Utilization of Eco-Colourant from Green Seaweed on Textile Dyeing

Conference Paper · April 2014with 420 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/978-981-287-011-7_14
Cite this publication
Abstract
Synthetic dyes are toxic and harmful to the living things. Therefore, the demand for natural dyes is emerging globally due to the fact that they are safer and more environmental friendly, and thus, the application of natural dyes should be considered as a better alterna- tive to synthetic dyes. Using natural dyes contributes to the acceptability of the product by the customers and also responses to the increasing demand of compatibility with the environment. Along the Malaysian coast, stretching along Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak are the habitats for marine plants and algae. Previously, seaweeds are used for food, processed products and medicinal usage by local ethnics. However, this research focuses on the extraction of natural dye from green seaweed of Caulerpa lentillifera as textile colourant. Caulerpa lentillifera was extracted using boiling water and ammonia fermenta- � tion methods. The dyeing was then performed by exhaustion at 85 C for 60 min. Three types of mordant were used by metachrome or simultaneous addition of mordant and dye in the dyebath. The dyed samples were then measured using spectrophotometer to analyse the shades obtained with regard to L*a*b* values and K/S values (colour strength). The dyed samples were also compared in terms of their ability to withstand washing, perspiration, rubbing/crocking and light. The results showed that the natural dye obtained from boiling water extraction method gave higher K/S values in comparison with the dye obtained from ammonia fermentation method. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were evaluated according to MS ISO standard and ranged from good to excellent rating except for lightfastness which is poor.
Utilization of Eco-Colourant from Green Seaweed
on Textile Dyeing
M.I. Ab Kadir, W.Y. Wan Ahmad, M.R. Ahmad, M.I. Misnon, W.S. Ruznan,
H. Abdul Jabbar, K. Ngalib, and A. Ismail
Abstract
Synthetic dyes are toxic and harmful to the living things. Therefore, the demand for natural
dyes is emerging globally due to the fact that they are safer and more environmental
friendly, and thus, the application of natural dyes should be considered as a better alterna-
tive to synthetic dyes. Using natural dyes contributes to the acceptability of the product by
the customers and also responses to the increasing demand of compatibility with the
environment. Along the Malaysian coast, stretching along Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak
are the habitats for marine plants and algae. Previously, seaweeds are used for food,
processed products and medicinal usage by local ethnics. However, this research focuses
on the extraction of natural dye from green seaweed of Caulerpa lentillifera as textile
colourant. Caulerpa lentillifera was extracted using boiling water and ammonia fermenta-
tion methods. The dyeing was then performed by exhaustion at 85 !C for 60 min. Three
types of mordant were used by metachrome or simultaneous addition of mordant and dye in
the dyebath. The dyed samples were then measured using spectrophotometer to analyse the
shades obtained with regard to L*a*b* values and K/S values (colour strength). The dyed
samples were also compared in terms of their ability to withstand washing, perspiration,
rubbing/crocking and light. The results showed that the natural dye obtained from boiling
water extraction method gave higher K/S values in comparison with the dye obtained from
ammonia fermentation method. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were evaluated
according to MS ISO standard and ranged from good to excellent rating except for
lightfastness which is poor.
Keywords
Natural dyes "Caulerpa lentillifera "Extraction "Colour strength "Colourfastness
Introduction
Since prehistoric times until the mid- to late nineteenth
century, natural dyes are the primary colour source for
textiles [1]. However, the use of natural dyes declined rap-
idly after the discovery of synthetic dyes in 1856 by William
Henry Perkin [2] because synthetic dyes are much cheaper,
brighter and widely available [3].
Recently, the harmful effects of synthetic dyes to human
being are becoming noticeable in which some of them are
even carcinogenic. Natural dyes have many excellent
properties such as less toxic, little side effect, biodegradable
M.I. Ab Kadir (*)"W.Y. Wan Ahmad "M.R. Ahmad "M.I. Misnon "
W.S. Ruznan "H. Abdul Jabbar
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Textile Research Centre, Universiti
Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
e-mail: muhammad035@salam.uitm.edu.my
K. Ngalib "A. Ismail
Faculty of Applied Sciences, School of Biology, Universiti Teknologi
MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Contract grant sponsor: Ministry of Education (MOE) under
Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS)
Contract grant number: 600RxxMI/ERGS5/3/(11/2011)
M.R. Ahmad and M.F. Yahya (eds.), Proceedings of the International Colloquium in Textile Engineering,
Fashion, Apparel and Design 2014 (ICTEFAD 2014), DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-011-7_14,
#Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014
79
and eco-friendly as well as unique in shades [4]. Hence, the
demand and interest in natural dyes have been increasing.
