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Towards sustainable animal diets: A survey-based study

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Abstract

Animal feed and feeding is pivotal to livestock production. Animal productivity, health and welfare, product quality and safety, producers’ income, household security, but also land use and land use change, water pollution and greenhouse gas emission are affected to a great extent by diet selection and how a diet is fed to livestock. Also animal feed and feeding directly or indirectly affects the entire livestock sector and associated services. Through consultative processes a concept has been developed of sustainable animal diets (StAnD), integrating the importance of protecting the environment, efficient use of natural resources, socio-cultural benefits, and ethical integrity and sensitivity, in addition to currently recognized nutrition-based criteria in producing safe and economically viable feed. The concept is based on the Three-P dimensions of sustainability (Planet, People and Profit), complemented by a further vital aspect, namely the ethics of using a particular feed. The analysis reported here derives from 1195 respondents worldwide. The opinions reflected were from both developing (59%) and developed countries (41%). Respondents ranged across academia, industry, farmers’ associations, government organizations, non-governmental organizations and inter-governmental organizations. This survey has identified directions for positive change that should be followed in the production and feeding of StAnD. That positive change is dictated by higher importance assigned to the Planet, People and Ethics dimensions, and lower to the Profit dimension. The survey has also prioritized elements of the sustainability dimensions of StAnD, and identified sectors that should take the initiative, and has also presented modalities for incorporating the StAnD concept into practice. These could be the focus in follow-up studies and actions. Also the study has laid foundation for developing: (a) a global framework for multi-criteria evaluation of feed resources, based on the sustainability dimensions, (b) a basis for monitoring of the R&D priorities of R&D organizations and donors, and to align them to the needs of the animal production system, and (c) a framework for future R&D needs and priorities, driven by sustainability principles.

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... By 2050, the global demand for animal products is projected to increase by 60 to 70% (1). Ongoing food-feed competition, land degradation, and climate change will further generate sustainability challenges to the livestock industry, especially in developing countries, which already face food security challenges (2). In this context, a decision to rear well-adapted livestock species as well as use unconventional plants in the pastures and agrolands could be effective in meeting present and future demands for animal products in a sustainable manner (1,2). ...
... Ongoing food-feed competition, land degradation, and climate change will further generate sustainability challenges to the livestock industry, especially in developing countries, which already face food security challenges (2). In this context, a decision to rear well-adapted livestock species as well as use unconventional plants in the pastures and agrolands could be effective in meeting present and future demands for animal products in a sustainable manner (1,2). ...
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This study determined the effect of dietary inclusion of camelthron [Alhagi maurorum (AM)] on the performance, blood metabolites, and antioxidant status of growing camels. A total of 18 Sindhi camel calves of 9–10 months of age and 115 ± 7 kg body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to three diets (with a forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50) that were formulated by partial and total substitution of alfalfa hay with AM as follows: (1) diet without AM (control), (2) diet containing 25% of AM (AM-25), and (3) diet containing 50% of AM (AM-50) (dry matter basis) for 150 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. The camels were weighed individually on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 75, and 150. DMI was increased (p = 0.004) with AM-50 feeding followed by AM-25. Total weight gain (p = 0.048) and average daily gain (ADG) (p = 0.043) decreased with AM-50; however, no differences were observed between the AM-25 and CON groups. Feed cost per kg BW gain tended to decrease (p = 0.092) and return per kg BW gain tended to increase (p = 0.087) by AM feeding. The plasma triglycerides (TGs) (p = 0.046) and cholesterol (CHOL) (p = 0.025) concentration were reduced with AM inclusion. Additionally, the AM50-fed camels showed the lowest concentration of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p = 0.008) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p = 0.0036), followed by AM-25. The plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was depressed (p = 0.037) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was enhanced (p = 0.016) with both the AM-25 and AM-50. Moreover, feeding the AM containing diets led to higher (p = 0.004) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) along with a tendency for superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p = 0.075) and catalase (CAT) (p = 0.094). Overall, feeding camels with AM for up to 25% of their dry matter (DM) diet positively influenced the antioxidant status without severe deleterious effects on performance.
... Sustainability as a broad concept is often characterized by three dimensions: economic, environmental and social. Some authors give new names to dimensions, without changing initial meaning, and sometimes propose new dimensions, as suggested by Makkar and Ankers (2014), with the ethical dimension on the sustainability of livestock feed. ...
... Besides, the feed/food competition debate gained importance and could consist in another component of trade-off, as livestock production in the developed worldruminants to a less extent than monogastrics, relies largely on human-edible proteins as feed . This would add a fourth dimension to the original three of the sustainability concept, which consists on the ethics of feeding livestock with human-edible foods (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). Additionally, a sensitivity analysis could provide a view into the most important input parameters of the nitrogen metabolism that influences the output variance (Groen et al., 2016(Groen et al., , 2017. ...
Thesis
The development of the livestock sector in the past century undergone a strong intensification. The current heterogeneity of livestock areas in France may have arisen from a spatial differentiation of intensification process. Different degrees of disconnection between livestock and land have resulted in contrasted levels of performance and impacts across areas. To date, a lot of research effort has been directed at measuring environmental impacts and economic performance of livestock systems at the farm level. Insufficient attention has been paid to the three dimensions of sustainability and to trade-offs among them. Existing livestock heterogeneities across areas also deserve more research. An approach that enables connecting livestock to land and resources, at regional level, could bring novel insights on the role of livestock in use and transformation of resources. The goal of this PhD was to develop a holistic assessment of livestock areas using multimetric indicators encompassing positive and negative contributions. We compiled three databases at the department level: i) database 1 was related to socioeconomic, land use, and production characteristics of 88 French departments, within an extensive time frame (1938-2010); ii) database 2 included data on crop, fodder and livestock production for year 2010; iii) database 3 included measures of provision of cultural, environmental and social services for 60 departments. With the first database, we created a typology of intensification trajectories based on a multivariate approach. With the second database, we assessed the nitrogen metabolism of livestock areas, based on the material flows accounting (MFA) approach, from which we derived indicators of performance and impacts to study synergies and trade-offs. With the third database, we studied the influence of past intensification on the current provision of services by the livestock sector. A multivariate approach was used to assess how different rates of change in intensification variables determined contrasted levels of services. First, we showed that the intensification of the French livestock sector was spatially differentiated and based on four trajectories, ranging from extensive to intensive livestock areas, and from crop specialized to areas where livestock had a small share of national production. Livestock productivity and stocking rates had a 3 fold increase in intensive areas, whereas extensive areas had a 1.6 fold increase. Crop specialized areas lose more than half of their original fodder area, and tripled the average farm size and more than quadrupled their labor productivity. Non-dominated livestock areas lose 30% of initial livestock population, and half of their initial fodder area. Second, the study of synergies and trade-offs revealed that gains in efficiency and economies of scale, often compromised other dimensions, e.g. through increased environmental impacts. The spatial analysis of relationship between performance and impacts revealed two types of synergies linked to the type of impact, either land or product-based. Both of which were in trade-off. Third, we showed that the provision of services was spatially structured and based on three types of service bundles, determined by different rates of change in intensification variables. Changes towards grazing systems resulted in higher provision of environmental and cultural services, whereas changes towards intensive systems resulted in higher levels of social services; but this was achieved at the cost of environmental services. This PhD thesis furthered the understanding on the temporal trajectories of livestock sector across areas in France. This knowledge could help to improve livestock sustainability. Our work provided knowledge on the drivers that shaped current intensification patterns and the provision of cultural, environmental and social services. It could be used to examine options for desirable longterm changes of the livestock sector.
... These compounds, in fact, are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, especially in some spontaneous plants exploited as feeding resources alternative to cultivated crops and in several agro-industry by-products (i.e., olive pomace, grape marc, citrus pulp). The use of local feed resources such as spontaneous plants, by-products, and food waste is considered a feasible strategy to reduce water and land consumed at a global level (Makkar and Ankers, 2014;Flachowsky et al., 2017). ...
... The use of agro-industry by-products and food waste is another important part of the global strategy to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production and the competition for arable land between food and feed products (Makkar and Ankers, 2014;Flachowsky et al., 2017). Agro-industry by-products may contain considerable amounts of PSC, including different kind of PP, such as tannins or flavonoids (Makkar, 2003;Vasta and Luciano, 2011). ...
Article
The interest of the scientific community in the effects of plant polyphenols on animal nutrition is greatly increasing. These compounds, in fact, are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, especially in some spontaneous plants exploited as feeding resources alternative to cultivated crops and in several agro-industry by-products. Polyphenols interact with rumen microbiota, affecting carbohydrate fermentation, protein degradation, and lipid metabolism. Some of these aspects have been largely reviewed, especially for tannins; however, less information is available about the direct effect of polyphenols on the composition of rumen microbiota. In the present paper, a review of the most recent literature about the effect of plant polyphenols on rumen microbiota responsible for unsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation, fiber digestion, and methane production is presented, taking into consideration the advances in microbiota analysis achieved in the last 10 yr. Key aspects, such as sample collection, sample storage, DNA extraction, and the main phylogenetic markers used in the reconstruction of microbial community structure, are examined. Furthermore, a summary of the new high-throughput methods based on next generation sequencing is reviewed. Several effects can be associated with dietary polyphenols. Polyphenols are able to depress or modulate the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by a perturbation of ruminal microbiota composition. In particular, condensed tannins have an inhibitory effect on biohydrogenation, whereas hydrolyzable tannins seem to have a modulatory effect on biohydrogenation. With regard to fiber digestion, data from literature are quite consistent about a general depressive effect of polyphenols on gram-positive fibrolytic bacteria and ciliate protozoa, resulting in a reduction of volatile fatty acid production (mostly acetate molar production). Methane production is also usually reduced when tannins are included in the diet of ruminants, probably as a consequence of the inhibition of fiber digestion. However, some evidence suggests that hydrolyzable tannins may reduce methane emission by directly interacting with rumen microbiota without affecting fiber digestion.
... The StAnD (sustainable animal diets) method (Makkar and Ankers, 2014) is a tool that integrates several dimensions of sustainability, including the three P (people, planet, and profitability) dimensions, and gives an overall picture of the current state of a production system. The indicators corresponding to each dimension allow for the detection of specific problems or particular limitations that may be addressed in order to improve the sustainability of the system (Makar and Ankers, 2014;FAO, 2014). ...
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p> Background . Maize cultivation and dairy cattle represent two of the main economic activities in Mexico. Objective . Determine the forage yield (ton / ha) and forage quality of the maize silage produced in Mexico and estimate potential milk production. Methodology . For this purpose, 13 studies carried out in Mexico, were analyzed according to study area (north vs. center of Mexico) and variety (native vs. hybrid). For inclusion in the final database, the studies should have been including agronomic and chemical variables such as: dry matter yield (DMY) (ton / ha), plant density (number of plants / ha), dry matter content (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ash or organic matter (OM), dry matter digestibility (DMD), neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD), starch and fat content. The data were analyzed using a completely randomized statistical design. Results . The forage DMY (dry matter yield) / ha, and the milk production (ton DM / ha) were higher (P <0.0001) for the central region with respect to the northern region. Regarding to the milk production (kg milk/ ha) the native silages produced more (P <0.05) than the hybrids. A positive correlation was observed for the content of NEL (net energy of lactation) (MJ / kg DM) and kg milk / ton DM. Implications . The native maize of Mexico thus has the potential to provide greater production of milk / ha and kg Milk/ per ton DM with respect to hybrid maize, due to the higher digestibility of the NDF that causes the higher NEl. Conclusions. The use of native maize in Mexico is a viable alternative for use as a silage in feed for dairy cows, with higher milk production per hectare and per ton of dry matter compared to hybrid maize.</p
... Sustainable feed production and feeding are key factors in achieving resource-efficient and resilient livestock production systems with minimal environmental load and high product quality (Makkar, 2016). A sustainable animal diet is characterized as a diet that is balanced in all nutrients and free from harmful components, meets production objectives, generates animal products safe for human consumption, and integrates the planet, people, profit, and ethical dimensions of sustainability (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). Sustainability concerns are related to current rapeseed cultivation practices because neonicotinoid insecticides commonly used in seed dressing of, for example, nonorganic rapeseed pose significant risks to many living organisms (Wood and Goulson, 2017). ...
