Article

Violence, Crime, and Abuse Exposure in a National Sample of Children and Youth An Update

Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 10/2009; 124(5):1411-23. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0467
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to obtain national estimates of exposure to the full spectrum of the childhood violence, abuse, and crime victimizations relevant to both clinical practice and public-policy approaches to the problem.
The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey that involved a target sample of 4549 children aged 0 to 17 years.
A clear majority (60.6%) of the children and youth in this nationally representative sample had experienced at least 1 direct or witnessed victimization in the previous year. Almost half (46.3%) had experienced a physical assault in the study year, 1 in 4 (24.6%) had experienced a property offense, 1 in 10 (10.2%) had experienced a form of child maltreatment, 6.1% had experienced a sexual victimization, and more than 1 in 4 (25.3%) had been a witness to violence or experienced another form of indirect victimization in the year, including 9.8% who had witnessed an intrafamily assault. One in 10 (10.2%) had experienced a victimization-related injury. More than one third (38.7%) had been exposed to 2 or more direct victimizations, 10.9% had 5 or more, and 2.4% had 10 or more during the study year.
The scope and diversity of child exposure to victimization is not well recognized. Clinicians and researchers need to inquire about a larger spectrum of victimization types to identify multiply victimized children and tailor prevention and interventions to the full range of threats that children face.

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    • "The current study also provides an important perspective on how online victimization changes over the course of adolescence , something that has been rarely available, but is extremely important from a developmental victimology perspective (Finkelhor, 2008;Finkelhor, Turner, Ormrod, & Hamby, 2009). With regard to online sexual victimization, most of our results are in line with those obtained in previous studies about unwanted sexual solicitation according to which girls and older youth are generally more victimized online than boys and younger adolescents (Baumgartner et al., 2010;Mitchell et al., 2014;Pereda et al., 2014b;Tynes et al., 2010). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    • "The survey instrument for NatSCEV II was a version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire which asks respondents about their lifetime exposure to 51 specific types of crime and violence including physical assault, property crime, sexual assault , maltreatment, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing violence. A list of the victimization survey items has been published elsewhere [1]. For each victimization item that youth reported having experienced, a series of follow-up questions were asked to gather additional information about the victimization incident including whether it took place in the past year; where it took place; the age (juvenile or adult) and relationship of the perpetrator; and whether any aggravating circumstances, such as weapon, injury or sexual content accompanied the victimization. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The current research used latent class analysis to uncover groups of youth with specific victimization profiles and identify factors that are associated with membership in each victimization group. Methods: This study used data from National Survey of Children Exposure to Violence II. Random digit dialing and address-based sampling were used to obtain a nationally representative sample of 2,312 youth ages 10-17 years. Phone interviews, averaging 55 minutes in length, were conducted with caregivers to obtain both consent and background information and then with youths themselves. Results: Six groups of youth emerged: (1) nonvictims (26.4%), (2) home victims (8.4%), (3) school victims (20.8%), (4) home and school victims (21.3%), (5) community victims (5.4%), and (6) polyvictims (17.8%). Polyvictims were likely to have been victimized in multiple settings by multiple perpetrators and experienced the most serious aggravating characteristics, including incidents involving a weapon, injury, or a sexual component. Youth in the polyvictim class experienced the highest number of different victimizations types in the past year and had the most problematic profile in other ways, including greater likelihood of living in disordered communities, high probabilities of engaging in delinquency of all types, elevated lifetime adversity, low levels of family support, and the highest trauma symptom scores. Conclusions: The study supports the contention that a core basis of the particularly damaging effects of polyvictimization is the experience of victimization across multiple domains of the child's life.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Adolescent Health
    • "Approximately 10% of children in the United States are maltreated (Finkelhor et al., 2009) and 66% report a major traumatic event before adulthood (Read et al., 2011). Exposure to trauma during childhood increases the risk for lifelong physical and mental health problems (Chapman et al., 2007; Dube et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies examining the association between childhood trauma exposure and neuroendocrine functioning have returned inconsistent findings. To date, few studies have accounted for the role exposure to different types of childhood trauma may have on different neuroendocrine adaptations, and no study has examined this association using multiple indices of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning. The purpose of this study was to characterize the unique associations between exposure to physical abuse, emotional abuse, and non-intentional trauma, and multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning. A community sample of 138 youth (aged 9-16) completed the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Task (SE-CPT) while their parents completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). All youth then collected 4 diurnal salivary cortisol samples at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. High reported exposure to non-intentional trauma was associated with intact diurnal regulation but elevated cortisol at bedtime, physical abuse was associated with faster reactivity to acute stress, and emotional abuse was associated with delayed recovery of cortisol following acute stress. Taken together, there was a heterogeneous relationship among different indices of HPA-axis functioning and trauma subtype. Different types of childhood trauma exposure are related to distinct anomalies in HPA-axis functioning. This study underscores the importance of research incorporating multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning to inform our understanding of the underlying neuroendocrine dysregulation that may later lead to stress-related psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Psychoneuroendocrinology
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