Natural dyes are obtained from some plants (e.g. indigo and
saffron), insects (e.g., cochineal and lac), animals (e.g. some
species of molluscs or shellfish) and minerals (e.g. ferrous
sulphate, ochre and clay) without any chemical treatment
[57]. In addition, Balagurunathan et al. [8] claim that natu-
ral dye can also be extracted from microorganisms such as
bacteria, fungi, algae and actinomycetes.
Seaweed refers to the large marine algae that grow almost
exclusively in the shallow waters at the edge of the worlds
oceans. Seaweeds are plants because they use the suns
energy to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and
water (this is called photosynthesis). They are simpler than
the land plants mainly because they absorb the nutrients that
they require from the surrounding water and have no need
for roots or complex conducting tissues [9]. There are three
types of seaweeds that are classified by the pigments present,
red (Rhodophyta), brown (Phaeophyta) and green
(Chlorophyta) [9,10]. Dennis [11] stated that the commer-
cial exploitation of seaweeds is as food and the production
of agar, alginate as well as carrageenan. Furthermore,
seaweeds also exploited to be a source of bioethanol, dietary
supplements, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and
cosmetics [9].
According to Phang [12], there are 375 taxa of seaweeds
recorded in Malaysia. Caulerpa lentillifera, or also called as
round sea grapes, as shown in Fig. 1is a species of seaweed
which is commonly known as green macro alga under the
family of Caulerpaceae.
Materials and Methods
Materials
The Caulerpa lentillifera seaweeds were collected from
Semporna, Sabah. 100 % plain weave silk fabric was used
as the substrates. Two percent (2 %) of metallic salts of
ferrous sulphate (iron) and potassium aluminium sulphate
(alum) as well as acetic acid is used as mordants for each
different dyebaths. Boiling water extraction and ammonia
fermentation were performed to obtain colourants from
Caulerpa lentillifera.
Experimental Methods
1. Dye Extractions: Two types of extraction methods were
used. In the boiling water extraction method, a liquor
ratio of 1:20 (weight of material in gram: amount of
water in mL) was used to boil Caulerpa lentillifera in
distilled water for 60 min. The extracted mixture was then
cooled down and sieved before being used to dye the
fabric. In the ammonia fermentation method, one part of
ammonium hydroxide solution was diluted in 10 parts
of distilled water. Caulerpa lentillifera was soaked in
diluted ammonium hydroxide solution (same liquor
ratio applied in boiling water extraction) at room temper-
ature for 4 weeks [13]. The mixture was then sieved to
obtain the extracts.
2. Dyeing of Silk Fabric: Silk was dyed with both extracted
colourants using exhaustion dyeing technique. Two
percent (2 %) colourant in the form of liquid, based on
the weight of fabric, was used to dye the silk fabric using
a liquor ratio of 1:20. About 2 % of each mordant was
used to fix the colourant onto the fabric. Dyeing and
mordanting were carried out simultaneously in one bath.
The dyeing process was performed at 85 !C for 60 min.
After the dyeing cycle was completed, the dyed fabrics
were washed, rinsed with tap water and then left to dry.
3. Colour Assessments: The dyed samples were assessed
in accordance to MS ISO standards. Colour fastness to
washing, perspiration, rubbing/crocking and light was
determined from standard test methods as listed in
Table 1. The K/S value (colour strength) was measured
using HunterLab LabScan XE (LSXE) spectrophotome-
ter and analysed using HunterLab EasyMatchQC
software.
Fig. 1 Caulerpa lentillifera seaweed
80 M.I. Ab Kadir et al.
Results and Discussion
Dyed Samples
The swatches of dyed silk fabric with Caulerpa lentillifera
are tabulated in Fig. 2. The shades obtained from both
extraction methods are comparable.