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Alternative protein sources such as microalgae and faba beans may have environmental benefits over rapeseed. We studied the effects of rapeseed meal (RSM) or faba beans (FB) as a sole protein feed or as protein feeds partially substituted with Spirulina platensis (spirulina) microalgae on milk production, N utilization, and AA metabolism of dairy cows. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (113 ± 36.3 d in milk; mean ± SD) were used in a balanced, replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 21-d periods. Four cows in one Latin square were rumen cannulated. Treatments were 2 isonitrogenously fed protein sources, RSM or rolled FB, or one of these sources with half of its crude protein substituted by spirulina (RSM-SPI and FB-SPI). Cows had ad libitum access to total mixed rations consisting of grass silage, barley, sugar beet pulp, minerals, and experimental protein feed. The substitution of RSM with FB did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) but decreased neutral detergent fiber intake and increased the digestibility of other nutrients. Spirulina in the diet decreased DMI and His intake. Spirulina had no effect on Met intake in cows on RSM diets but increased it in those on FB diets. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) and protein yields were decreased when RSM was substituted by FB. Milk and lactose yields were decreased in cows on the RSM-SPI diet compared with the RSM diet but increased in those on FB-SPI compared with FB. The opposite was true for milk fat and protein concentrations; thus, spirulina in the diet did not affect ECM. Feed conversion efficiency (ECM:DMI) increased in cows on FB diets with spirulina, whereas little effect was observed for those on RSM diets. The substitution of RSM by FB decreased arterial concentration of Met and essential AA. Spirulina in the diet increased milk urea N and ruminal NH4-N and decreased the efficiency of N utilization in cows on RSM diets, whereas those on FB diets showed opposite results. Met likely limited milk production in cows on the FB diet as evidenced by the decrease in arterial Met concentration and milk protein yield when RSM was substituted by FB. The results suggest the potential to improve milk production response to faba beans with supplementation of Met-rich feeds such as spirulina. This study also confirmed spirulina had poorer palatability than RSM and FB despite total mixed ration feeding and lower milk production when spirulina partially replaced RSM.
... The primary purpose of the database will be to integrate activities of various cattle development interventions to encourage coherent adoption of technologies. At the same time, a more coordinated delivery of interventions will address the current challenges where conflicting interests of various programs might confuse the recipients (Makkar and Ankers 2014). The management database could also save as a monitoring and evaluation tool for the cattle development programs. ...
Article
Efforts to exploit the central roles of cattle to drive agriculture and rural development in low-income countries recorded limited success owing to their narrow focus on modernizing and commercializing low-input cattle farming. Most programs failed to take cognizance of the heterogeneous range of complex relationships between the environmental, economic, social and institutional challenges that limit low-input cattle farming. The current qualitative literature review evaluates the environmental, economic and social sustainability delivery impacts of the leading cattle development programs in the low-input farming sector in South Africa using a holistic systems approach. A mixed method procedure involving stratified sampling was used to allocate local and international-based programs while, purposive sampling was used to select programs with a wider scale of operation. The review then draws on the crosscutting key constraints emerging from the case studies to provide a better grounding for subsequent sustainability sensitive recommendations. Local-based cattle development programs advanced more market-led interventions while, their international-based counterparts had more interventions including, soil and rangeland improvement. The narrow focus by both local and international developmental programs is inadequate to address a wide array of environmental, economic, social, technical and institutional challenges faced by low-input cattle producers in South Africa.
... Such policies would stimulate increased feed production, ensuring quality animal feeds on the market, reducing production costs and building capacity among the private and public sector for the development of the animal feed industry. Strategies to achieve these objectives must take into account relevant national issues such as decentralization, private sector participation, gender and protection of the environment (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). The policy formulated should increase animal feed production through strengthening research, providing credit to the industry, promoting greater production of raw materials, encouraging the transfer of appropriate technologies and formation of associations (of farmers, pastoralists, and manufacturers) and developing rural infrastructure to increase access to raw materials. ...
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Livestock are critical to incomes, livelihoods, nutrition, food security and resilience in much of East Africa. Across the region, the increasing demand for livestock products has not yet been matched by a growth in production, implying that there are potential widespread benefits for both producers and consumers if the former can respond to this rising demand. East Africa has very high annual population growth rates – from 1.81 in Kenya to 3.92 percent in the Sudan – and over the coming years, if production gaps are not addressed, will become increasingly reliant on external markets for foods of animal origin. This would be a missed development opportunity given the widespread benefits that could be generated by inclusive growth of the livestock subsector, particularly for dryland communities in East Africa. In these areas, livestock are largely reared in an extensive range-based system that depends on availability of pasture and water. This production system is constantly challenged by climatic variability. The seasonality of feeds and water means that people and livestock have to move to areas of concentration of these resources, which is increasingly leading to conflict, overgrazing and degradation of rangelands in East Africa. In addition, this herd mobility denies women and children access to milk when herds move, exacerbating already poor nutrition among these groups. Pastoral destitution in East Africa is largely driven by feed and water scarcity, as the natural resource base in the rangelands is shrinking fast due to prolonged and more frequent climate extreme events. This has been clearly evident in the last five years, with governments and partners investing heavily in livestock feeds and other inputs to protect livestock-based livelihoods in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. The reality is that as climate-induced events become more frequent and destruction, governments and authorities across the region need to think and act more strategically in relation to feed access and availability in order to mitigate the negative impacts of climate- and human-induced crises on animal production. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and its Member States have thus called for greater efforts to find sustainable solutions to address animal feeds gaps in the region. In an attempt to address these challenges, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Resilience Team for East Africa in collaboration with IGAD’s Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development undertook multi-stakeholder consultations with Member States, private sector, development partners and community institutions with the goal of developing a Regional Animal Feed Action Plan. The Plan has four priority areas, which were discussed and selected by stakeholders: 1. Establish/strengthen animal feed data, information, reporting and communication systems 2. Develop sustainable animal feed supply chains 3. Identify status of rangelands and grazing areas and disseminate best management practices 4. Strengthen enabling environment for feed production The main objectives of the animal feed action plan are to: • leverage the potential and opportunities provided by animal feed resources to stimulate development and income generation in poor rural communities by improving the efficiency and profitability of the animal feed sector; • enhance the participation of poor rural communities in the animal feed value chain; • facilitate private sector-driven animal feed market development, within and outside East Africa, ensuring market access and competitive prices across countries; • provide a guide for governments to develop enabling policies and regulatory frameworks on feed for enhanced trade between countries in East Africa; and • exploit the production potential of rangelands and ensure sustainable natural resource use as a key ingredient in the development of the animal feed sector in East Africa.
... Furthermore, commercial production of animal feeds takes place in 144 countries and generates an annual turnover of more than US$400 billion (IFIF 2018). This is expected to increase, as the industry is under pressure to increase the amount of safe and nutritious feed, to meet the global demand for livestock products (Makkar and Ankers 2014). However, one of the greatest challenges facing farmers and the feed industry is the occurrence of mycotoxins in feed ingredients (Li et al. 2014;Pinotti et al. 2016). ...
Article
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The contamination of feed with mycotoxins is a continuing feed quality and safety issue, leading to significant losses in livestock production and potential human health risks. Consequently, various methods have been developed to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in feed; however, feed supplementation with clay minerals or mineral adsorbents is the most prominent approach widely practiced by farmers and the feed industry. Due to a negatively charged and high surface area, pore volume, swelling ability, and high cation exchange capacity, mineral adsorbents including bentonite, zeolite, montmorillonite, and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate can bind or adsorb mycotoxins to their interlayer spaces, external surface, and edges. Several studies have shown these substances to be partly or fully effective in counteracting toxic effects of mycotoxins in farm animals fed contaminated diets and thus are extensively used in livestock production to reduce the risk of mycotoxin exposure. Nevertheless, a considerable number of studies have indicated that these agents may also cause undesirable effects in farm animals. The current work aims to review published reports regarding adverse effects that may arise in farm animals (with a focus on pig and poultry) and potential interaction with veterinary substances and nutrients in feeds, when mineral adsorbents are utilized as a technological feed additive. Furthermore, results of in vitro toxicity studies of both natural and modified mineral adsorbents on different cell lines are reported. Supplementation of mycotoxin-contaminated feed with mineral adsorbents must be carefully considered by farmers and feed industry.
... HF maggot contains between 40 and 60% crude protein and 9 to 26% of fat. BSF, YM, and HF meal are known to be effective components in the diet of ruminants, pigs, poultry and fish species 35 and are therefore potential diet ingredients for aquaculture including mosquito rearing. ...
Article
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The black soldier fly, yellow mealworm and house fly are known for their wide distribution, ease of breeding, and environmental and nutritional attributes. Diets based on these fly proteins for the rearing of mosquito larvae are more accessible and affordable when compared to the reference IAEA diet which consists largely of costly livestock products such as bovine liver powder. Following a step-by-step assessment, we developed diet mixtures based on insect meal for the optimal mass production of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Based on the assessed parameters including mosquito egg hatch, body size, flight ability, longevity and diet cost reduction, two mixtures are recommended: 1/2 tuna meal (TM) + 7/20 black soldier fly (BSF) + 3/20 brewer’s yeast and 1/2 TM + 1/2 BSF. These findings, which could be adapted to other mosquito species, provide alternative protein sources for mass rearing insects for genetic control strategies.
... However recycling food waste as feed is more widely practiced in Asian countries, in Japan for example 35.9% of food waste is used as feed (Salemdeeb et al., 2017), and if the EU was to adopt an Asian style recycling approach land use of EU pork alone could reduce by one fifth Salemdeeb et al., 2017). The use of food waste as feed has been identified as a priority research area by the animal feed industry (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). It is widely recognised that feeding livestock soy or fishmeal has widespread environmental consequences and globally almost a third of crops harvested are used as feed (Steinfeld et al., 2006). ...
Article
There is an increasing need for transformational changes in the global food system to deliver healthy nutritional outcomes for a growing population while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability. However, such changes are subject to political and public constraints that usually allow only gradual, incremental changes to occur. Drawing inspiration from the British cycling team’s concept of marginal gains, we show how transformation might be reconciled with incremental changes. We demonstrate that a set of marginal food system changes acting to increase production efficiency, to reduce losses or to adjust diets could collectively reduce the agricultural land required globally for food production by 21%, or over a third given higher adoption rates. The results show that while all categories of action are important, changes in consumer choices in Europe, North America and Oceania and in the supply-chain in Africa and West and Central Asia have the greatest potential to reduce the land footprint of the food system.
... The European Union has formulated relevant standards on determining the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of drugs in animal-derived food [12]. On the basis of the "3-P" dimensions of sustainable development, including planet, people and profit, and the StAnD (Sustainable Animal Diets) concept was negotiated by FAO in conference with a large international panel of experts [13]. The aim of this concept is to solve the problem of sustainable animal feed. ...
