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The notion of proximity is increasing in popularity in economic and geographic literature, and is now commonly used by scholars in regional science and spatial economics. Few academic works, however, have explored the link between regional development and proximity relations. This comprehensive book redresses the balance with its assessment of the role of, and obstacles caused by, proximity relations in regional development processes. The expert contributors illustrate that the value of integrating proximity into the regional development analysis framework is due to its plasticity and ability to draw connections between spatial, economic and social dimensions. Possible changes for regional and territorial policies are also an outcome of this integration. These areas are addressed via four main paradigms: • Proximity and regional development • Spatial innovation processes • Networks and proximity relations • Place-based strategies and proximity relations.
Regional Development and Proximity Relations
Edited by André Torre and Frédéric Wallet, INRA Agroparistech, Paris, France
New Horizons in Regional Science series, Edward Elgar Publishing
Introduction: The Role of Proximity Relations in Regional and Territorial Development Processes
André Torre and Fred Wallet
1. Proximity and Endogenous Regional Development
Robert J. Stimson
2. Proximity Relations at the Heart of Territorial Development Processes
André Torre
3. Relatedness and Transversality in Spatial Paradigms and Regimes
Phil Cooke
4. Proximity and Regional Innovation Process: Is There Space for New Reflections?
Roberta Capello
5. When Local Interaction Does Not Suffice: Sources of Firm Innovation in Urban Norway
Rune Dahl Fitjar and Andres Rodriguez-Pose
6. How I Met My Partner. Reconsidering Proximities
Olivier Bouba-Olga, Michel Grossetti and Marie Ferru
7. The Formation of Economic Networks: A Proximity Approach
Ron Boschma, Pierre Alexandre Balland and Mathijs de Vaan
8. Digital Infrastructure and Physical Proximity
Peter Nijkamp and Emmanouil Tranos
9. Proximity Relations and Global Knowledge Flows: Specialization and Diffusion Processes across
Capitalist Varieties
Rachael Gibson and Harald Bathelt
10. The Regional Policy Debate: A Territorial, Place-based and Proximity Approach
Roberto Camagni
11. Economic Development, Place-based Development Strategies and the Conceptualization of
Proximity in European Urban Regions
Teodora Dogaru, Frank van Oort and Mark Thissen
12. A Challenging Book: Regional Development and Proximity Relations
Antoine Bailly
... But the literature has recently highlighted that the problems of biogas deployment can also be explained by difficulties in terms of territorial governance . AD projects often experience difficulties related to the diversity of stakeholder actors, whose modes of operation diverge (Torre and Wallet, 2014), making collaboration and project success difficult. Thus, despite its environmental virtues and potential to create value and anchored jobs (Guenther-Lübbers et al., 2016), the capacities of AD with regard to bringing together multiple actors from diverse universes remain highly questioned. ...
... This geographical proximity was sought by the actors. It allows them to meet more often to boost the governance of flows (Torre and Wallet, 2014) and restricts the extent of the circulation of the latter, contributing to the sustainability of the AD process. It contributes to the mutualization of transport, sorting, treatment, and waste recovery functions, which reduces transport and transaction costs. ...
Anaerobic digestion has recently gained interest in contributing to territorial strategy regarding the deployment of the circular economy and energy transition. Most projects bring together multiple actors from a wide variety of backgrounds. The article analyzes the evolution of synergies and cooperative behaviors between local stakeholders over the period 2010–2020 in an anaerobic digestion cluster in France. The study draws on social network analysis and proximity theory, which have recently been used for analyzing regional innovation systems, local clusters, territorial governance, and rural development. We reveal that local stakeholders develop dense relational networks that vary and evolve throughout the project. Different groups exist and behave in a semi-autonomous manner. All the actors are located in close geographical proximity. Still, their links in terms of organized proximities are related to various types of relations, resulting from cognitive resemblances or common origins. This explains the persistence and resilience of local relationships and how they maintain a collaborative dynamic over time.
... En este sentido, el objetivo de este capítulo es recuperar elementos de diferentes teorías del desarrollo económico regional que coadyuven a construir un marco analítico desde un enfoque de gestión del territorio que permita analizar cambios en las estructuras productivas territoriales para la sostenibilidad de los Valles de San Quintín y Mexicali. Cabe mencionar que el enfoque de gestión territorial considera cambios en las relaciones sociales vinculadas a la dimensión espacial, así como el sentido que los seres humanos le dan a estas (Llanos, 2010) a través de su organización social, política, económica, cultural (Alburquerque, 2014;Torre y Wallet, 2014) y en particular, la participación de la población local en los procesos de desarrollo (Delgadillo y Torres, 2009;Torre Wallet, 2014y Camagni, 2014 (Cárdenas et al., 2018). ...
