by the Government Performance Project. In contrast, aspects of social capital identified with social connectedness (including activity in associations and informal socializing) are unrelated to governmental performance. These findings call into question the use of heterogeneous indexes of social capital that mix social connectedness indicators together with indicators of generalized trust and reciprocity.
Article
Since the 1980s, most of the states and the U.S. federal government have enacted policies based upon the theory of standards-based education reform. These policies attempt to use incentives to overcome the difficulty of implementing policy in a loosely coupled system. This article presents a case study of the implementation of standards-based reform in Massachusetts. The case study shows how poorly thought-out incentive structures, lack of capacity, and lack of trust impeded implementation of the reforms. The Massachusetts experience has implications for the education reform movement nationwide, because Massachusetts has been a leader in the movement. Analysis of the Massachusetts case also contributes to the literature on how context affects policy implementation.
Article
This study analyzes the impact of various forms of "social capital" on governmental performance in the American states. Aspects of social capital that are conceptually identified with generalized reciprocity (such as social trust, volunteering and census response) are associated with better governmental performance, as measured by ratings constructed by the Government Performance Project. In contrast, aspects of social capital identified with social connectedness (including activity in associations and informal socializing) are unrelated to governmental performance. These findings call into question the use of heterogeneous indexes of social capital that mix social connectedness indicators together with indicators of generalized trust and reciprocity.
Article
Local areas, consisting of governments, special districts, and nonprofits, benefit from the receipt and use of federal funds in support of local programs and projects. This study examines the combined effects of political and administrative capacity factors that influence flows of federal grant funds into local areas. The effects of these capacity dimensions are measured and tested using pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis. The results indicate clearly that institutional measures of capacity must take into account not only political dimensions but also administrative and need/demand dimensions. These results help to explain the disparity observed between high- and low-capacity areas and provide some general lessons for enhancing local grant-getting capacity under differing conditions.
Article
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) channeled billions of dollars through the states in an effort to stimulate the economy and shore up faltering state services. It presented unprecedented accountability expectations in the form of required state transparency with regard to ARRA expenditures. This study examines the variations in state responses to ARRA accountability expectations and analyzes state characteristics associated with greater accountability efforts. There is considerable variability in state ARRA accountability reporting but no apparent underlying pattern to the variability, which seems to be largely unaffected by political or other characteristics of the states. The study reveals that most states could have done a much better job of informing their citizens about how ARRA funds were spent and what was accomplished with those funds.
Article
Evidence-based policy-making represents a contemporary effort to reform or re-structure policy processes in order to prioritize evidentiary or data-based decision-making. Like earlier efforts in the “policy analysis movement,” its aim is to avoid or minimize policy failures caused by a mismatch between government expectations and actual, on-the-ground conditions through the provision of greater amounts of policy-relevant information. A significant factor affecting the ability of policy-makers to engage in evidence-based policy-making pertains to both governmental and non-governmental “policy analytical capacity.” That is, governments require a reasonably high level of policy analytical capacity to perform the tasks associated with managing the policy process in order to implement evidence-based policy-making and avoid several of the most common sources of policy failures. Recent studies, however, suggest that, even in advanced countries such as Canada, the level of policy analytical capacity found in many governments and non-governmental actors is low, potentially contributing to both a failure of evidence-based policy-making as well as effectively dealing with many complex contemporary policy challenges.
Article
This essay is a theoretical exploration of a new budgetary system to cope with fiscal uncertainty and instability.1It examines policies requiring positive year-end balances and infers that annual budget cycles lead to a mismatch between the budget cycle and the continuity of public service provision. The author considers a multiyear perspective on budgeting as a potential solution, with countercyclical fiscal reserves to help ensure stability during fluctuating economic conditions. By adopting budget stabilization funds and keeping sufficient reserves, states can better maintain trend-level public services during recessions. Panel data analysis provides empirical evidence that such funds helped stabilize state general expenditures during downturns. The adoption of countercyclical fiscal policy and budget stabilization funds is a step toward a longer-term perspective on budgeting, thus promoting fiscal stability over the economic cycle.
