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  • Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University
  • University of Health Sciences, Turkey

Abstract and Figures

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an ornamental plant listed by the World Health Organization as one of the most used medicinal plants and a culinary herb for many countries. The present investigation was therefore conducted to evaluate heavy metal (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) values in wild type and cultivated purslane, and soil samples collected in urban areas. Plant and soil samples were taken from two types of stations (brook coast and urban roadside) in two different districts (Bakırköy and Zeytinburnu) of Istanbul. Standard procedures were used and the determinations of the elements in all samples were done using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). It was observed that washing procedure reduced concentrations of all heavy metals. As a result of the measurements, the heavy metal values of washed and unwashed plant samples varied as; Cd (0.27-0.36 μg/g dw), Cu (9.64-17.63 μg/g dw), Pb (4.51-9.62 μg/g dw) and Zn (32.69-59.49 μg/g dw) for wild type and cultivated purslane samples. Heavy metal accumulations in plants reflected soil values in a proportional way especially for Cd, Cu and Zn. According to the results of this study, it can be said that both types of purslane reflect heavy metal amounts well in different areas with their washed and unwashed samples.
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© by PSP Volume 23 – No 9. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
(Portulaca oleracea L.) AND SOILS IN ISTANBUL, TURKEY
Etem Osma
*, Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit
, Goksel Demir
and Ulkuhan Yasar
Erzincan University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Biology, 24100, Erzincan, Turkey.
Marmara University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Biology, 34722, Goztepe, Istanbul, Turkey.
Bahcesehir University, Faculty of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, 34353, Besiktas, Istanbul-Turkey.
Bartin University, Faculty of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, 74100, Bartin, Turkey.
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an ornamental
plant listed by the World Health Organization as one of the
most used medicinal plants and a culinary herb for many
countries. The present investigation was therefore conducted
to evaluate heavy metal (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc)
values in wild type and cultivated purslane, and soil sam-
ples collected in urban areas. Plant and soil samples were
taken from two types of stations (brook coast and urban
roadside) in two different districts (Bakırköy and Zeytin-
burnu) of Istanbul. Standard procedures were used and the
determinations of the elements in all samples were done
using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission
Spectrometry (ICP-OES). It was observed that washing
procedure reduced concentrations of all heavy metals. As
a result of the measurements, the heavy metal values of
washed and unwashed plant samples varied as; Cd (0.27-
0.36 µg/g dw), Cu (9.64-17.63 µg/g dw), Pb (4.51-9.62 µg/g
dw) and Zn (32.69-59.49 µg/g dw) for wild type and cul-
tivated purslane samples. Heavy metal accumulations in
plants reflected soil values in a proportional way espe-
cially for Cd, Cu and Zn. According to the results of this
study, it can be said that both types of purslane reflect
heavy metal amounts well in different areas with their
washed and unwashed samples.
Heavy metal, Istanbul, Plant, Portulaca oleracea L.
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is a cosmopolitan
annual weed that has been used as a pharmaceutical and
edible plant which grows in warm and moist regions of
north hemisphere especially in China, India, Middle East,
* Corresponding author
Africa, Europe and America [1-5]. The term Portulaca
originates from the Latin word “portare”, which means to
carry, and “lac” = milk, related to the milky sap of plant.
The species name oleracea originates from, the phrase,
“Pertaining to kitchen gardens,” related to its culinary
usage [6, 7]. The Turkish name “semizotu” originates from
the word semiz = porky, and ot = weed comes from its
culinary use as “fattening” or “porky weed”. Two types of
purslane are known in many places; while one shows
sparse growth with branches on the soil as a weed plant
(wild) and the other one has straight growth known as agro-
nomic (cultivated) purslane [8, 9]. In many parts of Turkey
and in our study area (Istanbul), both types of purslane are
present [10].
Purslane is the eighth most commonly distributed plant
in the world and is eaten throughout Europe and Asia
either raw in a salad or cooked. Purslane forms part of a
Mediterranean diet, especially in Greece and Turkey and
is appreciated for its tangy or acid taste like spinach [11,
12]. It is an important food type because it contains α-
Linolenic acid, omega-3 and 6 fatty acids more than many
other plants, which play an important role in the modula-
tion of human metabolism [13]. Flavonoids that are highly
present in purslane are the biologically active constituents
have been reported to have the functions of anti-oxidation,
anti-bacteria and anti-virus, checking cough and dispelling
phlegm [14]. It also contains vitamins (mainly A, C, E, B
and carotenoids), which have ability to neutralize free radi-
cals, have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease,
cancer and infectious diseases as well as dietary minerals,
such as magnesium, calcium, potassium and iron [4, 14,
Apart from many nutritional and metabolic benefits
of this species, it has been used as a medicine by many
different cultures in different parts of the world. Its anti-
oxidant [16-18], antimicrobial [19], hypoglycemic [20],
hypocholesterolemic [21], analgesic and anti-inflammatory
[3, 22, 23], skeletal [23-25] and smooth muscle relaxant [7,
26], neuroprotective [27-29], anxiolytic [30], sedative and
anticonvulsant [24, 31], anti-hypoxic [32], bronchodila-
© by PSP Volume 23 – No 9. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
tory [33], wound healing [7], gastric and antiulcerogenic
[34] effects are known and reported by many researchers.