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Este trabajo se propone deducir dinámicas territoriales que favorezcan el desarrollo sostenible en Mexicali y San Quintín con el objetivo de incidir en la reducción de la pobreza y mitigar los impactos ambientales producto de las relaciones socioeconómicas en los territorios en un contexto de economía global, particularmente en los valles agrícolas de dichos municipios. Se construye un modelo que considera el análisis de las macrotendencias globales previo a la liberalización de la economía mexicana en la década de 1990, así como las tendencias regionales actuales (2008-2020). Para ello se construye una variante de la matriz insumo-producto de Leontief con el método indirecto a nivel municipal tomando como base las matrices Insumo-Producto de Baja California (2008 y 2018) y se estiman los coeficientes técnicos para: valor de la producción, empleo y salarios. Los resultados muestran que el ordenamiento del territorio y la conectividad social son esenciales para gestar dinámicas territoriales orientadas a la cohesión, siendo la diversificación de los ingresos familiares vía las estructuras productivas una dinámica territorial necesaria, aunque no suficiente para incentivar la sostenibilidad y la eficiencia productiva de manera local. También se destaca la necesidad de una gestión integral del territorio en la que se considere a la agricultura protegida y a la industria como sectores estratégicos para generar procesos de desarrollo de manera sostenible, principalmente por el conocimiento y especialización de la mano de obra regional en torno a estas actividades productivas, así como por sus vínculos con otras actividades productivas.
... and requires to be also recognized by the out-group 8 actors (e.g. Brubaker & Cooper, 2000;Cornell & Hartmann, 2006). Since boundaries are asserted to be shaped by a communities' cultural context 1 (e.g. M. Lamont & Lamont, 2009;Swidler, 2001), institutional proximity, to govern people interaction within their boundaries (Boschma, 2005;North, 1990;A. Torre & Wallet, 2014). This discussion leads us to the first proposition regarding the role of organized proximity in the co-ethnic boundary formation: ...
Conference Paper
A considerable amount of research describes the limited financing choices of Immigrant entrepreneurs (IEs) in hosting countries, and the various challenges they face in accessing the necessary resources out of their co-ethnic networks. However, little is known about how IEs, at their startup level, make it to survive these financing challenges in hosting countries. Therefore, this paper theoretically argues IEs to acquire certain level of financial ambidexterity in order to overcome their financing struggle in hosting countries. Namely, their ability to flexibly switch their exploration and exploitation for formal and informal financing between the multiple contexts where they are embedded. Thus, the paper proposes four mechanisms to derive the IEs' financial ambidexterity, and argues boundary work and acquisitions of a behavioral complexity to be the decisive driver for the IEs' financial ambidexterity. Finally, the paper discusses different theoretical contributions, in addition to empirical and practical implications for future research.
Conference Paper
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Many nations and political bodies are struggling to define attitudes and policies towards immigrants and immigration for the 21st Century. This national and global debate usually revolves around economic impacts and the legal status of individual or groups of immigrants. It is significant to deal with an issue of immigrants´needs and also how people consider them, because it is very actual topic in times of globalization. Understanding immigrants´needs means bigger chance for being accepted to the society. Public opinion will become more favourable toward immigrants and more accepting of immigration as younger, more liberal and tolerant generations replace older ones. Elderly people rely more heavily on stereotypes and lack “the ability to inhibit information,” causing people to be more prejudiced than they would like to be. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the perception of immigrants´needs by 3 generations of people – Generation Y, Generation X and Baby Boomers. Using the method – sentence completion, respondents from the Czech republic were asked, what they consider important for immigrants´ needs and which factors influencing their satisfaction. Obtained data were processed through a grounded theory method. Independent ttest was used to evaulate results. Immigrants’ needs for community services could pose new challenges for local governments. The results are broadly discussed.
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Universities have long been considered key players in regional innovation systems and innovation‐driven regional development. In addition, as part of the quadruple helix, they can play a major role in RIS3 design and implementation by acting as civic universities. This contribution differs depending on external and internal factors as well as their interaction. This paper aims to shed light on the main challenges and drivers experienced by five universities whilst taking part in an Erasmus+ project. Adopting a reflexive narrative approach, it investigates to what extent and how they acted as Civic Universities and what they could learn from this quadruple helix interaction. The results show that, even in their diversity, all universities perceived themselves to have acted as CUs in the context of the project.