Article
Antibiotic residues in food should be concerned seriously because they constitute potential threats to human health. The rapid and accurate determination of antibiotic residues in food must be a tough challenge due to the large number of interfering substances in food matrices. However, the traditional sample preparation methods are not only time-consuming and laborious, but also require many toxic organic solvents. This is why new preparation methods need to be developed to meet new analysis needs. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe preparation technique, known as QuEChERS, was introduced in 2003. As its name implies, this technique, combined with LC or GC tandem mass spectrometry, can effectively separate multiple complex compounds in a short time. Initially, QuEChERS was widely used to analyze pesticide residues in food. Nevertheless, more and more researchers began to apply the QuEChERS technique to extract other compounds with various complex matrices in recent years, and the advantages of high efficiency and good results has once again proved the potential of this technique. In this paper, the development and application of QuEChERS for antibiotic residues in food were reviewed, and the research progress on modification and optimization of the QuEChERS methodology in sample treatment, extraction and purification is summarized in detail.
... Effets des échanges de produits à différentes échelles sur plusieurs domaines de santé § Améliorer les conditions de vie des animaux d'élevage… et des humainsEn élevage, l'alimentation est un levier puissant pour contribuer à la santé des animaux(Makkar et Ankers 2014). C'est le cas des animaux élevés sur des prairies diversifiées dans lesquelles ils choisissent instinctivement les espèces consommées leur apportant des bienfaits(Provenza et al 2015). ...
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Faire face aux crises environnementale et alimentaire nécessite d'analyser les interdépendances entre agriculture, environnement et alimentation. Nous avons montré précédemment que le concept de santé permet de fédérer un ensemble de domaines disciplinaires s'intéressant aux écosystèmes à différentes échelles et aux hommes (voir Regard O6). Sur cette base, nous avons combiné ici les concepts d'une seule santé, de santé environnementale et de santé planétaire, en un concept englobant : la santé unique. Celui-ci permet d'articuler trois principes pour atteindre un bon état de santé des écosystèmes et des hommes tout en limitant l'usage d'intrants en agriculture et de médicaments pour les animaux et les hommes : i) développer la fourniture des services écosystémiques (SE), ii) boucler les cycles biogéochimiques, et iii) assurer l'accès à une alimentation saine et équilibrée. Cette approche permet de vérifier et souligner (i) les rôles multiples de la biodiversité dans la fourniture des SE à l'agriculture et à la société, (ii) l'intérêt d'économies circulaires au sein des territoires pour le bouclage des cycles biogéochimiques plutôt que des échanges commerciaux massifs d'intrants et de produits agricoles entre continents et régions (ex blé, soja), et (iii) la forte dépendance de la santé humaine et environnementale aux choix alimentaires et à la composition des produits. Le cadre d'analyse, appliqué à l'élevage laitier intensif basé sur des importations massives de tourteaux de soja, montre comment les différents domaines de santé sont affectés de manière systémique, tant au niveau des régions de production du soja que de celles où il est utilisé en Europe.
... The sustainable animal diet has been determined as one that is balanced in all nutrients, free from harmful components, meets production objective, generates animal products safe for human consumption, and integrates the environmental, economic and societal aspects of sustainability (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). When evaluating the sustainability of a certain animal feeding practice, the three dimensions of sustainability (environment, economy, society) are good starting principle. ...
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The objective of the research described in this thesis was to evaluate the potential and sustainability of protein feed use of different non-defatted microalgae species in the nutrition of lactating dairy cows. Four physiological experiments (Publications I-III) were conducted with dairy cows to compare dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, energy metabolism, nitrogen (N) utilisation and amino acid (AA) metabolism using diets containing microalgae (Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana)and conventional protein feeds (rapeseed meal, soya bean meal and faba beans).
... Feeding grains sourced from faraway places and other ingredients have enabled intensive meat, egg, and milk production systems to develop over the last four decades [1]. Production systems for ruminants and monogastric food animals have become highly capital-intensive and have created many environmental challenges [2]. ...
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The production of food animals today requires large amounts of energy, land, chemicals, and water—all of which are becoming increasingly scarce [...]
... The development of integrated systems and cross-scale interactions of dynamic systems may facilitate social-ecological resilience, with a focus on our complex adaptive transformability, learning capacity, and ability to innovate (Folke, 2006). The SDM paradigm can combine accumulated scientific data with knowledge and strategic management to improve the animal industry by better assessing market opportunities with biological limitations and potentials of the agroindustry (Tedeschi et al., 2011) while accounting for the three pillars of sustainability: environmental, social, and economic aspects (Makkar, 2013;Makkar and Ankers, 2014;Tedeschi et al., 2015b). ...
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This paper outlines typical terminology for modeling and highlights key historical and forthcoming aspects of mathematical modeling. Mathematical models (MM) are mental conceptualizations, enclosed in a virtual domain, whose purpose is to translate real-life situations into mathematical formulations to describe existing patterns or forecast future behaviors in real-life situations. The appropriateness of the virtual representation of real-life situations through MM depends on the modeler’s ability to synthesize essential concepts and associate their interrelationships with measured data. The development of MM paralleled the evolution of digital computing. The scientific community has only slightly accepted and used MM, in part because scientists are trained in experimental research and not systems thinking. The scientific advancements in ruminant production have been tangible but incipient because we are still learning how to connect experimental research data and concepts through MM, a process that is still obscure to many scientists. Our inability to ask the right questions and to define the boundaries of our problem when developing models might have limited the breadth and depth of MM in agriculture. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been developed in tandem with the need to analyze big data using high-performance computing. However, the emergence of AI, a computational technology that is data-intensive and requires less systems thinking of how things are interrelated, may further reduce the interest in mechanistic, conceptual MM. AI might provide, however, a paradigm shift in MM, including nutrition modeling, by creating novel opportunities to understand the underlying mechanisms when integrating large amounts of quantifiable data. Associating AI with mechanistic models may eventually lead to the development of hybrid mechanistic machine-learning modeling. Modelers must learn how to integrate powerful data-driven tools and knowledge-driven approaches into functional models that are sustainable and resilient. The successful future of MM might rely on the development of redesigned models that can integrate existing technological advancements in data analytics to take advantage of accumulated scientific knowledge. However, the next evolution may require the creation of novel technologies for data gathering and analyses and the rethinking of innovative MM concepts rather than spending resources in collecting futile data or amending old technologies.
... Table 1 Commonly used plant wastes and by-products as feed additives or ingredients in the animal feed industry This review discusses and summarizes the potential use of common fruit and plant wastes and by-products as feed additives for aquaculture. In a recent survey conducted by FAO, the various stakeholders and industry players placed high priority on the use of food wastes as animal feed (Makkar & Ankers 2014). Hence, the challenges and opportunities in effectively utilizing these valuable feed additives in the context of good health and optimum growth performance in aquaculture are also discussed. ...
Article
Fish constitutes the fastest growing source of food in the world today. The shift in culture system of some countries from extensive to semi-and intensive farming of fish requires the provision of nutritionally-adequate feeds for the cultured stock. There is also a need to provide additives that will boost health and growth performance of the fish in intensive rearing environment. There are a number of feed additives that are available to improve fish health and growth but these are costly and have issues on leaving residues that pose public health risk and environmental contamination. An alternative approach is to use plant-based products as feed additives for aquaculture, and even better is to utilize plant waste products as sources of these beneficial feed additives. The presence of biologically active ingredients from these plant waste products could be one of the most promising alternatives to the use of synthetic feed additives or antibiotics in aquaculture. The utilization of plant and fruit wastes are of particular interest because this addresses issues on waste recycling, waste reduction as well as competition for human food. These waste materials are recycled by being utilized as raw materials for the production of feed additives; thus, they are brought back to the food chain. Because the sources of the feed additives are waste materials from plants and fruits, the production of these phytogenic feed additives no longer competes as sources of food for human consumption. This review discusses and summarizes the potential use of common fruit and plant wastes and by-products as feed additives for aquaculture. The challenges and opportunities on how to effectively utilize these unwanted yet valuable resources in the context of good health and optimum growth performance of fish and crustaceans are also discussed. The information that is provided will offer avenues for further research along this area and to enable the feed industry to utilize these resources in achieving production of healthy fish and crustaceans towards sustainable aquaculture.
... Unavailability of feed in Ethiopia is primarily due to an inefficient feed sector, low levels of infrastructure, competition for the feed between livestock in the highlands and pastoral areas, and the reduced availability of rangelands for pasture due to an increase in human population, and as a result, conversion of pasture lands to croplands. During the last decade, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed a concept of sustainable animal diets, which integrates the importance of efficient use of natural resources, protection of the environment, socio-cultural benefits along with ethical considerations (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). It has also promoted a number of feed and feeding strategies to address the feed shortages (Makkar, 2016b). ...
... The aforesaid challenges and issues are being addressed through the FAO's initiative: Towards Sustainable Animal Photo credit: R. K. Henning, Wikimedia Commons Diet. A Sustainable Animal Diet may be defined as the diet that has the core traits, i.e. balanced in all nutrients, free from deleterious components, meet production objective, generate animal products that are safe for human consumption and integrates the Three-P dimensions of sustainability (Planet, People and Profit; inter alia, have been used to describe the term, implying ecological soundness, social equity and economic growth) and also the ethical dimension (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). Translating the Sustainable Animal Diet Framework into action would be beneficial for the animal, the environment and the society, and is likely to generate socio-economic benefits (FAO, 2014); and animal nutritionists have a vital role in achieving this. ...
... This information is expected to form a basis for further research in this area and to open new avenues for the industry to use these resources, leading to sustainable livestock developments through sustainable eco-management. It is worth noting that in a recent survey conducted by FAO, the stakeholders gave very high ranking to the use of food wastes as animal feed [9]. ...
Article
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The increasing trend future consumption of animal products will give rise to a huge demand of animal feed. Meeting this demand will be a challenge, given the scarcity of natural resources such as land and water. Currently approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food is lost and wasted annually, and fruit and vegetables (FV) form a substantial part of this loss. Use of FV loss and waste, as animal feed, can contribute to meeting the feed deficiency existing in most developing countries. Also their use as animal feed will bring them back into the human food chain. Simultaneously it will help mitigating environmental problems that arise due to decomposition of such wastes in the environment. This review, first in a series, discusses options and challenges in using fruit wastes and by-products as animal feed. The fruits discussed are amla, apple, apricot, banana, citrus and raspberry, among many others. The nutritional value, conservation methods, feeding management and guidance on the levels at which these unconventional feed resources can be used in the diets of farm animal species are presented. Some of the major constraints in the use of fruit wastes and by-products are the presence of pesticides, pesticide residues, mycotoxins, heavy metals, furans and dioxins. There is a need to regularly monitor such contaminants in these feed resources. Equally important is to conduct risk assessment given the presence of these contaminants in the animal diets. A concerted research and commercial efforts are needed to realize the full potential of such wastes and by-products for the animal agriculture.
... Especially aquaculture and aviculture, providing food reserves in case of crop failure and products of increasing demand, could play a key role in this respect (Blanchard et al., 2017;Godber and Wall, 2014;Vervoort et al., 2013). However, with imported and traditional feeds becoming increasingly sought after and cost-prohibitive, most small-scale farming operations struggle to achieve necessary production increments, causing deficits in supply and sales opportunities for imports (Godber and Wall, 2014;Makkar and Ankers, 2014;Tscharntke et al., 2012). ...