Information is lacking on the heavy metal accumula-
tion of purslane accessions from different regions of the
world. The present investigation was therefore conducted
to evaluate some heavy metals in edible parts of wild type
and cultivated purslane grown in urban lands. Samples
were used to analysis Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations
by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission
spectrometry in different station types.
2.1 Botanical Characteristics of Plant Material
Portulacaceae: Annual or perennial herbs, usually fleshy
and glabrous. Leaves simple, entire. Flowers solitary or in
cymes. Stamens 3-many. Ovary unilocular, placentation
basal to free-central, the funicles often long and persis-
tent. Fruit a capsule [10].
Portulacaceae oleracea L.: Diffuse, fleshy annual,
ascending or erect, 5-20 cm. Leaves alternate below, often
crowded above, elliptic-obovate, cuneate at base, obtuse
or truncate, 16-20 cm. Stipules setaceous or represented
by a bunch of hairs. Inflorescens cymose, flowers 3-6 ses-
sile. Sepals fused at base into a tube, the free lobes
fugaceous. Petals 5, slightly fused below, exceeding the
sepals, yellow, 4-6 mm, deliquescent. Ovary inferior, de-
hiscing by a lid at the point of insertion of the sepals and
petals, the funicles persisting and projecting after the seeds
have fallen. Seeds are black, shiny, papillose [10, 35].
2.2 Research Area
Aboveground (edible) parts of purslane produced by
Turkish farmers (cultivated) and grown naturally (wild type)
in two different districts (Bakırköy and Zeytinburnu) of
Istanbul were collected from two different station types
(brook coast and urban roadside) in 2009 (Figure 1). Sam-
ples collected from brook coast were taken near Ayamama
Brook, which extends in the Bakırköy District. Bakırköy
is a large, densely populated middle class residential district
of Istanbul, Turkey on its European side, between the E5
motorway and the coast of the Marmara Sea (40° 59 15 N,
28° 51 42 E) [36]. The Bakırköy District has a land area of
32.42 km
and a population of 218.352 [36, 37].
Roadside samples were collected near 10. Yıl Street,
which is next to the walls of Constantinople on the eastern
border of Zeytinburnu District. Thousands of vehicles
pass along this street every day. Zeytinburnu is a working
class suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on its European side, on
the shore of the Marmara Sea (40° 59 20′′ N, 28° 53 75′′
E) just outside the walls of the ancient city, beyond the
fortress of Yedikule [38]. The district has 12 km
area and a population of 288.743 [37, 38].
FIGURE 1 - Studied districts. Bakırköy (B) where samples were collected from brook coast and Zeytinburnu (Z) samples were collected
from urban roadside.
© by PSP Volume 23 – No 9. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
2.3 Sample Collection and Preparation
The purslane and soil samples were collected from
the different fields of the sampling sites of Istanbul during
the year 2009 August-September. Purslanes were sampled
by hands that were protected with vinyl gloves and care-
fully packed into the polyethylene bags. Soil samples also
were collected from a depth of about 10 cm with a stainless
steel shovel. Samples were divided into two sub-samples;
some of them were thoroughly washed several times with
tap water followed by distilled water to remove dust parti-
cles in a standardized procedure, and the rest of them
were untreated. All plant samples were oven dried at 80
C for 24 h. To ensure the uniform distribution of metals
in the sample, the material was milled in a micro-hammer
cutter and sieved through a 1.5-mm sieve. Dried and
milled samples were powdered and kept in clean polyeth-
ylene bottles. In addition, collected soil samples were air
dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve. After homogeni-
zation, samples of soils were placed in clear paper bags
and stored for analysis [39].
2.4 Analytical Techniques
Each plant sample was digested with 10 mL of pure
using a CEM Mars 5 (CEM Corporation Mathews,
NC, USA) microwave digestion system. The digestion
conditions were as follows: the maximum power was
1200 W, the power was at 100 %, the ramp was set for
20 min, the pressure was 180 psi, the temperature was
C and the hold time was 10 min. After digestion, the
solution was evaporated to near dryness in a beaker. The
volume of each sample was adjusted to 10 mL using 0.1 M
For soil element analysis, 0.2-0.3 g dried and milled
soils were put in the Teflon vessels and then 9 ml 65%
, 3 ml 37% HCl and 2 ml 48% HF (Merck) were
added. Samples were mineralized in microwave oven (Erg-
hof - MWS2) as follows: in 145
C for 5 min, in 165
C for
5 min and in 175
C for 20 min. After cooling, the samples
were filtered by Whattman filters, and made up to 50 ml
with ultrapure water in volumetric flasks and then stored
in falcon tubes. Standard solutions were prepared by us-
ing multi element stock solutions-1000 ppm (Merck) and
Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn measurements were done by Induc-
tively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy
(PerkinElmer-Optima 7000 DV) [39].
