Article

Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on a Square Lattice

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and the Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA.
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 12.11). 10/2009; 131(43):15903-8. DOI: 10.1021/ja906381y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Molecular self-assembly using DNA as a structural building block has proven to be an efficient route to the construction of nanoscale objects and arrays of increasing complexity. Using the remarkable "scaffolded DNA origami" strategy, Rothemund demonstrated that a long single-stranded DNA from a viral genome (M13) can be folded into a variety of custom two-dimensional (2D) shapes using hundreds of short synthetic DNA molecules as staple strands. More recently, we generalized a strategy to build custom-shaped, three-dimensional (3D) objects formed as pleated layers of helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice, with precisely controlled dimensions ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Here we describe a more compact design for 3D origami, with layers of helices packed on a square lattice, that can be folded successfully into structures of designed dimensions in a one-step annealing process, despite the increased density of DNA helices. A square lattice provides a more natural framework for designing rectangular structures, the option for a more densely packed architecture, and the ability to create surfaces that are more flat than is possible with the honeycomb lattice. Thus enabling the design and construction of custom 3D shapes from helices packed on a square lattice provides a general foundational advance for increasing the versatility and scope of DNA nanotechnology.

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    • "In this work, we demonstrate the use of this interaction to connect two or more DNA origami structures. The square lattice caDNAno (Ke et al., 2009) software was used to design a six layered 3D origami cross-like structure. The connecting sites with DNA strands extended with biotin were designed at the two ends of the long axis of the cross-like origami structures. "

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    • "DNA origami objects packed on the square lattice have been shown to exhibit global twist deformation in the absence of insertions and deletions due to underwinding of double helices with an average helicity of 10.67 bp per turn (21). This is in contrast to honeycomb lattice structures that appear undeformed when crossovers are spaced at intervals of 10.5 bp per turn (7). "
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    ABSTRACT: DNA nanotechnology enables the programmed synthesis of intricate nanometer-scale structures for diverse applications in materials and biological science. Precise control over the 3D solution shape and mechanical flexibility of target designs is important to achieve desired functionality. Because experimental validation of designed nanostructures is time-consuming and cost-intensive, predictive physical models of nanostructure shape and flexibility have the capacity to enhance dramatically the design process. Here, we significantly extend and experimentally validate a computational modeling framework for DNA origami previously presented as CanDo [Castro,C.E., Kilchherr,F., Kim,D.-N., Shiao,E.L., Wauer,T., Wortmann,P., Bathe,M., Dietz,H. (2011) A primer to scaffolded DNA origami. Nat. Meth., 8, 221-229.]. 3D solution shape and flexibility are predicted from basepair connectivity maps now accounting for nicks in the DNA double helix, entropic elasticity of single-stranded DNA, and distant crossovers required to model wireframe structures, in addition to previous modeling (Castro,C.E., et al.) that accounted only for the canonical twist, bend and stretch stiffness of double-helical DNA domains. Systematic experimental validation of nanostructure flexibility mediated by internal crossover density probed using a 32-helix DNA bundle demonstrates for the first time that our model not only predicts the 3D solution shape of complex DNA nanostructures but also their mechanical flexibility. Thus, our model represents an important advance in the quantitative understanding of DNA-based nanostructure shape and flexibility, and we anticipate that this model will increase significantly the number and variety of synthetic nanostructures designed using nucleic acids.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Nucleic Acids Research
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    • "William Shih presented novel results in the self-assembly of DNA structures. Building on previous results on programmable self-assembly of two-dimensional structures, Shih demonstrated how, by using stacks of flat layers of DNA, custom-designed three-dimensional structures can be made to self-assemble and explained how to control the curvature of the DNA strands in order to design complex shapes [5]. Henry Hess discussed the construction and control of molecular shuttles, consisting of cargo-binding microtubules that are propelled by surface-immobilized kinesin motor proteins. "

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