Article
While there is a growing body of research investigating the technical feasibility and nutritional properties 25 of insect based feeds (IBFs), thus far little attention has been devoted to gauge the economic implications 26 of implementation. This study has investigated the economic performance of ex-ante modelled IBF 27 production systems operating in the geographical context of West Africa. A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) 28 analysis of recently published life cycle inventory (LCI) data served as a basis to analyse and compare the 29 economic performances of IBF production systems using Musca domestica and Hermetia illucens reared on 30 different substrates. To gauge the application potential of IBF in West Africa, estimated breakeven sale 31 prices of IBFs were benchmarked against the customary market prices of conventional feeds. The results 32 show that the economic performance of IBF production in West Africa is largely determined by the costs 33 attributed to labour and the procurement of rearing substrates, attesting economic advantages to the 34 production of M. domestica larvae by measure of breakeven price (1.28-1.74 EUR/ kg IBF) and LCC 35 (1.72-1.99 EUR/ kg IBF). A comparison of the breakeven sale prices of IBF with market prices of 36 conventional feeds suggest that IBF has potential to substitute imported fishmeal, but findings offer no 37 support for conjectured economic advantages over plant based feeds. 38
... Scraps can be aggregated for heat treatment and then distributed to smaller producers that are unlikely to purchase their own heat treatment equipment. Agricultural extension service staff members have a valuable role to play in characterizing and disseminating best practices for food product collection and treatment (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). ...
Article
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Introduction: Multiple estimates suggest the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) may have one of the highest rates of wasted food globally. The KSA has limited arable lands and scarce water and thus relies on extensive imports and food subsidies to meet food demand. Accordingly, waste and loss of food are a significant concern for food security. Materials and methods: A narrative literature review was performed to identify the available information relevant to characterizing the context, magnitude of food wasted in the KSA, key contributing factors, and existing interventions and recommendations. Results: Estimates of annual per capita waste of food ranged from 165 kg to 511 kg. Given the country's relatively limited agricultural production, the consumer and retail levels are primary targets for intervention. Key contributors to waste include culture, food valuation, policy and industry factors, and awareness and concern. The country is at an early stage of developing responses. We build upon existing approaches and recommendations, with particular emphasis on the potential role of agricultural extension staff in addressing the issue, and highlight research needs. Conclusions: Given the potentially exceptional levels of wasted food in the KSA and the extensive evidence gaps, there is a great need for further research and action. Our review and synthesis presents numerous opportunities to advance innovative waste reduction approaches in the country, with particular relevance for other parts of the Middle East and other areas early in their efforts to address waste of food.
... However, reduced availability, high cost and environmental implications of exploiting these resources represent major constraints to achieving optimal production, especially for smallholder producers in the developing countries [17][18][19][20][21]. In view of the above concerns, researchers, policy makers, private and public institutions including the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) have called for diversification and innovation towards sustainable feed protein sources such as edible insects [22][23][24]. ...
Article
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Edible insects are increasingly being considered as sustainable alternatives to fish and soybean meals in animal feed because of their high nutritional quality and environmental benefits. However, successful introduction of a new product to the market depends on the target user’s acceptance. Thus, evaluating the potential demand of insect-based feeds would provide relevant information for policy development. The present study assessed farmers’ knowledge on edible insects as feed, their acceptance of integrating insect meals in animal feeds and willingness to pay (WTP) for insect-based feed (IBF) using a contingent valuation method. A household survey was conducted among 957 randomly selected farmers including: 409 poultry, 241 fish and 307 pig farmers in four counties in Kenya. Results of the study reveal that over 70 and 80% of poultry and fish farmers, respectively, are aware that insects can be used as a feed ingredient. In addition, over 60 and 75% of poultry and fish farmers, respectively, consider insects as a good component of feed. Poultry, pig and fish farmers interviewed accepted and showed willingness to pay for IBF. Regression analysis indicated that age, gender, education, marital status, distance to feed trader, awareness of insects as feed, attitude towards insects, acceptance of insect species, availability of agricultural inputs, use of commercial feeds, availability of training and market information had a significant influence on the WTP for IBF. Therefore, increased extension services to educate famers on the nutritional benefits of insect meals in animal feeds and existing market opportunities are expected to improve farmers’ attitude towards utilization and consequently enhance WTP for IBF, which in return would significantly reduce the existing pressure on conventional fishmeal feed resources. Our findings provide the first insights into the market opportunities of including insect meals in the animal feed value chain in Kenya.
... Unavailability of feed in Ethiopia is primarily due to an inefficient feed sector, low levels of infrastructure, competition for the feed between livestock in the highlands and pastoral areas, and the reduced availability of rangelands for pasture due to an increase in human population, and as a result, conversion of pasture lands to croplands. During the last decade, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed a concept of sustainable animal diets, which integrates the importance of efficient use of natural resources, protection of the environment, socio-cultural benefits along with ethical considerations (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). It has also promoted a number of feed and feeding strategies to address the feed shortages (Makkar, 2016b). ...
Article
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In countries across the Horn of Africa and in many other parts of the world, the lack of feed inflicts major adverse effects on livestock during times of drought. This has been identified as a major problem by development agencies, NGOs, researchers and extension workers alike, and one which must be addressed urgently. This article discusses and prioritises feeding strategies, which can be used under emergencies in dry areas.
... This may mean that various negative impacts of such activities of the sectors, including on productivity, reproductive efficiency, environment including biodiversity, land degradation and land-use change, animal welfare and health, food-fuel-feed competition, product safety and quality, among others will be the consequences [53]. In an actual fact, [54] had proposed a systematic framework to enhancing livestock production sustainability by integrating the Three-P dimensions of sustainability. The Three-P dimensions, Planet, People and Profit, inter alia, have been used to describe the term, implying ecological soundness, social equity and economic growth and also the ethical dimension. ...
Article
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Development of livestock production in many parts of the world has shown to be growing more towards an industrialised type of farm animal rearing operations. These involve raising farm animals in densely populated environment, commonly termed as a factory livestock farming. Such an operation is actually aimed at yielding a very large scale of farm animal products by means of intensification in animal rearing systems. This is becoming a global trend in practicing farm animal productions nowadays. The transformation of livestock production from a family small scale animal husbandry to a large scale of corporate business has been mainly driven by three major interrelated factors, these are i ) a prediction on a rapid world‘s human population growth, ii ) demographic factors, particularly age structure and urbanization, and iii ) socio-economic status improvement. The total world‘s population has been estimated to reach 9.1 billion in 2050, where 70 percent of rural inhabitants are going to shift mostly living in urban areas and with their better incomes than previously earned and are also predicted to increase by 2 percent annually. Indications in changing urban lifestyle has then been shown affecting on shifted food consumption patterns more to semi-processed and/or pre-prepared-ready to eat foods of which their main component deriving from livestock product origin. As the trend has been commonly shown in many urban areas, where their working hours are becoming longer than there used to be. In an actual fact, that has been happening for the last two decades, particularly in regions used to be identified as developing countries, such as in Southeast Asia, Sub Saharan Africa, West Asia and North Africa. Consequently, an increase rate in meat consumption has been estimated at over 4 percent per annum. Moreover, that change has become a sequential driving factor for the rapid growth in the meat production sector. As higher consumer preference in chicken meat than that in other types, global broiler production is holding supremacy over the other meat complex. A special highlight on Brunei Darussalam poultry industry development will also be addressed here, particularly to focusing on an industry dynamic based on data posted in country‘s agricultural statistics for the year of 2013 [1]. At that time when the country was reported to fulfil its self-sufficiency in chicken meat with a consumption per capita per year reached 58.5 kg. The figure was accounted as being the second highest chicken meat consumption per capita per year in the world after Hong Kong. In line with the global trend in livestock production, continuous growing demands for the products had also led to intensification in livestock farming in the Southeast Asia region. As far as the factory livestock farming as has gone more common operations up to now, and yet there might have been more and more questionable arguments over negative impacts arising, particularly in regards to animal welfare, human health and environmental degradations will be seemingly left hard to answer as most vast scientific empirical assessments required, nonetheless the matter may only open for discussions.
... Sustainable animal diets are needed to reduce N and P excretion, diminish methane emissions, and improve environmental sustainability of livestock production (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). Increasing N efficiency in dairy cows without loss of milk yield is best achieved by minimizing the total amount of CP fed to the animal while supplying adequate metabolizable AA (Broderick, 2003;Reynolds et al., 2018). ...
Article
Eight lactating cows were fed 4 diets in which dietary crude protein (CP) was increased in steps of approximately 2 percentage units from 11 to 17% of DM by replacing high-moisture corn with soybean meal supplemented with rumen-protected Met to maintain a Lys: Met ratio of 3:1 in metabolizable protein. Trial design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square; experimental periods lasted 28 d, with data and sample collection being performed during wk 3 and 4 of each period. Digesta samples were collected from the rumen as well as the omasum to measure metabolite concentrations and ruminal outflow of N fractions using infusion of 15 N-enriched ammonia to quantify microbial nonammonia N (NAN) and nonmicrobial NAN. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc.). There were linear increases in the yields of milk and true protein and concentration of milk urea N, and a linear decrease in N efficiency, with increasing dietary CP. Apparent ruminal and total-tract N digestibility increased linearly with increasing dietary CP, but estimated true total-tract N digestibility was not affected. Apparent digestibility of the other macronutrients was not influenced by diet. Ruminal ammonia, total AA and peptides, and branched-chain VFA also increased linearly with dietary CP. The 15 N enrichment of liquid-and particle-associated microbes linearly declined with increasing dietary CP due to decreasing 15 N enrichment of the ammonia pool. Although no effect of dietary CP on nonmicrobial NAN flow was detected, total NAN flow increased linearly from 525 g/d at 11% CP to 637 g/d at 17% CP due to the linear increase in microbial NAN flow from 406 g/d at 11% CP to 482 g/d at 17% CP. Under the conditions of this study, when dietary CP was increased by adding soybean meal supplemented with rumen-protected Met, improved milk and protein yields were driven not by RUP supply but by increased ruminal outflow of microbial protein.
... Livestock production systems demand high energy inputs, land, chemicals and waterall of which are becoming increasingly scarce (Preston, 2009); thus change and innovation is required in many livestock production systems if they are to meet in a sustainable manner for the present and future demands of animal products. Sustainable animal diet is a concept based on three-P dimensions including the planet, people and profit (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). Distel et al. (2020) suggested the replacement of simple traditional forage by complementary forage species that enable ruminants to select a diet in benefit of their nutrition and health, while reducing the negative environmental impacts caused by agricultural systems. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing jackfruit leaves (JF) for Para grass (PG) on intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, ruminal fermentation, milk yield and composition in lactating goats. Four crossbred Saanen lactating goats in mid-lactation and milking 1676 ± 112 g/day were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. A basal diet consisted of concentrate and PG (C:F 40:60). Treatments were dietary replacement of JL for PG at ratios of 0, 50, 75 and 100% corresponding to JL0, JL50, JL75 and JL100 diets, respectively. Feeding JL increased linearly (P < 0.01) DM intake, but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. A linear increase in fecal N (P < 0.01) and N retention (P = 0.04), but a linear decrease in urinary N (P = 0.03) was detected when increased the JL in the diets. Total VFA concentration increased quadratically (P = 0.04), and the highest value was observed in JL75 compared with JL0 (85.9 vs. 72.8 mM). Milk production increased linearly (P = 0.03), but no change was observed in milk composition and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Overall, combined data suggest that the substitution of JL for PG in lactating goat diets is effective in the improvement of nutrient intake, N retention, ruminal VFA concentration and milk yield without affecting milk composition and BUN.
... Para Makkar & Ankers (2014), o uso dos modelos matemáticos para adequar o manejo alimentar dos animais também permitem melhorar a sustentabilidade ambiental por minimizar o desmatamento e a poluição do ar pela redução da emissão dos gases de efeito estufa. ...