The mean values of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations
in aboveground (edible) parts of wild type and cultivated
purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and soil samples are in
(Fig. 2 A-H). Difference for washed-unwashed plant sam-
ples and soil-washed plant samples were tested by Scheffe’s
test, and results were given in Table 1.
Washing proce-
dure reduced all heavy metal values related to airborne
pollution sources and other factors in different station types
(Table 2 and Table 3).
In our study, while the highest Cd value was meas-
ured in unwashed wild type purslane collected from brook
coast (0.36 µg/g dw), the lowest values were measured in
both washed wild type and cultivated purslane collected
from brook coast and roadside with 0.27 µg/g dw (Fig. 2A;
Table 1). However, Cd accumulation was closer to each
other in both types of purslane in different station types. It
is accepted that the normal limits of Cd concentrations in
plants are between 0.2-0.8 µg/g dw and between 5-30 µg/g
dw is accepted as toxic values [40, 41]. According to these
values, the Cd concentrations in this study were within nor-
mal limits. The % Cd removal value was the highest in culti-
vated purslane samples collected near brook coast 17.235 %
while the lowest was 3.235 % in wild type purslane collected
from roadside Table 2. Soil Cd values (Fig. 2B; Table 1)
were varied between 1.05 and 2.35 showed that there is not
Cd toxicity in the studied stations [42].
In this study, Ayamama Brook was the source of irri-
gation water of purslane samples collected from brook
coast, which originated from the Başakşehir District and
many industrial units have discharged their wastes in it
for ages. As indicated in literature, production of the iron
and steel and nonferrous metals, and phosphate fertilizers
by the related industry are the sources of Cd in water [43].
Also, global atmospheric Cd deposition largely attribut-
able to anthropogenic activities, which comes from com-
bustion of fossil fuels, metals production especially iron
and steel and nonferrous metals and municipal solid waste
combustion [43, 44]. The main source of Cd accumulation
in agricultural soils arise from atmospheric fallout, sew-
age sludge and insecticides, fungicides and phosphate
fertilizer applications and is of primary concern due to
high Cd content in human diet leading to serious known
illnesses in humans [45, 46]. In our study, all of the farm-
ers used commercial fertilizers for purslane cultivation.
In a study realized in urban areas of Kayseri/Turkey,
researchers found Cd values in lettuce, parsley and pep-
permint 0.34, 0.84 and 0.68 µg/g dw respectively [39].
Their higher values with the leafy vegetables grown in
urban areas could be the higher Cd accumulation capacities
of these vegetables or higher soil Cd amounts (12.34 µg/g
dw) in their research area. In another study, the average Cd
values were measured between 0.1-0.3 and 0.1-0.6 µg/g dw
in leaves of some vegetables such as African spinach,
Chinese cabbage, cowpea, leafy cabbage, lettuce and
pumpkin cultivated along the sites of Sinza and Msimbazi
Rivers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania [47]. While some of
their results showed a broad agreement with ours, others
were higher than our results. Additionally, Cd concentra-
tions of our plant and soil samples were lower than those
reported by Yusuf et al. [48] measuring leafy and non-
leafy vegetables (Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna,
Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria
accidentalis) in industrial and residential areas of Lagos
City, Nigeria. Our measured lower Cd levels in both types
of purslane are gratifying results especially in different
sites of a crowded metropolitan, Istanbul.
© by PSP Volume 23 – No 9. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
FIGURE 2 - Plant and soil heavy metal values (µg/g dw). A=Plant and B=Soil Cd values, C=Plant and D=Soil Cu values, E=Plant and F=Soil
Pb values and G=Plant and H=Soil Zn values. Dark grey columns express washed plant samples, light grey columns express unwashed plant
samples. BC=Cultivated purslane collected from broke coast, BW= Wild type purslane collected from broke coast, RC= Cultivated purslane
collected from urban roadside and RW= Wild type purslane collected from urban roadside.
© by PSP Volume 23 – No 9. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
TABLE 1 - Difference for washed-unwashed plant samples and soil-washed plant samples according to Scheffe’s test.
