Antiplatelet therapy: Current strategies and future trends

Sinai Center for Thrombosis Research, Hoffberger Building, Suite 56, 2401 W. Belvedere Ave, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA.
Future Cardiology 05/2006; 2(3):343-66. DOI: 10.2217/14796678.2.3.343
Source: PubMed


Pharmacological management of thrombotic complications is strongly influenced by antiplatelet treatment strategies. Recent clinical trials have clearly indicated that current antiplatelet strategies may not inhibit recurrent thrombotic events in selected patients and improvement is necessary. Recently, there has been a gradual modification in the guidelines for clopidogrel dosing. In addition, newly developed P2Y(12) receptor inhibitors and thrombin inhibitors are undergoing Phase II and III clinical trials. Moreover, research related to novel agents that interfere with other steps in coagulation and platelet adhesion, and platelet thromboxane and thrombin receptor blockers, show promise. An important future step will probably be the development of personalized therapy based on defining the individual patient's propensity for thrombosis through investigation of platelet-thrombin-fibrin interactions. Such an approach will enhance the targeting of specific therapy based on the pathophysiology of the individual patient.

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    • "The multiple pathways of platelet activation limit the effect of specific receptor/pathway inhibitors, resulting in limited clinical efficacy [19] [20]. Recent research has confirmed that combination therapy results in enhanced antithrombotic efficacy without increasing bleeding risk [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The antiplatelet effect of aspirin is attributed to platelet cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. Controversy exists on the prevalence of platelet resistance to aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease and effects of aspirin dose on inhibition. Our primary aim was to determine the degree of platelet aspirin responsiveness in patients, as measured by commonly used methods, and to study the relation of aspirin dose to platelet inhibition. We prospectively studied the effect of aspirin dosing on platelet function in 125 stable outpatients with coronary artery disease randomized in a double-blind, double-crossover investigation (81, 162, and 325 mg/d for 4 weeks each over a 12-week period). At all doses of aspirin, platelet function was low as indicated by arachidonic acid (AA)-induced light transmittance aggregation, thrombelastography, and VerifyNow. At any 1 dose, resistance to aspirin was 0% to 6% in the overall group when AA was used as the agonist, whereas it was 1% to 27% by other methods [collagen and ADP-induced light transmittance aggregation, platelet function analyzer (PFA-100)]. Platelet response to aspirin as measured by collagen-induced light transmittance aggregation, ADP-induced light transmittance aggregation, PFA-100 (81 mg versus 162 mg, P < or = 0.05), and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was dose-related (81 mg versus 325 mg, P = 0.003). No carryover effects were observed. The assessment of aspirin resistance is highly assay-dependent; aspirin is an effective blocker of AA-induced platelet function at all doses, whereas higher estimates of resistance were observed with methods that do not use AA as the stimulus. The observation of dose-dependent effects despite nearly complete inhibition of AA-induced aggregation suggests that aspirin may exert antiplatelet properties through non-cyclooxygenase-1 pathways and deserves further investigation.
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