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A implantação dos sistemas agrossilvipastoris no bioma Caatinga é uma alternativa para mitigar os impactos ambientais gerados pela agropecuária. Quando esses sistemas são associados a tecnologias de baixa geração de resíduos podem otimizar a atividade pecuária e reduzir os custos de produção. A modelagem nutricional possibilita uma adequação do status nutricional dos animais e quando aplicada de forma continuada pode reduzir os custos com insumos externos. Com a aplicação do manejo nutricional também pode-se reduzir os processos de superpastejo sobre determinadas espécies e, consequentemente, reduzir os processos de degradação do solo. A espectroscopia de reflectância do infravermelho próximo (NIRS) é uma técnica com alto potencial de análise que possibilita averiguar a qualidade da dieta de animais pastejando em áreas livres a partir da aplicação de modelos nutricionais apropriados. Portanto, as pesquisas para o desenvolvimento de tecnologias limpas como os modelos nutricionais são imprescindíveis para fortalecer a cadeia produtiva e reduzir os impactos ambientais no bioma Caatinga.
... The StAnD (sustainable animal diets) method (Makkar and Ankers, 2014) is a tool that integrates several dimensions of sustainability, including the three P (people, planet, and profitability) dimensions, and gives an overall picture of the current state of a production system. The indicators corresponding to each dimension allow for the detection of specific problems or particular limitations that may be addressed in order to improve the sustainability of the system (Makar and Ankers, 2014;FAO, 2014). ...
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Background. Maize cultivation and dairy cattle represent two of the main economic activities in Mexico. Objective. Determine the forage yield (ton / ha) and forage quality of the maize silage produced in Mexico and estimate potential milk production. Methodology. For this purpose, 13 studies carried out in Mexico, were analyzed according to study area (north vs. center of Mexico) and variety (native vs. hybrid). For inclusion in the final database, the studies should have been including agronomic and chemical variables such as: dry matter yield (DMY) (ton / ha), plant density (number of plants / ha), dry matter content (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ash or organic matter (OM), dry matter digestibility (DMD), neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD), starch and fat content. The data were analyzed using a completely randomized statistical design. Results. The forage DMY (dry matter yield) / ha, and the milk production (ton DM / ha) were higher (P <0.0001) for the central region with respect to the northern region. Regarding to the milk production (kg milk/ ha) the native silages produced more (P <0.05) than the hybrids. A positive correlation was observed for the content of NEL (net energy of lactation) (MJ / kg DM) and kg milk / ton DM. Implications. The native maize of Mexico thus has the potential to provide greater production of milk / ha and kg Milk/ per ton DM with respect to hybrid maize, due to the higher digestibility of the NDF that causes the higher NEl. Conclusions. The use of native maize in Mexico is a viable alternative for use as a silage in feed for dairy cows, with higher milk production per hectare and per ton of dry matter compared to hybrid maize. RESUMEN Antecedentes. El cultivo de maíz y el ganado lechero representan dos de las principales actividades económicas en México. Objetivo. Determinar el rendimiento del mismo (ton/ha) y la calidad del forraje (ton/ha) del ensilaje de maíz producido en México y estimar la producción potencial de leche. Metodología. Para ello, se analizaron 13 estudios realizados en México y se dividieron según su zona de estudio (norte vs. centro de México) y variedad (nativa vs. híbrida). Para su inclusión en la base de datos final, los estudios debían incluir variables agronómicas y químicas como: rendimiento de materia seca (RMS) (tonelada/ha), densidad de plantas (número de plantas/ha), contenido de materia seca (MS), proteína cruta (PC), fibra detergente neutra (FDN), cenizas o materia orgánica (MO), digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS), digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutra (DFDN), contenido de almidón y grasa. Los datos se analizaron mediante un diseño estadístico completamente aleatorio. Resultados. El RMS del forraje/ha, y la producción de leche/ha fueron mayores (P <0.0001) para la región centro con respecto a la región norte. En cuanto a la producción de leche (kg de leche/ha) los ensilados nativos produjeron más (P <0,05) que los híbridos. Se observó una correlación positiva para el contenido de NEL (energía neta de lactancia) (MJ / kg de MS) y kg de leche / tonelada de MS. Implicaciones. El maíz nativo de México tiene, pues, el potencial de proporcionar una mayor producción de leche / ha y por tonelada de MS con respecto al maíz híbrido, posiblemente debido a la mayor digestibilidad de la FND que provoca una mayor NEL. Conclusiones. El uso de maíz nativo en México es una alternativa viable para su uso como ensilaje en la alimentación de vacas lecheras, con mayor producción de leche por hectárea y por tonelada de materia seca en comparación con el maíz híbrido. Palabras clave: Ensilaje de maíz; Forraje; Maíz; Producción de leche;
... In organic and conventional animal production systems, there is increased awareness of using local and sustainable protein sources with low climate and environmental impact (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). Grasses and legumes can potentially be such protein sources due to a long growing season, high dry matter (DM) and protein yield (Houseman and Jones, 1978;Wilkins and Jones, 2000), and with a high content of essential amino acids (Chowdhury et al., 2018). ...
Article
Biorefining is a promising method for sustainable feed production through conversion of biomass into a protein concentrate for monogastrics and fibrous pulp for ruminants. Nitrogen (N) content and recovery in pulp and protein concentrate from lucerne, red clover, white clover, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue harvested at different spring cut harvest times were analysed to assess the effect of plant species, developmental stage and number of screw press processing. Plant species and spring cut harvest time affected N content of pulps and protein concentrates (P < 0.01). The N contents of the legume pulps and protein concentrates (22.0–43.2 g/kg dry matter (DM) and 52.1–68.9 g/kg DM, respectively) were higher than corresponding values of the grasses (16.4–31.2 and 38.1–58.9 g/kg DM, respectively) and lowest in late harvested pulps (16.4–29.2 g/kg DM). The proportion of N retained in pulp increased with spring cut harvest time (P < 0.01) and was higher in grasses compared to legumes (544.5–715.1 and 334.0–565.2 g/kg plant N, respectively). Plant species and spring cut harvest time affected N recovery in protein concentrate (P < 0.01) and correlated positively with the plant N content (P < 0.01) and negatively with the plant DM (P < 0.01). The legumes had a higher recovery than grasses (160.2–556.2 g/kg plant N and 160.2–335.6 g/kg plant N, respectively). Regardless of plant species, late spring cut harvests reduced the total N extractability, i.e. recovery after application of a two-step extraction procedure, to 342.8–490.9 g/kg plant N (P < 0.01). The largest proportion of N was extracted from the three legumes (458.4–653.8 g/kg plant N), with the lowest extractability in the late spring cut harvest. The N content and recovery in fractions produced in the biorefining process were dynamic variables influenced by plant species, spring cut harvest time and number of screw press processings. More N was retained in the pulp from late cut grasses whereas the N recovery in protein concentrate was highest in early and intermediate cuts from legumes. The dynamics of N distribution between pulp and protein concentrate highlight the importance of considering input plant species, time of harvest and processing technique in order to enhance recovery and secure efficient utilisation of the biomass as feed for monogastrics and ruminants.
... According to Makkar (2016), the increased demand for animal-derived supplies will require energy, water and land to be available; as an outcome, this will be a challenge, because it involves all three pillars of sustainability which are the planet care, profit concern and human beings. Society wants safe products and reasonable prices, that simultaneously helps the environment, and maintains biodiversity (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). ...
Article
The demand for food is expected to grow substantially in the next few years; however, to feed the human population adequately it is necessary to ensure global food production. Undoubtedly this will lead to a higher protein requirement, consequently more meat. Therefore, producers, animal researchers and feed manufacturers will need to enhance animal nutrition and productivity, for instance. Growth Promoters (GPs) are widely used to accomplish these needs, and minimise economic losses. Thereby, this review aims to report the current scientific data on the use of GPs in cattle and pig production, and their effect on meat quality and carcass traits, and possible impacts on animal health. It was noted that GPs have relevant benefits on carcass composition, although some minor negative effects on meat quality. Risks to animal health are low, given the correct GPs dosages must be administered.
... Sustainable animal diets (StAnD) is a concept based on three dimensions: planet, people and profit, which among other objectives, promotes the use of local feed resources (Makkar and Ankers 2014). In this regard, the use of Brassica species in temperate grazing systems (Seguel et al. 2020) can be an alternative forage source (Barry 2013). ...
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The objective of the present study was to determine the dietary effect of different growth stages of rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) on nutrient intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance, and rumen fermentation kinetics in sheep. Four dietary treatments were utilised. A basal control diet based on alfalfa hay, oat hay, soybean meal and corn grain. Then alfalfa hay was replaced with 300g/kg DM of rapeseed forage harvested at three different growth stages: Vegetative, Flowering and Pod. In vitro gas production was determined using three rumen cannulated Suffolk sheep in a completely randomised design, and nutrients intake and digestibility of each diet were determined using four Suffolk sheep in a 4 � 4 Latin square design with 21 d periods consisting of 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Feed intake and excretion of faeces and urine were recorded. Dry matter intake was higher for control and Pod compared to Vegetative and Flowering. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were similar among treatments. Nitrogen intake was higher for control and Pod and lower for Vegetative and Flowering. In vitro gas production was similar among treatments (P>.05). In vitro gas yield at 24h was higher (P<.05) for control than the rest of the treatments. Overall, inclusion of 300g/kg DM of rapeseed forage harvested at pod stage as a substitute for alfalfa hay is an alternative source of protein without affecting nutrient intake and digestibility.
... Intensification of the global meat industry has stimulated innovation in the animal feed sector. Advances in feed technology strive towards intensification through a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR), greater energy and nutrient utilization, improved animal welfare and environmental sustainability, reduction in endogenous grain anti-nutrients, and optimization of costs (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). Using poultry production as a specific example, the yield of chicken meat (with Australia as a model market) has exponentially increased from the 1970s until today where it has begun to level off (Supplementary Figure S1). ...
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Modern feed quality sorghum grain has been bred to reduce anti-nutrients, most conspicuously condensed tannins, but its inclusion in the diets of monogastric animals can still result in variable performance that is only partially understood. Sorghum grain contains several negative intrinsic factors, including non-tannin phenolics and polyphenols, phytate, and kafirin protein, which may be responsible for these muted feed performances. To better understand the non-tannin phenolic and polyphenolic metabolites that may have negative effects on nutritional parameters, the chemical composition of sorghum grain polyphenol extracts from three commercial varieties (MR-Buster, Cracka, and Liberty) was determined through the use of an under-studied, alternative analytical approach involving Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and direct ionization mass spectrometry. Supervised analyses and interrogation of the data contributing to variation resulted in the identification of a variety of metabolites, including established polyphenols, lignin-like anti-nutrients, and complex sugars, as well as high levels of fatty acids which could contribute to nutritional variation and underperformance in monogastrics. FT-IR and mass spectrometry could both discriminate among the different sorghum varieties indicating that FT-IR, rather than more sophisticated chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods, could be incorporated into quality control applications.
... Much attention has been paid to this topic in Mediterranean and arid or semi-arid countries (e.g., Abarghuei et al., 2014;Correddu et al., 2015;Razzaghi et al., 2015), where local feed resources rich in polyphenols (e.g., bushes, spontaneous plants or agricultural byproducts) are used as non-conventional ingredients in ruminant diets. Nevertheless, based on the increasing world population, land degradation and food-fuel-feed competition, the use of alternative feed resources should be of interest at a global level (Makkar and Ankers, 2014). ...