Element Stations and Plant Types N Washed Plant Unwashed Soil
Brook Coast Culture (BC) 15 0.27 ± 0.04
0.32 ± 0.06
1.05 ± 0.12
Brook Coast Wild (BW) 15 0.34 ± 0.07
0.36 ± 0.05
2.35 ± 0.18
Roadside Culture (RC) 15 0.27 ± 0.03
0.29 ± 0.08
1.13 ± 0.17a
Roadside Wild (RW) 15 0.28 ± 0.04
0.29 ± 0.07
2.29 ± 0.14
Significance * * *
Brook Coast Culture (BC) 15 14.10 ± 1.22
17.63 ± 1.31
67.87 ± 7.97
Brook Coast Wild (BW) 15 15.27 ± 1.41
16.78 ± 1.23
70.69 ± 5.64
Roadside Culture (RC) 15 9.64 ± 1.93
12.42 ± 1.06
38.16 ± 2.98
Roadside Wild (RW) 15 13.67 ± 1.01
17.03 ± 1.42
62.73 ± 5.54
Significance ** ** *
Brook Coast Culture (BC) 15 4.51 ± 0.98 9.62 ± 1.01 58.01 ± 3.56
Brook Coast Wild (BW) 15 4.90 ± 0.87 5.38 ± 0.92 73.44 ± 4.85
Roadside Culture (RC) 15 4.64 ± 0.76 4.67 ± 0.58 12.50 ± 1.08
Roadside Wild (RW) 15 4.70 ± 0.54 5.24 ± 0.92 36.68 ± 2.56
Significance NS NS *
Brook Coast Culture (BC) 15 41.36 ± 3.21 49.03 ± 4.65 143.53 ± 11.96
Brook Coast Wild (BW) 15 42.39 ± 2.98 43.19 ± 3.67 11.92 ± 1.13
Roadside Culture (RC) 15 32.69 ± 2.76 40.75 ± 2.87 101.17 ± 9.34
Roadside Wild (RW) 15 42.66 ± 3.75 59.49 ± 3.48 140.73 ± 10.56
Significance NS NS *
Values are in mean ±SD. At the same row, values with different superscripts are signicantly different (*p<0.05;**p<0.01) in means by the Scheffe
test. NS: Non-Significant
TABLE 2 - Total percentage of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removed from wild type and cultivated purslane samples through washing procedure in
two different station types.
Stations and Plant Types Cd (%) Cu (%) Pb (%) Zn (%)
Brook Coast Culture (BC) 17.235 20.000 53.116 15.640
Brook Coast Wild (BW) 6.633 8.990 8.998 1.860
Roadside Culture (RC) 6.569 22.350 0.554 19.790
Roadside Wild (RW) 3.235 19.740 10.434 28.280
TABLE 3 - Relationships between heavy metal concentration in washed-unwashed plant samples and soil-washed plant samples for purslane
in two different station types.
Heavy Metal Washed-Unwashed Soil-Washed
Cd 0.83** 0.45*
Cu 0.93** 0.99**
Pb 0.65* 0.40*
Zn 0.62* 0.81**
Correlation coefficient ( r ); *p<0.05; **p<0.01significant.
The mean Cu values in washed and unwashed sam-
ples of wild type and cultivated purslane are shown in
(Fig. 2C; Table 1). The average highest Cu accumulations
(17.63 and 17.03 µg/g dw) were in unwashed samples of
cultivated purslane, which were collected from brook
coast and unwashed samples of wild type purslane col-
lected from roadside respectively. The lowest Cu accumu-
lation was 9.64 µg/g dw in washed samples of cultivated
purslane collected from roadside. It was observed that
washing procedure reduced Cu amounts between 8.99 and
22.35 % in both types of purslane Table 2. However, the
soil Cu values were varied between 38.16 and 70.69 µg/g
dw (Fig. 2D; Table 1). According to these results, it can
be said that there is not Cu toxicity in the soils of studied
districts [42].
In nature, Cu can be found in rocks, water, air, and it
is an essential trace micronutrient to all higher organisms
for the normal growth and metabolism [49]. It is used in
electrical equipment; construction, such as roofing and
plumbing; and industrial machinery, such as heat ex-
changers and alloys and is also used widely in agriculture
(nutrients, pesticides and fungicides), wood preservation,
and medical applications [49, 50].
© by PSP Volume 23 – No 9. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
In a study, Aksoy and Demirezen [39] measured higher
Cu values in lettuce, parsley and peppermint leaves in
urban areas of Kayseri-Turkey. Yusuf et al. [48] also meas-
ured quite higher Cu values in their vegetable samples
collected from both industrial and residential areas of
Lagos City, Nigeria. However, Bahemuka and Mubofu [47]
measured lower values in their vegetable’s leaves collected
along the sites of Sinza (5.0-9.4 µg/g dw) and Msimbazi
Rivers (2.5-16 µg/g dw). Hashmi et al. [51] also measured
quite lower Cu values, which varied between 1.1-3.3 µg/g
in leafy vegetables such as mustard, cabbage, spinach and
coriander obtained different markets of Karachi, Pakistan.