Thе paper is based on the results of the “Arctic connections: people and infrastructures” project (2018–2021) which was aimed at interdisciplinary study of modern population of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The paper is focused on the study of social support networks and their spatial distribution. We combine socio-anthropological (qualitative) and economic-geographical (quantitative) methods of research and analysis; the field data obtained as the result of in-depth interviews and observation of the participants were corroborated by rigor-ous quantitative analysis of available demographic data. For the anthropological analysis we use the prism of translocality and transnationalism, which enable an understanding of the structure of lives of people who do not reside in only one place but are connected by many ties and relationships to a whole range of localities. The fami-ly life of the northerners is often distributed between several localities, scattered across the whole country, and sometimes beyond its borders. The location of these ‘bases’ depends primarily on the configuration of each fam-ily’s social networks. We call this ‘a distributed way of life’. The quantitative analysis was carried out using the methodology of calculating the Migration Indices of Proportionality of (spatial) Structure (MIPS) of departures and arrivals of the migrants, proposed by O.L. Rybakovsky. The geographical scope of the study is the entire Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, as well as the regions most connected with the Arctic by migration ties (the southern part of the Tyumen region, Kurgan, Kaliningrad, Belgorod, Kirov Regions, etc.). The results of the study revealed close interregional migration ties between the groups of regions that are significantly spatially separated from each other: 1) between the majority of the regions of the Far North, on one hand, and Kaliningrad and Bel-gorod Regions on the other; 2) between Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and the Republics of Dagestan and Bashkortostan; 3) between Yamalo-Nenets Okrug and the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Omsk and Kurgan regions, as well as the south of the Tyumen Region; 4) between Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Kirov Region. The qualitative studies have shown how the migration flows in these areas increase due to established social ties, which in some cases are sustained already for several generations. In the paper, the importance of the influence of interregional social ties, both for the Arctic and for the country in general, is demonstrated. The authors demon-strate how these connections between the “northern” and “non-northern” regions, which are separated by about a 1000 km distance, lead to such close relations which are more characteristic of relationships between a popula-tion center and its nearest periphery. This ultra-distant social proximity is a vivid manifestation of the specifics of the Russian North and Arctic.
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Remapping and merging the Regions with one another, redefining the role of the departments, promoting the grouping of municipalities, creating metropolitan areas, reducing the local authorities' expenditure, improving citizen proximity and involving them in the decision-making process in a more effective way: these were the expectations of the NOTRe law, which has overhauled the territorial organisation of the French Republic. The purpose of this article is to review the reasons which led to this territorial reform, in order to highlight the discrepancies between the announced objectives and reality, and specifically to show the challenges the French regions will have to face in the future.
This article investigates the impact of local unemployment rate on new business registrations in different branches of service sector in Poland between 2003 and 2018. This relationship was verified using panel data methods (fixed effect Driscoll-Kraay estimators and panel VAR estimators). Additionally, the research approach involves considering local determinants which impact the relationship between unemployment and the entrepreneurship dynamic. The research results indicate a positive relationship between rising unemployment and the increase in the number of new operational and knowledge-based business-oriented service businesses in Poland between 2003 and 2018. Service sector, thus, is exposed to a relatively large presence of necessity entrepreneurship. Moreover, the study reveals the intra-regional territorial variation in terms of unemployment push effect with lower elasticity of the gross entry rate against unemployment in cities with poviat rights (where there are more incentives for entrepreneurial activity).
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For decades, gravitational analysis has been a key instrument in analyzing spatial flows. Time and again, it has prompted new and challenging research questions. This paper provides a concise overview of the foundation, the conceptualization and empirical relevance of gravitational principles in regional science and spatial economics. Attention is also given to general “social physics” interpretations of gravity in spatial interaction models and to the impact of intangible distance frictions. The main emphasis in the study is placed on the significance of spatial impedance functions and gravity potential analysis. In particular, the paper focuses on cross-border trade and has three main goals: (i) to address the robustness of distance friction parameters related to trade borders, employing, inter alia, quantitative results from meta-analyses on trade models in spatial economics; (ii) to present a promising methodology based on gravity potential and the related gravitational gradient models that include directional intensities of flows; (iii) to test the validity of the latter approach on the basis of a vector gradient analysis of export patterns of the Netherlands. The paper argues that—despite the space-reducing impact of the modern digital technologies—gravitational principles still have an uncontested relevance in an analysis of spatial flows in regional science.
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