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Tannins are a large, diverse and complex group of phenolic compounds that may be detrimental, innocuous or beneficial to animal nutrition and health depending on a number of factors (e.g., type, amount ingested, consumer animal species or the basal diet). The ability of tannins to modulate ruminal biohydrogenation and, consequently, the fatty acid (FA) composition of milk and meat is a relatively recent finding that has attracted interest among ruminant nutritionists. In this review, we take a close look at the effects of tannins on the broadest possible range of FA, including less abundant compounds that have previously received little attention. Tannins are able to improve the concentrations of potentially beneficial FA, such as 18:3n-3, 18:2n-6, trans-11 18:1 and conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, both in milk and meat, which may contribute to meeting consumer demand for health-promoting foods. These positive responses to tannins can be explained by their modulatory action on specific biohydrogenation steps and pathways. Thus, higher contents of dietary polyunsaturated FA in ruminant-derived products, as well as increased or decreased accumulation of other biohydrogenation intermediates (e.g., cis and trans 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 isomers) and changes in lipids of bacterial origin (odd- and branched-chain FA and dimethylacetals), are somewhat common findings when the effects of tannins are examined. In contrast, de novo synthesized FA are less frequently affected by these plant secondary metabolites, which also applies to other FA (e.g., trans-10 18:1) that might be detrimental to animal performance (i.e., milk fat synthesis) and perhaps to human health. However, further studies are required to unravel the reasons for certain erratic responses to tannins. This paper reviews the roles of tannin chemical and structural diversity, dosage, interaction with other dietary ingredients, differences among ruminant species and variations over time in the reaction of rumen microbiota in the influences of these phenolic compounds on milk and meat FA profiles.
... Table 1 Commonly used plant wastes and by-products as feed additives or ingredients in the animal feed industry This review discusses and summarizes the potential use of common fruit and plant wastes and by-products as feed additives for aquaculture. In a recent survey conducted by FAO, the various stakeholders and industry players placed high priority on the use of food wastes as animal feed (Makkar & Ankers 2014). Hence, the challenges and opportunities in effectively utilizing these valuable feed additives in the context of good health and optimum growth performance in aquaculture are also discussed. ...
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Fish constitutes the fastest growing source of food in the world today. The shift in culture system of some countries from extensive to semi-and intensive farming of fish requires the provision of nutritionally-adequate feeds for the cultured stock. There is also a need to provide additives that will boost health and growth performance of the fish in intensive rearing environment. There are a number of feed additives that are available to improve fish health and growth but these are costly and have issues on leaving residues that pose public health risk and environmental contamination. An alternative approach is to use plant-based products as feed additives for aquaculture, and even better is to utilize plant waste products as sources of these beneficial feed additives. The presence of biologically active ingredients from these plant waste products could be one of the most promising alternatives to the use of synthetic feed additives or antibiotics in aquaculture. The utilization of plant and fruit wastes are of particular interest because this addresses issues on waste recycling, waste reduction as well as competition for human food. These waste materials are recycled by being utilized as raw materials for the production of feed additives; thus, they are brought back to the food chain. Because the sources of the feed additives are waste materials from plants and fruits, the production of these phytogenic feed additives no longer competes as sources of food for human consumption. This review discusses and summarizes the potential use of common fruit and plant wastes and by-products as feed additives for aquaculture. The challenges and opportunities on how to effectively utilize these unwanted yet valuable resources in the context of good health and optimum growth performance of fish and crustaceans are also discussed. The information that is provided will offer avenues for further research along this area and to enable the feed industry to utilize these resources in achieving production of healthy fish and crustaceans towards sustainable aquaculture.
... Establish feed inventory There is a famous management quote: "If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it." Information on available and accessible feed resources (both quantity and quality), as well as on their seasonal fluctuations and location, is paramount for policy and decision making [13]. This information is crucial for sourcing feed for an emergency response, as well as for feed resources management and utilization, developing business models, sustainable intensification, market-oriented fattening, and dairy and poultry production. ...
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Livestock are a crucial source of food, employment, and income for much of East Africa's rural population. The sector contributes substantially to export revenues, national GDPs, and thus the region's broader socioeconomic development. Livestock production and related value chains, can be the foundation of resilience and sustainable development for pastoral, agro-pastoral, and mixed crop livestock systems in East Africa. Yet, livestock face a wide range of challenges, particularly in terms of ensuring sustainable access to and use of water and feeds for livestock. Inadequate availability and supply of quality feed and water critically limit the efficiency of livestock in terms of production, reproduction, animal health and welfare, human health, and the economic benefits derived from livestock-based livelihoods in the region. Countries in East Africa identified lack of animal feed policy, strategy, and institutional framework to support the animal feed sector as a major constraint hindering subsector growth, livestock productivity, resilience, and trade. In order to address this, the first Animal Feed Action Plan was developed for East Africa through a consultative and participatory process. The Action Plan captures experiences and lessons learned by a wide spectrum of stakeholders. It provides a means to collectively address some of the constraints in accessing and using animal feed and provides a guided approach to establish partnership by countries, communities, the private sector, and stakeholders to enhance sustainable production of quality livestock and products. The Action Plan is believed to set a good example for other regions to develop their feed action plan.
... Processing of VW into safe feed, a precondition for production of safe food of animal origin, may increase the feed supply to some extent, and could contribute to reducing food and feed production competitions for land. In a survey to define sustainable animal diets, the respondents gave the highest priority to the need to convert FW to animal feed as an environmental dimension of sustainability (Makkar & Ankers, 2014). Also, it was concluded from an FAO e-conference on 'Food Waste to Animal Feed' that there is an urgent need to convert such wastes to safe animal feed (Thieme & Makkar, 2016). ...
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The present study was conducted with the objectives of determining the chemical composition and nutritional value of vegetable waste (VW) of households and marketplace for their suitability as ruminant feed. The crude protein, total digestible nutrients and extent of rumen degradability of dry matter (DM) of VW of households were 140.0 g kg⁻¹, 0.668 and 0.855, respectively; while those of marketplace were 169.0 g kg⁻¹, 0.633 and 0.80, respectively. The levels of chromium and lead in them respectively, were 13.27 and 1.53 ng kg⁻¹DM; and 31.01 and 5.71 ng kg⁻¹DM. The total aflatoxins in VW of households was 3.08 µg kg⁻¹DM, and undetectable in VW of marketplace. Considering chemical composition and safety parameters studied, VW could preliminary be considered as animal feed. The feeding of processed marketplace VW (VWP) at 275 g kg⁻¹DM of a diet or 0.76 % of live weight (LW) of growing bulls, replacing 50 % of a concentrate mixture as supplement to a Napier silage diet for a period of 34 days reduced total DM intake (0.0276 vs 0.0343 LW) without any significant (P>0.05) changes in DM or protein digestibility. Blood urea level (19.5 vs 23.67 mg dl⁻¹), and serum creatinine level (1.37 vs 1.08 mg dl⁻¹) differed significantly (P>0.05) between the two groups but were within normal physiological ranges. Therefore, it may be concluded that the level of incorporation of VWP would be less than 50 % replacement of the concentrate in the diet. Further research is required to determine optimum inclusion levels in ruminant diets.
... However, its composition is affected by the diet supplied and the incorporation of food additives (antibiotics or other growth promoters) to improve the productive parameters on the farm, causing alterations that favor the development of pathogens such as C. perfringens. Currently, there is a trend to replace the use of antibiotics with what is known as sustainable animal diets [18]. ...
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Clostridium perfringens (Cp.) is the cause of human foodborne desease. Meat and poultry products are identified as the main source of infection for humans. Cp. can be found in poultry litter, feces, soil, dust, and healthy birds' intestinal contents. Cp. strains are known to secrete over 20 identified toxins and enzymes that could potentially be the principal virulence factors, capable of degrading mucin, affecting enterocytes, and the small intestine epithelium, involved in necrotic enteritis (NE) pathophysiology, also leading to immunological responses, microbiota modification and anatomical changes. Different environmental and dietary factors can determine the colonization of this microorganism. It has been observed that the incidence of Cp-associated to NE in broilers has increased in countries that have stopped using antibiotic growth promoters. Since the banning of such antibiotic growth promoters, several strategies for Cp. control have been proposed, including dietary modifications, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, phytogenics, organic acids, and vaccines. However, there are aspects of the pathology that still need to be clarified to establish better actions to control and prevention. This paper reviews the current knowledge about Cp. as foodborne pathogen, the pathophysiology of NE, and recent findings on potential strategies for its control.
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The world’s population is growing rapidly, which means that the environmental impact of food production needs to be reduced and that food should be considered as something precious and not wasted. Moreover, an urgent challenge facing the planet is the competition between the food produced for humans and the feed for animals. There are various solutions such as the use of plant/vegetable by-products (PBPs) and former foodstuffs, which are the co/by-products of processing industries, or the food losses generated by the food production chain for human consumption. This paper reviews the by-co-products derived from the transformation of fresh-cut leafy salad crops. A preliminary nutritional evaluation of these materials is thus proposed. Based on their composition and nutritional features, in some cases similar to fresh forage and grasses, this biomass seems to be a suitable feedstuff for selected farm animals, such as ruminants. In conclusion, although the present data are not exhaustive and further studies are needed to weigh up the possible advantages and disadvantages of these materials, fresh-cut leafy salad crops represent a potential unconventional feed ingredient that could help in exploiting the circular economy in livestock production, thereby improving sustainability.
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Pig, poultry and fish farming are among the fastest growing agribusiness activities in East Africa, but high cost of major feed protein ingredients including fishmeal hampers profitability and growth of smallholder production. Interest in insects as an alternative nutrient source is growing. Black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is the most common insect species reared for animal feed. BSF larvae are able to exploit a wide variety of rearing substrates, including organic side streams, thus upgrading low-grade substrates into a high-quality protein source; BSF is not considered as a pest or vector of diseases and does not constitute a nuisance. These attributes make it an attractive insect species for mass production as sustainable and affordable feed ingredient. This thesis explores the potential of BSF as a novel feed ingredient in Kenya. The need to establish an insect-based feed sector has become important, but for insect-based feed to make a substantial contribution in substituting the conventional protein-rich fishmeal and soybean meal, large quantities of insect biomass are required, which makes insect mass rearing an inevitable step. Therefore, knowledge on sources of substrates for rearing BSF larvae, suitability of insect meal as feed ingredient, as well as acceptance and demand by end users is necessary for a sustainable insect-based feed sector. Promoting inclusive business for smallholder farmers through insect farming in an agribusiness value chain has been discussed. Farmers’ knowledge and willingness to pay for insect-based feed have been assessed. Larvae of BSF have been reared on agro-industrial by-products composed of brewers’ spent grains (BSGs), brewer’s yeast and cane molasses, their nutritional composition assessed, and have subsequently been fed to pigs. The results show that farmers are aware of insects as feed and are willing to use insect-based feed. BSGs are suitable for rearing larvae of BSF and supplementing BSGs with brewer’s yeast or molasses affects the crude protein or fat content of the larvae, respectively. Fishmeal has been replaced up to 100% with BSF larvae in feeds for growing and finishing pigs, demonstrating that these larvae are a suitable and affordable alternative to fishmeal with a beneficial return on investment, growth, carcass and nutritional quality of edible pork by-products. The study described in this thesis provides valuable insights into the suitability of combining different agro-industrial by-products for producing high-quality BSF larvae. These results are relevant to animal feed producers seeking to include insect meal in their feed formulae, to smallholder BSF farmers that either generate a circular production on-farm or sell BSF to feed millers. Finally this contributes to sustainable and economically viable livestock feeding systems.
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Fish and feed waste provide most of the nutrients required by the plants in aquaponics if the optimum ratio between daily fish feed inputs and the plant growing area is sustained. Thus, the fish feed needs to fulfil both the fish’s and plant’s nutritional requirements in an aquaponic system. A controlled fish waste production strategy where the nitrogen, phosphorus and mineral contents of fish diets are manipulated and used provides a way of influencing the rates of accumulation of nutrients, thereby reducing the need for the additional supplementation of nutrients. To optimize the performance and cost-effectiveness of aquaponic production, fish diets and feeding schedules should be designed carefully to provide nutrients at the right level and time to complement fish, bacteria and plants. To achieve this, a species-specific tailor-made aquaponic feed may be optimized to suit the aquaponic system as a whole. The optimal point would be determined based on overall system performance parameters, including economic and environmental sustainability measures. This chapter thus focuses on fish diets and feed and reviews the state of the art in fish diets, ingredients and additives, as well as the nutritional/sustainable challenges that need to be considered when producing specific aquaponic feeds.