Although our Cu values are higher than some previous
studies, concentrations of Cu in both wild type and culti-
vated purslane grown in different sites of Istanbul are within
recommended permissible limits (2-20 µg/g dw) [52].
The mean Pb values in both types of (wild type and
cultivated) purslane’s washed and unwashed samples are
shown in (Fig. 2E; Table 1). In this study, the average
highest Pb values were measured from unwashed cultured
samples collected from brook coast, while the lowest was
measured from washed cultured samples collected from
the same station. Additionally, measured Pb values of
washed and unwashed samples were closer to each other’s
in all types of stations, excluding unwashed cultured sam-
ples collected from brook coast. According to the litera-
ture, the normal limits of Pb in plant tissues are between
0.1-10 µg/g dw and between 30-300 µg/g
dw are consid-
ered as toxic levels [41]. Like other elements, washing
procedure reduced Pb values in all samples varied between
0.554 and 53.116 %, but the reduction was fewer than other
elements Table 2. Soil Pb values were varied between
12.50-73.44 µg/g in studied stations (Fig. 2F; Table 1).
According to literature, Pb occurs in nature and is
found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. Lead may
exist in surrounding soils in a number of different chemi-
cal forms: metallic (pure metal); inorganic compounds,
such as lead oxide, lead sulfate, lead chromates, lead sili-
cates, lead arsenates, and lead chloride; and organic com-
pounds, such as tetraethyl lead [46]. It has been com-
monly mined and used for thousands of years and known
to be toxic since then [41]. Pb is used in many areas in-
cluding fertilizer application. Currently in many countries,
lead-containing fertilizers are used [46]. Pb is released
into the environment from a wide variety of natural and
industrial sources, including industrial emissions and used
leaded petroleum. Other pollution sources of Pb in the
environment include paints, anti-rust agents, and the lay-
ing of lead sheets by roofers. Among various sources of
Pb contamination are considered to be of the greatest
environmental risk [41, 53-55].
The use of leaded petrol was forbidden in Turkey in
2004, and previous and current measurements in different
sites of the city showed that considerable reductions in Pb
levels were noticed especially in roadside and urban areas
[56-59]. In this study, the slightly lower Pb values, especially
in roadside samples could be the result of this decision.
Demirezen and Aksoy [39] (Kayseri, Turkey) meas-
ured higher Pb values in their leafy plant samples in urban
areas. In addition, Bahemuka and Mubofu [47] measured
similar Pb values along the sites of Sinza River while lower
near Msimbazi River. In this study, excluding unwashed
samples of wild type purslane collected from brook coast,
Pb concentrations of purslane in different sites of Istanbul
is within recommended permissible limits (5.0 µg/g dw),
especially after washed [52]. These results are showing
the importance of washing procedure before consuming
the edible plant materials.
Zn amounts in washed and unwashed samples of
wild type and cultivated purslane are shown in (Fig. 2G;
Table 1). The results were as follows; the average highest
Zn (59.49 µg/g dw) was measured in roadside with un-
washed samples of wild type purslane, while the lowest
was measured with washed samples of cultivated purslane
collected from roadside (32.69 µg/g dw). In the literature,
it is accepted that the normal limits of Zn concentrations
in plants are between 8-400 µg/g dw [60]. Between 100-
400 µg/g dw is accepted as toxic values in plants [41, 42].
In addition, washing procedure reduced Zn values like our
other elements (Table 2), which varied between 1.86 and
28.28 %. The soil Zn values were varied between 101.17
and 140.73 µg/g (Fig. 2H; Table 1). According to Ross
[42], soil Zn values are slightly higher in the studied sta-
Some trace elements are required by living organisms
in very tiny quantities and Zn is considered one of them
[61]. Zn is involved in metabolism of many macromole-
cules, metabolism of nucleic acids and metabolism of
other minerals and is identified as a structural component
of over 300 enzymes [61, 62]. It is used in many indus-
tries and corrosion-resistant zinc plating of steel and other
metals is the major application for zinc. It is also an im-
portant component of various alloys used as a catalyst in
different chemical production (e.g., rubber, pigments, plas-
tic, lubricants, and pesticides). Because of its versatile
properties, Zn is an ideal material for different sectors such
as batteries, automotive equipment, pipes and household
devices. In addition, different compounds of Zn are used
in dental and medical applications [63].
Zn is the element found in largest amounts in the at-
mosphere followed by Pb and Cu in Europe [64]. Through
a process called natural cycling, Zn is constantly trans-
ported around our environment. Zinc-containing rocks and
soils are constantly eroded by rain, snow, ice, heat, and
wind. Small amounts of Zn are carried by wind and water
to lakes, rivers, and the sea resulting in formation of sed-
iment or are transported further. Volcanic eruptions, for-
est fires, dust storms, and sea spray all contribute to the
continuous cycling of Zn through nature [65].