Article
Government performance is an enduring concern for students of public management, public administration, and political science. Government's administrative arrangements and managerial behavior can profoundly influence programmatic content, activities, and outcomes; therefore, considering public management's effects is necessary for a true understanding of public policy and government performance. This article uses data from the Maxwell School's Government Performance Project to examine the relationship between state governments’ managerial capacity and a measure of government performance (specifically, state policy priorities). We find that state management capacity has direct effects on state policy commitments: States possessing higher levels of management capacity tend to favor programmatic areas that distribute societal benefits widely (that is, collective benefits) as opposed to narrowly (that is, particularized benefits). Our analysis demonstrates that public interest group activity, government ideology, and citizen ideology each have significant, predictable effects on state policy commitments. Thus, our findings place managerial capacity alongside other more commonly studied state characteristics as an important influence on government activities.
Article
Although academic and professional publications give the impression that performance measurement is a growing government practice, in actuality the use of this technology is not as deep or as widespread as it may appear. Even when performance measures are used, governments rarely integrate them into planning, budget, personnel, and other management processes. Most professional researchers located primarily in academic institutions, but also in research and government organizations, approach performance measurement as though governmental officials, elected or otherwise, are already sold on its usefulness. Instead, they need to function as “change agents,” using a variety of strategies to gain acceptance and understanding of the strengths and limitations of performance measurement. This article draws on the authors’ experiences with the Community Benchmarks Program of the Maxwell School in Onondaga County and a review of the current literature. It suggests guidelines for professional researchers who want to increase the use of performance measures by governments at all levels.
Article
This research addresses the influence of mandate design upon implementation efforts and regulatory styles. Empirical analyses of these relationships are conducted for state-level land-use and development-management mandates enacted by California, Florida, North Carolina, Texas, and Washington. Three key findings provide insights about the role of mandate design in facilitating policy implementation. First, implementation efforts are more easily influenced than regulatory styles. Second, it is more difficult to foster conciliatory regulatory styles than it is to foster more legalistic styles. Third, a high degree of statutory coherence is not a necessary condition for strong implementation efforts. More generally, the findings show that policy designers can enhance implementation efforts and shape regulatory styles by altering key mandate features.
Article
This study investigates the longitudinal political and administrative problems associated with federal–local government relations. The findings demonstrate four primary challenges of the system of federal grants-in-aid that hinder the relationship of policy design at the federal level and policy implementation in local communities: the politics of decentralization, subnational capacity, program accountability and program adaptability. A case study of the Community Development Block Grant, as assessed by the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations and the General Accounting Office between 1974 and the present, is included to demonstrate the application of these problems within the system. Although the “evolution of devolution” can greatly benefit the recipients of public services at the local level, it often operates within an unorganized and ineffective system that public managers at all levels of government must continue to develop.
Article
We use the Obama administration's Race to the Top (RTTT) program to address two questions about competitive grants. First, what does RTTT and its competitive approach reveal about the current state of educational federalism? Second, and more generally, how do large federal grant programs operate when state governments compete for funds? Our analysis indicates that although RTTT has expanded federal involvement in state education policy, its success still depends crucially on subnational implementation. We also note the important role of state capacity in predicting states' abilities to apply to and perform well in the RTTT competition. We conclude by suggesting implications for educational federalism during the coming years and offering more general insights about the operation of competitive federal grants to states. Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press.
Article
U.S. energy and climate policy has evolved from the bottom - up, led by state governments, and internationally recognized for the use of unconventional and innovative policy instruments. This study focuses on policy instruments adopted throughout the era of state energy policy innovation that aim to diversify, decentralize, and decarbonize the electricity sector. Specific attention is devoted to the renewable portfolio standard, net metering, interconnection standards, tax incentives, public benefit funds, and energy efficiency resource standards. This analysis synthesizes the findings from the energy policy literature and provides a summary of the current state of understanding about the effects of various state energy policy instruments, and concludes with a discussion of broader trends that have emerged from the use of policy instruments in the state energy policy innovation era.
Article
Work sharing benefits are partial unemployment benefits, and federal policy related to them is in an administrative muddle. A lack of leadership by the federal government has stalled state implementation. During economic downturns when political voltage is high, policy makers look to work sharing as one way to manage job loss. Conversely, work sharing is often forgotten during prosperous times. This article describes how federalism sometimes facilitates state initiation of work sharing policy and at other times impedes it. The authors discuss work sharing through six policy phases during a thirty-year era of devolving federal authority to states for employment services and job training, and they make observations about the stalemate in federal policy.