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We develop and validate a method for the rapid determination and identification of 19 quinolones in goat’s milk by combining the QuEChERS technique with ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Plackett–Burman and Central Composite Design methods were used to select the parameters that best promote the extraction efficiency, which led to extraction with acetonitrile/5% formic acid, followed by phase separation with sodium citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, Na2SO4, and NaCl as optimal. The supernatant was then extracted and cleaned by dispersive solid-phase extraction using C18 and Na2SO4 aided by low-temperature clean-up. The method was validated, with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 5 ppb, specificities of 1/5 LOQ, linearities (R²) > 0.9853, recoveries of 73.4–114.2%, repeatabilities < 15.0%, and intermediate precisions < 13.6%. The developed method was suitable for the routine analysis of quinolone residues in goat’s milk and was used to test 10 goat milk samples produced in Taiwan.
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Livestock are a crucial source of food, employment, and income for much of East Africa’s rural population. The sector contributes substantially to export revenues, national GDPs, and thus the region’s broader socioeconomic development. Livestock production and related value chains, can be the foundation of resilience and sustainable development for pastoral, agro-pastoral, and mixed crop livestock systems in East Africa. Yet, livestock face a wide range of challenges, particularly in terms of ensuring sustainable access to and use of water and feeds for livestock. Inadequate availability and supply of quality feed and water critically limit the efficiency of livestock in terms of production, reproduction, animal health and welfare, human health, and the economic benefits derived from livestock-based livelihoods in the region. Countries in East Africa identified lack of animal feed policy, strategy, and institutional framework to support the animal feed sector as a major constraint hindering subsector growth, livestock productivity, resilience, and trade. In order to address this, the first Animal Feed Action Plan was developed for East Africa through a consultative and participatory process. The Action Plan captures experiences and lessons learned by a wide spectrum of stakeholders. It provides a means to collectively address some of the constraints in accessing and using animal feed and provides a guided approach to establish partnership by countries, communities, the private sector, and stakeholders to enhance sustainable production of quality livestock and products. The Action Plan is believed to set a good example for other regions to develop their feed action plan.
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Agroecology involves various approaches to solve actual challenges of agricultural production. Though agroecology initially dealt primarily with crop production and protection aspects, in recent decades new dimensions such as environmental, social, economic, ethical and development issues are becoming relevant. Today, the term 'agroecology' means either a scientific discipline, agricultural practice, or political or social movement. Here we study the different meanings of agroecology. For that we analyse the historical development of agroecology. We present examples from USA, Brazil, Germany, and France. We study and discuss the evolution of different meanings agroecology. The use of the term agroecology can be traced back to the 1930s. Until the 1960s agroecology referred only as a purely scientific discipline. Then, different branches of agroecology developed. Following environmental movements in the 1960s that went against industrial agriculture, agroecology evolved and fostered agroecological movements in the 1990s. Agroecology as an agricultural practice emerged in the 1980s, and was often intertwined with movements. Further, the scales and dimensions of agroecological investigations changed over the past 80 years from the plot and field scales to the farm and agroecosystem scales. Actually three approaches persist: ( 1) investigations at plot and field scales, ( 2) investigations at the agroecosystem and farm scales, and ( 3) investigations covering the whole food system. These different approaches of agroecological science can be explained by the history of nations. In France, agroecology was mainly understood as a farming practice and to certain extent as a movement, whereas the corresponding scientific discipline was agronomy. In Germany, agroecology has a long tradition as a scientific discipline. In the USA and in Brazil all three interpretations of agroecology occur, albeit with a predominance of agroecology as a science in the USA and a stronger emphasis on movement and agricultural practice in Brazil. These varied meanings of the term agroecology cause confusion among scientists and the public, and we recommend that those who publish using this term be explicit in their interpretation.
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This book with eighteen chapters draws together themes on sustainability that have emerged as the most pressing in recent years. The book addresses practical topics such as air quality, manure management, animal feeds, production efficiency, environmental sustainability, biotechnology issues, animal welfare concerns, societal impacts and an analysis of the data used to assess the economic sustainability of farms. Further, the book will be helpful to academics, researchers, animal scientists, farmers agriculturalists, environmentalists.
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The influence of feed evaluation system and type of forage in the rations for three, eight and twelve months old goats optimized through minimum cost linear programming was studied. The rations included one of three forages (lucerne hay, oat hay or cereal straw). The energy and protein supply and requirements were derived according to NRC (2007) or INRA (2007). The calculated energy intake and the cost of the rations were different between the systems, whereas there were no differences in the calculated intake of protein, forage and concentrate. Cereal straw and oat hay rations were the most cost-effective (P<0.05) regardless of the age group or the system used. It was concluded that the choice between NRC (2007) and INRA (2007) to formulate rations for young growing dairy goats through minimum cost linear programming is not relevant from both nutritional and economic points of view. Oat hay and cereal straw could be valid substitutes for lucerne hay as roughage source when designing rations for young growing dairy goats.
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A 60-70% increase in consumption of animal products is expected by 2050. This increase in the consumption will demand enormous resources, the feed being the most challenging because of the limited availability of natural resources, ongoing climatic changes and food-feed-fuel competition. The costs of conventional feed resources such as soymeal and fishmeal are very high and moreover their availability in the future will be limited. Insect rearing could be a part of the solutions. Although some studies have been conducted on evaluation of insects, insect larvae or insect meals as an ingredient in the diets of some animal species, this field is in infancy. Here we collate, synthesize and discuss the available information on five major insect species studied with respect to evaluation of their products as animal feed. The nutritional quality of black soldier fly larvae, the house fly maggots, mealworm, locusts-grasshoppers-crickets, and silkworm meal and their use as a replacement of soymeal and fishmeal in the diets of poultry, pigs, fish species and ruminants are discussed. The crude protein contents of these alternate resources are high: 42 to 63% and so are the lipid contents (up to 36% oil), which could possibly be extracted and used for various applications including biodiesel production. Unsaturated fatty acid concentrations are high in housefly maggot meal, mealworm and house cricket (60-70%), while their concentrations in black soldier fly larvae are lowest (19-37%). The studies have confirmed that palatability of these alternate feeds to animals is good and they can replace 25 to 100% of soymeal or fishmeal depending on the animal species. Except silkworm meal other insect meals are deficient in methionine and lysine and their supplementation in the diet can enhance both the performance of the animals and the soymeal and fishmeal replacement rates. Most insect meals are deficient in Ca and its supplementation in the diet is also required, especially for growing animals and laying hens. The levels of Ca and fatty acids in insect meals can be enhanced by manipulation of the substrate on which insects are reared. The paper also presents future areas of research. The information synthesized is expected to open new avenues for a large scale use of insect products as animal feed.
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The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production.
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Dairy feeding systems in many semi-arid countries are based on imported concentrates and forages. This has economic and ecological implications given the increase in global feed prices and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use change. This paper aims to explore alternative dairy feeding systems under semi-arid conditions, using Jordan as an example. The feedings systems under investigation vary in their share of food industry by-products (replacing concentrates in the diet) and are compared against the current concentrate-based feeding systems. The systems are evaluated against three criteria: their nutritional value, their impact on the cost of milk production, and their GHG mitigation potential. Feed samples from eleven food industry by-products and ten conventional feeds were collected from food factories and from three typical dairy farms, representing the typical large medium- and small-scale farm types, respectively. Feed samples were analysed for their chemical composition and metabolisable energy contents. In addition, economic and production farm data were collected and entered into a model for GHGs calculation and economic evaluation. The results suggest that inclusion of locally available food industry by-products in the rations of milk cows in semi- arid production systems can be instrumental in reducing production costs and mitigating GHG emissions. Cost of milk production in the model farms can be lowered by up to 14 %; mitigation of CO2 eq. emission ranged between 70 and 290 g CO2 eq./kg milk. The degree to which these benefits can be reaped is positively related to the level of inclusion of by-product feeds in lactating cows’ diets.
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There are numerous recent studies highlighting sustainability problems for the development of ruminant production systems (RPS) while facing increasing human food necessities and global climate change. Despite the complexity of the context, in our view the main objectives of the ruminants' physiologist should be convergent for both industrialized (IC) and developing countries (DC) in a common and global strategy of advancing knowledge. In DC, this means improving the efficiency of RPS, taking into account the unique possibility of using rangelands. For IC settings, RPS should be revisited in terms of autonomy and environment- friendly feeding and managing practices. Assuming that competition for feed/food use is still a crucial criterion, future ruminant feeding systems (FeSyst) should preferably focus on lignocellulosic sources. According to biome distributions, and the recent increases in volumes of crop residues and their by-products, the annually renewed volumes of these biomasses are considerable. Therefore, we need to redesign our strategies for their efficient utilization at the local level. For this purpose, digestion processes and rumen functioning need to be better understood. The renewed vision of ruminal digestion through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is also a key aspect as it is an environmental demand that cannot be ignored. With regard to other ruminants' physiological functions, accumulated knowledge could be mobilized into an integrative approach that puts forward the adaptive capacities of animals to face variability in quantity and quality of supplied feeds. Basically, the reduction of inputs that were traditionally used to ensure FeSyst will need more flexible animals. In that sense, the concepts of homeostasis and teleophorhesis need to be updated and adapted to domestic species and breeds that were until now largely excluded from the dominant productive systems. In conclusion, a more holistic approach of research targets is required in which physiological functions and farmers' practices must converge and respond to each particular situation in an integral, dynamic and flexible conceptual perspective. From a scientific point of view, both for ICs and DCs, a broader range of experimental scenarios should be explored in order to arrive at innovative practices and solutions that respect environmental, ethical and economical issues. The clear challenge is to in evaluate the sustainability of RPSs. This includes, in our opinion, a strong interaction with other disciplines (multi- and trans-disciplinary conception), thus structuring new relevant indicators for the evaluation sustainability.
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Agroecology involves various approaches to solve actual challenges of agricultural production. Though agroecology initially dealt primarily with crop production and protection aspects, in recent decades new dimensions such as environmental, social, economic, ethical and development issues are becoming relevant. Today, the term `agroecology' means either a scientific discipline, agricultural practice, or political or social movement. Here we study the different meanings of agroecology. For that we analyse the historical development of agroecology. We present examples from USA, Brazil, Germany, and France. We study and discuss the evolution of different meanings agroecology. The use of the term agroecology can be traced back to the 1930s. Until the 1960s agroecology referred only as a purely scientific discipline. Then, different branches of agroecology developed. Following environmental movements in the 1960s that went against industrial agriculture, agroecology evolved and fostered agroecological movements in the 1990s. Agroecology as an agricultural practice emerged in the 1980s, and was often intertwined with movements. Further, the scales and dimensions of agroecological investigations changed over the past 80 years from the plot and field scales to the farm and agroecosystem scales. Actually three approaches persist: (1) investigations at plot and field scales, (2) investigations at the agroecosystem and farm scales, and (3) investigations covering the whole food system. These different approaches of agroecological science can be explained by the history of nations. In France, agroecology was mainly understood as a farming practice and to certain extent as a movement, whereas the corresponding scientific discipline was agronomy. In Germany, agroecology has a long tradition as a scientific discipline. In the USA and in Brazil all three interpretations of agroecology occur, albeit with a predominance of agroecology as a science in the USA and a stronger emphasis on movement and agricultural practice in Brazil. These varied meanings of the term agroecology cause confusion among scientists and the public, and we recommend that those who publish using this term be explicit in their interpretation.