Similar to Pb values, Bahemuka and Mubofu [47]
measured closer Zn values along the sites of Sinza River
while lower than our Zn values with their leafy vegetables
near Msimbazi River. Additionally, Hashmi et al. [51]
measured lower values in their leafy vegetables. Demi-
© by PSP Volume 23 – No 9. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
rezen and Aksoy [39] obtained lower values in urban and
very high results in suburban in their measured leafy
vegetables and explained their results as the disparity
could be explained by the influence of anthropogenic
activities, especially the sewage-sludge in Turkish lands.
Additionally, our Zn values are quite lower compared with
many similar studies. Yasar and Ozyigit [61] measured
much lower Zn values in their soil samples collected from
different parts of the Pendik District, Istanbul.
The results of the present study showed some simi-
larities and dissimilarities with some researches realized
in Turkey and some different countries. However, meas-
ured heavy metal levels were within acceptable limits of
many comities and literatures [40-42, 52, 63] and lower
than results of many previous studies. In our study,
purslanes collected from brook coast were watered with
Ayamama Brook’s water and the brook had been polluted
by waste from many industrial units over a long period of
time. Measured slightly higher heavy metal values could be
the result of this situation. However, it has been cleaned
recently by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality in the cov-
erage of a big project.
The heavy metal values of the vegetable and the soil
samples, which are used in this survey, should change
depending on the distance between industrial facilities
and the survey area. Additionally, traffic density, climatic
factors, pesticides that are used for growing the vegetable
and the quality and the contents of water, which is used for
irrigation, are the effecting factors for heavy metal accumu-
lation in plants.
In conclusion, the present study provides data on Cd,
Cu, Pb and Zn values of soil samples, and wild type and
cultivated purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) grown in two
different types of stations (brook coast and urban road-
side) in two highly populated and old neighbor districts
Bakırköy and Zeytinburnu. According to the results, Cd,
Cu, Pb and Zn accumulation capacities of both types of
purslane (wild type and cultivated) were closer to each
other’s. Only unwashed cultivated purslane samples, which
were collected from brook coast showed high Pb values.
When compared with the measured soil values, except Pb,
plant heavy metal values were increased or decreased in
proportion related to the soil values in all types of stations
(Table 1). This result shows that both wild type and culti-
vated purslane are good biomonitor plants, and can be
used for monitoring Cd, Cu and Zn heavy metals in dif-
ferent types of stations.
The authors would like to thank Dr. Hande Kucukon-
der for her guidance and suggestions in statistical data
analysis throughout this study.
The authors have declared no conflict of interest.
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Received: January 07, 2014
Revised: April 14, 2014
Accepted: April 14, 2014
Etem Osma
Erzincan University
Faculty of Science and Arts
Department of Biology
24067 Erzincan
FEB/ Vol 23/ No 9/ 2014 – pages 2181 - 2189
... Similar to our findings, other works also report a BAI of a lot less than 1.0 in purslane grown in Pb-contaminated soils. Osma et al. [37] found a concentration in plants ranging from 4 to 6 mg kg −1 in soils with Pb up to 70 mg kg −1 -a BAI of ca. 0.1. ...
Full-text available
Soils with high lead (Pb) levels can be decontaminated with the use of tolerant plants. Their effectiveness may be increased with added soil N due to boosted plant vigor, but such an agronomic practice has not been widely reported so far. In this work, purslane (Portulaca oleracea) was tested in a pot experiment as a potential phytoremediation species using soil spiked with Pb at doses of 0, 150, 300, 600, and 900 mg kg−1 (referred to as Pb(0), Pb(150), Pb(300), Pb(600), and Pb(900), respectively) with added N (referred to as N(1); at 300 kg N ha−1) and without added N (N(0)). We found that added Pb did not cause any adverse effects on plant growth (height, and aerial and root dry biomass) and physiological parameters, which were boosted with added N. Lead plant concentration and uptake significantly increased with added N, a finding that confirms our hypothesis. The number of necessary harvests of purslane in order to reduce soil Pb to half its initial concentration was also calculated and found to decrease with added N, being 131 at Pb(900)N(1). Although results indicate the potential of purslane as a phytoremediation species, further research is needed under real field conditions.
... Various varieties are regionally important, and people collect it from the natural habitats (Turner et al., 2011;Uddin et al., 2014;Borelli et al., 2020). In some cases, people also cultivate it at a small scale especially for ornamental purposes (Osma et al., 2014). Efforts must be taken to exploit its genetic diversity for regional agricultural programs based on the availability and suitability of Portulaca species/cultivar. ...