Article
Managing for social equity performance has long been a goal without much guidance for public managers. We examine social equity performance in the context of indirect governance through the administration of grant programs and, more specifi cally, the matching of policy responses (grant funding) to social needs. Grant program managers must allocate funding to match needs while also ensuring accountability, but common administrative models that rely on competition can undermine social equity performance. We develop a unique framework to analyze the relative social equity performance of four models of grant administration in general. Th ese models are defi ned by whether competitions or formulas are used to select grantees and to allocate funding. We test the implications of the framework in an analysis of funding distributions from the nonentitlement Community Development Block Grant program in four states. Our fi ndings suggest that social equity in grant programs is better served when grantors do not rely solely on competitive grant contracting in the selection and distribution of grant funds, which is typical in grant administration. However, policy makers and managers can design institutional arrangements that utilize competition, but in a manner that does not create a bias against more socially equitable funding decisions.
Article
Social capital - in the form of general trust and strong civi norms that call for cooperation when large-scale collective action is needed - can improve government performance in three ways: 1) It can broaden government accountability, making government responsive to citizens at large, rather than to narrow interests. 2) It can facilitate agreement where political preferences are polarized. 3) It is associated with greater innovation when policymakers face new challenges. Consistent with these arguments, Putnam (1993) has shown that regional governments in the more trusting, more civic-minded northern, and central parts of Italy provide public services more effectively than do those in the less trusting, less civic-minded southern regions. Using cross-country data, La Porta and others (1997), and Knack and Keefer (1997), obtained findings consistent with Putnam's evidence. For samples of about thirty nations (represented in the World Value Surveys), they found that societies with greater trust tended to have governments that performed significantly better. The authors used survey measures of citizen confidence in government as well as subjective indicators of bureaucratic inefficiency. The author further analyzes links between social capital and government performance, using data for the United States. In states with more social capital (as measured by an index of trust, volunteering, and census response), government performance is rated higher, based on ratings constructed by the Government Performance Project. This result is highly robust to including a variety of control variables, considering the possibility of influential outlying values, treating the performance ratings as ordinal, rather than cardinal, and correcting for possible endogeneity.
Article
The primary reason for health planning in this country is the numerous instances in which the interests of the individual, health-care institution and those of the community may diverge, as in the case of hospital staff appointments for physicians. From a technical standpoint, it is much more difficult to plan for health services at the local level than nationally. Notwithstanding, health services are mostly provided at the local level, and health planning should be geared to the solution of local problems. In performing health planning, the local area can benefit from outside assistance. In the past decade, local health planning has been hampered by unstable federal funding. The absence of national policies and guidelines has led to a constant quest for new ideas. In the absence of substantive concerns, requirements for consumer representation have led to a preoccupation with structure and organization. What is required, in addition to steadier funding, is a fostering of local capabilities for health planning. Health planning organizations will require a good deal of technical assistance in the form of concrete ideas on ways to enhance the flexibility and versatility of health facilities and personnel, monitoring natural experiments and learning their lessons, and elucidating the public policy implications of empirical research findings and even of opposite propositions from theory. In specified circumstances the federal government is expected to serve as the superseding decision maker.
gov 2013a Agency Financials-Department of Energy http://www.recovery.gov/arra
  • Recovery
Th e Stimulus Project: How Stimulus Saved Renewable Energy. CNN
  • Steve Hargreaves
Hargreaves, Steve. 2010. Th e Stimulus Project: How Stimulus Saved Renewable Energy. CNN, January 24. http://money.cnn.com/2010/01/24/news/economy/ stimulus_wind/index.htm?postversion=2010012416 [accessed October 21, 2014].
Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, RE: Accelerating Spending of Remaining Funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for Discretionary Grant Programs
  • Jacob Lew
Lew, Jacob. 2011. Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, RE: Accelerating Spending of Remaining Funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for Discretionary Grant Programs.
Mayors Climate Protection Task Force: Panel Reviews Mayors
  • Mccarty
Implementation Th eory and Practice: Toward a Th ird Generation
  • Malcolm L Goggin
  • O'm Ann
  • James P Bowman
  • Laurence J Lester
  • Jr O'toole
Goggin, Malcolm L., Ann O'M. Bowman, James P. Lester, and Laurence J. O'Toole, Jr. 1990. Implementation Th eory and Practice: Toward a Th ird Generation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
Understanding Interaction Models: What We Th ought We Knew but Obviously Didn't. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Politics
  • Th Brambor
  • William R Omas
  • Matt Clark
  • Golder
Brambor, Th omas, William R. Clark, and Matt Golder. 2002. Understanding Interaction Models: What We Th ought We Knew but Obviously Didn't. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Politics, New York University.