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This book with eighteen chapters draws together themes on sustainability that have emerged as the most pressing in recent years. The book addresses practical topics such as air quality, manure management, animal feeds, production efficiency, environmental sustainability, biotechnology issues, animal welfare concerns, societal impacts and an analysis of the data used to assess the economic sustainability of farms. Further, the book will be helpful to academics, researchers, animal scientists, farmers agriculturalists, environmentalists.
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Feed-efficient ruminant production is a key topic in the further development of ruminant husbandry all over the world. Ruminants contribute substantially to human nutrition by production of milk and meat. They are also extremely useful for mankind by providing other important products and labour, such as skins, clothing, bones, dung, heating material, and working as draft animals, etc. The microorganisms in the rumen of ruminants are able to process lignocellulose from low quality roughage into volatile fatty acids and energy, to transfer non-protein nitrogen, such as urea, into microbial protein, and to synthesize B vitamins. Therefore, ruminants are able to produce food of animal origin without competition for feed with non-ruminants and man. On the other hand, gas methane (CH4) with a high greenhouse gas potential is an unavoidable byproduct of rumen fermentation. Furthermore, growing ruminants are characterized by a low growing potential (daily yield in edible protein < 0.05% of body weight). The objectives of ruminant breeding, nutrition and keeping/management should, therefore, be to maximize/optimize the advantages of ruminants and to minimize their disadvantages. Feed-efficient ruminant production is viewed as a complex system starting with plant and animal breeding. More systemic approaches are considered necessary to understand interactions and to find acceptable solutions for complex relationships in the context of food security, resource efficiency, as well environmental, social and economic aspects.
Chapter
The present century is characterized by a growing world population and a higher need for food and natural resources such as water, arable land, fuel and minerals as well as by growing emissions of greenhouse gas. Agriculture contribute to a certain degree to resource needs and pollution. Therefore this article shows the potentials of plant and animal breeding for the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and consequences for emissions. The efficient production and use of phytogenic biomass is a challenge for sustainable agriculture. Plant breeding in the traditional way and green biotechnology are the starting point for the whole food chain and many other processes based on phytogenic biomass. High and stable plant yields with low external inputs of limited resources such as water, fuel, land and minerals are major objectives of plant breeding. Plants must be more resistant against biotic and abiotic stressors. Plants should use very efficiently unlimited natural resources such as sun energy, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the air. For animal nutrition a lower concentration of toxic substances in plants is more important than higher yields of components of nutritive value. Enough high quality phytogenic biomass for animal feeding and animal breeding can also contribute to a more efficient conversion of feed into food of animal origin and lower emissions. One of the main objectives of animal breeding is a high dry matter intake in order to have more energy for animal yields and to reduce the portion for maintenance of animals. In general plant and animal breeding may be considered as the starting points for sustainable agriculture in the future. Examples for a more sustainable agriculture are shown in this article.
Chapter
This book with eighteen chapters draws together themes on sustainability that have emerged as the most pressing in recent years. The book addresses practical topics such as air quality, manure management, animal feeds, production efficiency, environmental sustainability, biotechnology issues, animal welfare concerns, societal impacts and an analysis of the data used to assess the economic sustainability of farms. Further, the book will be helpful to academics, researchers, animal scientists, farmers agriculturalists, environmentalists.
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Milking animals produce milk commensurate with their genetic potential only when they are fed a nutritionally balanced ration in an amount that provides nutrients to express their genetic potential. As animals kept by smallholder farmers are rarely fed a balanced ration, a programme to feed balanced rations to animals of such farmers was launched in India. Based on their milk yield, the animals were categorized as: low (<8 kg/d), medium (8–12 kg/d) and high (>12 kg/d) yielders. Milk yield, milk fat and net daily income to milk producers were recorded before and after feeding a balanced ration. Nutritional status of animals showed that, for 71% of animals’, crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy intakes were higher and, for 65% of animals’, calcium and phosphorus intakes were lower than requirements. Ration balancing improved milk yield by 2–14% and its milk fat proportion by 0.2–15%. Feed conversion efficiency, as kg of fat corrected milk (FCM)/kg of dry matter intake of buffaloes (n = 1131) before and after feeding balanced rations was 0.6 and 0.7, respectively, and in cows (n = 540) the values were 0.6 and 0.8. Dietary N secreted into milk increased from 0.16 to 0.25 and 0.16 to 0.19 in low and medium yielding cows and buffaloes, respectively. Rumen microbial CP synthesis also increased (P<0.05) by 36 and 38% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. On feeding balanced rations, levels (mg/ml) of plasma immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and IgA increased from 14.48 to 22.11, 2.69 to 3.29 and 0.48 to 0.67, and the parasitic load was reduced from 168 to 81 eggs/g of faeces. Enteric CH4 emissions (g/kg milk yield) was reduced by 15–20% (P<0.05) in these lactating animals. Results demonstrate that feeding nutritionally balanced rations increased milk production and reduced enteric CH4 emissions and N excretion from lactating cows and buffaloes. While implementation of a ration balancing programme under small holding systems is challenging, large scale use of this programme in tropical countries can help improve productivity of milking animals with available feed resources in an environmentally sustainable manner.
Book
Full book can be downloaded from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3164e/i3164e00.pdf
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A study was conducted in China to evaluate the feed conversion efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and the amount of human-edible grains fed under different dairy systems. Three dairy systems were defined and studied: (i) smallholder subsistence farms (SH), (ii) peri-urban farms (PR), and iii) cooperative farms (CO). The PR system had the highest milk yield, better feed conversion efficiency, better nitrogen use efficiency, and used lower proportion of grains in the diet. Within a system, different farms had wide variations in feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency, suggesting the need to improve management practices within the system. Among the three systems, SH and CO systems require the most improvements in the management practices.
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The concept of sustainable intensification has recently been developed to raise productivity (as distinct from increasing volume of production) while reducing environmental impacts. This means increasing yields per unit of inputs (including nutrients, water, energy capital and land) as well as per unit of undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution or loss of biodiversity). It is thus helpful to understand ‘intensification’ as referring to ‘environmental factor productivity’ or ‘eco-efficiency’. Worldwide, grassland is the most important agroecosystem delivering ecosystem services ranging from feed supply for ruminants and soil carbon storage to habitats of biodiversity. However, worldwide, grassland is under threat due to intensified land use and land-use changes from grass to arable. In this article, we (i) highlight ecosystem services of selected grassland biomes abroad of Europe, (ii) show evidence of sustainable as well as non-sustainable intensification options in these grassland biomes linked to European agriculture by exports of agricultural commodities (e.g. soy) and (iii) derive research strategies for north-west European grassland research and management to match sustainable intensification strategies for the grassland-based dairy industry.
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High-density livestock facilities lead to a concentration of livestock wastes and subsequent leakage of pollutants into the environment, resulting in public concern about their effects. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most harmful components of animal manure, but odor from the manure itself and the livestock facilities is also a problem. Improving the nutrient efficiency of the livestock helps to decrease excretion of these environmental contaminants. Pigs and chickens are the main animals used in studies to improve nutrient efficiency to reduce excretion of environmental contaminants. Addition of feed supplements and modifying feeding programs to improve nutrient efficiency can result in significant decreases in the N, P, odor, and dry matter (DM) weight of manure. Examples of these methods include the following. (1) The addition of synthetic amino acids and reducing protein contents resulted in N reductions of 10 to 27% in broilers, 18 to 35% in chicks and layers, 19 to 62% in pigs, and a 9 to 43% reduction in odor from pigs. (2) Enzyme supplementation resulted in a 12 to 15% reduction in DM weight of broiler manure. (3) Phytase supplementation resulted in P reductions of 25 to 35% in chickens and 25 to 60% in pigs. (4) The use of growth-promoting substances resulted in a 5 to 30% reduction in N and a 53 to 56% reduction in odor from pigs. (5) Formulating diets closer to requirements (diet modification) reduced N and P by 10 to 15% each in chickens and pigs, and odor by 28 to 79% in pigs. (6) Phase feeding reduced N and P excretion by chicken and pigs from 10 to 33% and 10 to 13% each, as well as odor in growing and finishing pigs by 49 to 79%. (7) Use of highly digestible raw materials in feed reduced N and P excretion by 5% in chickens and pigs. Certain feed manufacturing techniques (grinding feed grains and proper particle size, feed uniformity in rations, or expanding and pelleting) when done properly can significantly reduce N, P, and odor contents and DM weight of chicken and pig manure. Feed with proper grinding reduced 27% of N in finishing pigs and 22 to 23% reduction of N in piglet fed with pelleting, 60% reduction of NH3 emission fed with finely ground Zeolites in pig, and a 26% reduction of DM weight in finishing pigs fed with proper grinding were reported, but further research is needed in this area. Coordinating actual feed analytical results with production technique modifications is needed to reduce environmental contamination by animal manure, but specialists may need to be consulted for the successful implementation of these efforts.
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Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control
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The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively.
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Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.
Article
Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.
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Five studies were conducted to determine nutrient digestibility and performance of lambs and steers fed thermochemically treated crop residues and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a corn replacement pellet (CRP; 75% residue:25% DDGS, DM basis). Fifteen Hampshire, Suffolk, or Dorset wethers (BW 33.3 +/- 5.0 kg) were utilized to evaluate nutrient digestibility of the unprocessed native (NAT) and CRP [Exp. 1: wheat straw (WS); Exp. 2: corn stover (CS); Exp. 3: switchgrass (SWG) and corn fiber:wheat chaff (CFWC)] when limit fed (Exp. 1 and 2: 1.8% of BW daily; Exp. 3: 2.5% of BW daily) compared with a 60% corn diet. In Exp. 4, 56 individually fed Dorset-cross wether lambs (BW 32.0 +/- 1.4 kg) were utilized to compare performance and digestibility of WS, wheat chaff (WC), corn fiber (CF), a 3:1 blend of corn fiber:wheat straw (CFWS), a 3:1 blend of CFWC, and SWG-CRP fed for ad libitum intake compared with a 45% corn diet. In Exp. 5, 32 individually fed Holstein steers (BW 185.2 +/- 0.9 kg) were used to evaluate performance and digestibility of diets containing corn, WS-CRP, CFWC-CRP, or NAT-WS fed for ad libitum intake. Crop residues were processed with 5% calcium oxide (DM basis) and 35% water in a double-shaft enclosed mixer (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA) and subsequently pelleted with DDGS to form CRP. Feeding lambs WS-CRP (Exp. 1) or CS-CRP (Exp. 2) increased digestion of DM, NDF, and ADF compared with NAT (P < 0.05). In Exp. 3, feeding CFWC-CRP increased total tract NDF digestibility and ADF digestibility (P < 0.05). Experiment 4 final BW were greatest for control lambs and least for lambs fed CFWS-CRP or SWG-CRP. Body weight gains for lambs fed CRP averaged 15.9% less than control (P < 0.05). Lambs fed CRP diets had greater (P < 0.05) NDF and ADF intake and output. In Exp. 5, steers fed the corn or 2 CRP diets gained similarly and faster (P < 0.05) than those fed the NAT-WS diet. Steers fed the control corn diet were more efficient (P < 0.05) than steers fed other treatments. Steers fed the corn diet, CFWC-CRP, and WS-CRP had greater (P < 0.01) DM digestibility than NAT. The results confirm benefits for nutrient digestion and subsequent animal performance when crop residues are thermochemically processed. Processed crop residues may be fed in combination with DDGS to partially replace corn in ruminant diets.
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Dairy Asia—towards sustainability Evaluation of food industry by-products as feed in semi-arid dairy farming systems: the case of
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State-of-the-art on use of insects as animal feed Choosing a feed evaluation system—NRC vs INRA—to formulate rations for growing goats using minimum cost linear programming
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Feeding for optimal rumen and animal health and optimal feed conversion efficiency: the importance of physical nutrition Optimization of feed use efficiency in ruminant production systems
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