Full-text available
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is a popular orphan crop used for its nutritional properties in various parts of the world. It is considered one of the richest terrestrial sources of omega-3 and omega-6-fatty acids (ω-3 and 6-FAs) suggesting its importance for human health. This ethnomedicinal plant is also an important part of traditional healing systems among the indigenous people. Many studies have indicated its tolerance against multiple stresses and found that it easily grows in a range of environmental gradients. It has also been considered as one of the important biosaline crops for the future. Despite its huge nutritional, economic, and medicinal importance, it remains neglected till date. Most of the studies on purslane were focused on its ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, pharmacological and stress tolerance properties. Only a few studies have attempted genetic dissection of the traits governing these traits. Purslane being an important traditional food crop across the globe can be valorized for a sustainable food security in the future. Therefore, this review is an attempt to highlight the distribution, domestication and cultivation of purslane and its importance as an important stress tolerant food and a biosaline crop. Furthermore, identification of genes and their functions governing important traits and its potential for improvement using genomics tools for smart and biosaline agriculture has been discussed.
In phytoremediation and biomonitoring, plants are used to clean and monitor contaminated environments, respectively. Thus, scientists are searching for ideal plants, i.e., those that rapidly uptake and accumulate a considerable quantity of contaminants in their tissues, with or without toxicity symptoms. All these aspects are satisfied by the annual herbaceous plant Portulaca oleracea L. P. oleracea L. is ranked eighth as “most common plant in the world” and twelfth as “non-cultivating species well colonise[d] in new areas.” Because of its fast regeneration of shoots and roots from leaves and roots and leaves from the stem and its tolerance capacity for metal stress, this plant has been used for phytoremediation and biomonitoring studies in the field, as well as in pot and hydroponics studies. The growth attributes of this plant in metal-stressed environments and the uptake of metals from its growth media (via the root), which is followed by the accumulation of the metals in its tissues, have been studied. Metal is translocated from the root into the shoot and is calculated as the translocation factor, TF; the metal taken from the soil into the plant is calculated as the bioaccumulation factor, BAF. These measures have been used to determine the hyperaccumulation (uptake and storage of unusually large amounts of metals) potential of the plant. This review article critically evaluates the literature studies to increase the practicability of phytoremediation and biomonitoring approaches using various life stages of P. oleracea.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has unique effects in the prevention and treatment of diseases, and it makes great contributions to the development of society and the progress of medical civilization. However, the problem of excessive heavy metals in TCM has seriously hindered its development. This paper presents a brief and systemic review for the determination of heavy metals by the recently developed atomic techniques, including atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The future perspective of this field is also discussed in this paper.
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Climate change and its detrimental effects on agricultural production, freshwater availability and biodiversity accentuated the need for more stress-tolerant varieties of crops. This requires unraveling the underlying pathways that convey tolerance to abiotic stress in wild relatives of food crops, industrial crops and ornamentals, whose tolerance was not eroded by crop cycles. In this work we try to demonstrate the feasibility of such strategy applying and investigating the effects of saline stress in different species and cultivars of Portulaca. We attempted to unravel the main mechanisms of stress tolerance in this genus and to identify genotypes with higher tolerance, a procedure that could be used as an early detection method for other ornamental and minor crops. To investigate these mechanisms, six-week-old seedlings were subjected to saline stress for 5 weeks with increasing salt concentrations (up to 400 mM NaCl). Several growth parameters and biochemical stress markers were determined in treated and control plants, such as photosynthetic pigments, monovalent ions (Na + , K + and Cl −), different osmolytes (proline and soluble sugars), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde-a by-product of membrane lipid peroxidation-MDA) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids). The applied salt stress inhibited plant growth, degraded photosynthetic pigments, increased concentrations of specific osmolytes in both leaves and roots, but did not induce significant oxidative stress, as demonstrated by only small fluctuations in MDA levels. All Portulaca genotypes analyzed were found to be Na + and Cl − includers, accumulating high amounts of these ions under saline stress conditions, but P. grandiflora proved to be more salt tolerant, showing only a small reduction under growth stress, an increased flower production and the lowest reduction in K + /Na + rate in its leaves.
The fields in which lead (Pb) finds application in the modern world have increased dramatically in recent years. As a consequence of this intensive utilization of Pb, its toxicity tends to pose more and more environmental problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of Pb and to characterize some physiological parameters in Secale cereale under Pb stress. Plants were subjected to different exposure levels of Pb (0, 100, 200 and 400 mu mol/L) for two weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the effects of Pb exposure on the photosynthetic pigments content (chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a/b and carotenoids) and genetic material of S. cereale were studied. To evaluate the genotoxic effect of Pb, random amplified polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was employed. The obtained results showed alteration in the photosynthetic pigments content and RAPD-PCR profiles of S. cereale grown in the presence of Pb. The alterations in the RAPD-PCR profiles following Pb treatments appeared to be losses of normal bands and occurrences of new bands compared to unexposed plantlets. Overall, the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids decreased by 6.68%, 6.08%, 2.89% and 8.57%, respectively, under severe Pb stress (400 mu mol/L).