L*a*b* Values
The L*a*b* values for silk fabric dyed with Caulerpa
lentillifera extracts from boiling water extraction and ammo-
nia fermentation methods are tabulated in Table 2. The L*
values indicate perceived lightness or darkness. Value of
0 indicates black and 100 indicates white. The values of a*
indicate red (+a) and green (#a), while b* indicates yellow
(+b) and blue (#b). The darkest shades obtained from both
extraction methods are from the fabric treated with iron as a
mordant. However, the shades obtained from the boiling
water extraction are darker than the shades obtained from
ammonia fermentation. On the other hand, the lightest
shades obtained from boiling water extraction are from the
fabrics treated with alum as a mordant. However, for ammo-
nia fermentation method, the treated fabric acetic acid and
alum without mordant produced almost similar shades in
terms of lightness. The coordinates for a*b* are plotted in
2D plots as shown in Figs. 3and 4accordingly.
Colour Strength
The K/S curves for all dyed samples are presented in Fig. 5.
It is quite obvious that all the dyes show similar trends
because they were from the same source. The colour strength
(K/S) values were highest for silk dyed with dye from
boiling water extraction and treated with iron as a mordant.
In contrast, the value was lowest for silk dyed with dye from
ammonia fermentation and treated with acetic acid.
Generally, dyes extracted using boiling water gave higher
K/S value after treated with mordant than dye extracted from
ammonia fermentation.
Colourfastness Properties
Tables 3,4and 5show the summary of fastness properties
assessed from dyed silk fabric. Washing fastness for all dyed
Table 1 Standard methods used for colour fastness assessments
Colourfastness Standard methods Equipments
Washing MS ISO 105-C01-1966 Auto-wash
MS ISO 105-A05-2003 Change in colour
MS ISO 105-A04-2003 Staining
Perspiration MS ISO 105-E04-1996 Perspirometer
MS ISO 105-A05-2003 Change in colour
MS ISO 105-A04-2003 Staining
Rubbing/crocking MS ISO 105-X12-2001 Crockmeter
MS ISO 105-A04-2003 Staining
Light MS ISO 105-B02-2001 Lightfastness tester
Extraction
Methods
Mordant
No
Mordant
Acetic
Acid
Alum
Iron
Boiling Water
Extraction
Ammonium
Fermentation
Fig. 2 Swatches of dyed silk
Table 2 L*a*b* values for dyed silk fabric with Caulerpa lentillifera
Extraction methods Mordant L* a* b*
Boiling water extraction 1 No mordant 74.49 #2.09 18.07
2 Acetic acid 77.52 #1.75 18.67
3 Alum 81.5 #1.19 18.12
4 Iron 57.18 5.14 21.33
Ammonia fermentation 1 No mordant 85.64 0.49 15.04
2 Acetic acid 85.35 0.37 13.27
3 Alum 85.08 0.45 13.64
4 Iron 66.92 13.26 29.23
1
2
3
4
3
2
1
4
L*=50, a*=0.00, b*=0.00, ab Grid=10, LGrid=10
Fig. 3 2D plot represents the shades obtained from boiling water
extraction
Utilization of Eco-Colourant from Green Seaweed on Textile Dyeing 81
samples were rated from 4 to 4/5 for change in colour and
staining rated from 4/5 to 5. This rating is considered as good
where 5 is the best. The result for fastness properties to
perspiration also gave good rating of 4/5 for change in
colour, and the rating for staining ranged from 4 to 4/5.
Same goes to fastness properties result for rubbing/crocking
which was from 3 to 5 for dry rub and ¾to 4/5 for wet rub.
Conversely, the fastness properties to light for all dyed
samples were poor with rating of 3–4.
Conclusion
From the study, it can be concluded that Caulerpa
lentillifera seaweed can be exploited as a natural dye source
which produces unique and interesting shades on textiles.
The shades obtained vary from greenish yellow to reddish
brown depending on the mordant used which gave accept-
able fastness properties even without mordant.
Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge the financial support
obtained from the Ministry of Education, Malaysia, (MOE) under the
Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS). The assistance from the
Research Management Institute (RMI) is also highly appreciated.
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Utilization of Eco-Colourant from Green Seaweed on Textile Dyeing 83
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