Full-text available
Uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization and industrialization due to increase of population and rapid industrial development have created severe environmental problems in Kyrgyzstan during the last few decades. In this study, Juniperus virginiana, a dioecious species, was employed in order to make assessment of the heavy metal pollution rate in the area and of the heavy metal pollution impact on the mineral nutrient status of the plant. For this study, leaf (washed and unwashed) and bark samples of J. virginiana, and its co-located soil samples were collected from eight different stations, all in the capital of Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek, in 2012 vegetation period. The standard procedures were used and the determinations of heavy metal and nutrient element contents (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn) in all samples were done using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. According to our measurements, J. virginiana was found to be capable of accumulating a considerable amount of metals and the mineral nutrient uptake pattern was altered because of metal deposition in the plant, which showed a contamination risk in the area.
The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables viz Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils on which they were grown from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, in Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry . The results obtained for these heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 – 1.67_g/g for cadmium; 56.84 – 25.08_g/g for copper and 2.06 - 1.33_g/g for nickel. There was statistically significant differences (P The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (Bush Okra) has ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has least ability for cadmium. Keyword: Heavy metals, Vegetables, Industrial area, Pollution. [Global Jnl Environ Sci Vol.1(1) 2002: 1-6]
The antioxidant activities of the infusion and aqueous extracts of purslane (Portulaca oleracea subsp. sativa L.) were investigated. Different antioxidant tests were employed, namely reducing power, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating activities and β-carotene bleaching effect. In addition, the results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants, e.g. α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole. The levels of anthocyanins, total flavonoids and total phenolics of the extracts were also determined. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the infusion were found to be higher than those of the aqueous extract. Infusion of purslane exhibited a strong Fe2+ chelating effect, free radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract increased with increased concentrations, in the range of 20-100 μg/mL. The aqueous extract also exhibited a strong superoxide radical scavenging activity. This study showed that purslane extracts exhibited antioxidant activity in all tests and the extracts could be considered as a source of natural antioxidants.
Common purslane becomes quite permanently established where they are once introduced and will doubtless become weeds wherever they escape from cultivation .—William Darlington (1859)
Aim: To observe the influence of purslane powder, which has the effects of clearing away heat and resolving toxin, anti-aging and decreasing blood lipid, on the blood glucose in diabetic rats, and observe the influence of dose on the effect. Methods: The experiment was carved out in the Experimental Animal Center, the First Clinical Medical College of Harbin Medical University between July and September 2004. Total 100 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups; Sixty rats were induced to diabetic models: The rats were fasted for 12 hours, and each of them were treated with subcutaneous injection of newly dispensed alloxan solution (40 g/L) according to 200 mg/kg, blood glucose after 48 hours ≥ 16.7 mmol/L was taken as diabetes mellitus, and the blood glucose was detected again after 7 days, if the blood glucose was still ≥ 16.7 mmol/L, it was indicated that diabetic models were successfully established; The other 40 rats were not induced to diabetic models. The fasting blood glucose was detected before experiment and 3 weeks after experiment. The successfully established diabetic rats were divided into 4 groups: positive control group (n=12), large, middle and small dose purslane groups (11 rats in each group). Rats in the control group fed with common feed, those in the large, middle and small dose purslane groups were fed with purslane powder (wildly grown purslane was treated with boiling water, and then dried and fragmented) and common feed; Each rat in the different dose groups ate all the common feed containing 5.0, 2.5 and 0.5 g purslane per day, and then age common feed, and each rat should eat 25 g feed per day for 3 continuous weeks. Normal rats were also divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group: control group, large, middle and small dose purslane groups, and they received the same interventions as the diabetic rats. Results: Totally 100 rats were selected, 45 of the 60 rats were successfully induced to diabetic rats together with the 40 rats with normal blood glucose were involved in the analysis of results. 1 Blood glucose in diabetic rats after experiment: Those were obviously lower in the large, middle and small dose purslane groups than that those before experiment and that in the control group [(8.45±3.25), (13.60±2.85), (15.20±2.76) mmol/L; (24.35±3.56), (23.78±3.54), (24.06±3.89) mmol/L; (25.68±3.67) mmol/L, t=6.17 to 11.67, P < 0.01], and it showed a declining trend with the increase of purslane doses. 2 Blood glucose in normal rats after experiment: There were no obvious differences as compared with those before experiment and those in the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: 1 Purslane powder can obviously decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats, and the effect becomes more obvious with the increase of the doses, and the effect in decreasing blood glucose is the best when the rats are treated with large dose purslane. 2 Purslane has no obvious influence on the blood glucose in normal rats.
Copper and Humans: A Relation of 10,000 YearsCopper: Identity Card, Main Sources, and Environmental PollutionCopper in PlantsFurther Research TopicsReferences