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Experimental evaluation of self-organized backpressure routing in a wireless mesh backhaul of small cells

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  • Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC)
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... Bone and Cluster [9], Masai [10], Mesh up [11] and other self-organizing architectures can improve the robustness of network [12]. Besides, some researchers proposed various routing protocols to increase network survivability, such as BP [13], ISOS [14], etc. The coexistence of various heterogeneous network units limits channel resource efficiency, which attracts researchers' attention [15] [16]. ...
... To tackle the challenges, Núñez et al. [13] proposed a self-organized back-pressure routing protocol (BP), which was designed to maximize the use of backhaul resources. Through a novel evaluation methodology based on ns-3 emulation, they evaluated BP in the 12 SC indoor tests under different wireless link rates and topologies. ...
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Heterogeneous Internet of Things (HetIoT) is an emerging research field that has strong potential to transform both our understanding of fundamental computer science principles and our future living. HetIoT is being employed in increasing number of areas, such as smart home, smart city, intelligent transportation, environmental monitoring, security systems, and advanced manufacturing. Therefore, relaying on strong application fields, HetIoT will be filled in our life and provide a variety of convenient services for our future. The network architectures of IoT are intrinsically heterogeneous, including Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Wireless Fidelity network (Wi-Fi), Wireless Mesh Network (WMN), Mobile Communication Network (MCN), and Vehicular Network. In each network unit, smart devices utilize appropriate communication methods to integrate digital information and physical objects, which provide users with new exciting applications and services. However, the complexity of application requirements, the heterogeneity of network architectures and communication technologies impose many challenges in developing robust HetIoT applications. This paper proposes a four-layer HetIoT architecture consisting of sensing, networking, cloud computing and applications. Then, the state of the art in HetIoT research and applications have been discussed. This paper also suggests several potential solutions to address the challenges facing future HetIoT, including self-organizing, big data transmission, privacy protection, data integration and processing in large-scale HetIoT.
... When a real network infrastructure is available, network emulation may be preferred to real experiments in order to take advantage of the rapid prototyping enabled by simulators (Carneiro et al., 2011). Implementing a new protocol is usually easier within a simulator rather than a real network stack, hence researchers often use network emulation to evaluate their proposals under real world conditions (Núñez-Martínez et al., 2015;. Additionally, network emulation can be used to validate the implementation of protocols within a simulator against the implementation included in a real network stack. ...
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Researchers from academia, industry and research centers often resort to emulation to overcome the drawbacks associated with network simulation and experimental evaluation. Emulation is broadly classified in environment emulation, usually carried out by running real code in Virtual Machines (VMs) or containers, and network emulation, typically involving network simulators that exchange packets with the real world. In this paper, we focus on network emulation, which is often exploited for rapid prototyping and testing of network protocols and algorithms. We identify the limitations of the approach currently used by various network simulators to provide network emulation and design an alternative solution based on netmap, a framework for high speed packet I/O which is available on multiple operating systems. We argue that the proposed solution to network emulation provides extremely accurate results in terms of packet latency and packet drops and prove our claim by means of an extensive experimental campaign. We also show that by building upon an accurate network emulation mechanism it is possible to validate the implementation of protocols found in network simulators against their implementation in real network stacks. As an example, we present the results of the experiments we conducted to validate the ns-3 implementation of various packet schedulers against their Linux counterpart.
... The history of BP-MR started with BP[27], a self-organized backpressure routing protocol that is a decentralized flavor of the original centralized backpressure algorithm. For dealing with sparse networks, Backpressure for Sparse Deployments (BS ) [28] included additional extensions to BP. ...
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... For validating incremental progress related to solving the problem of traffic splitting, a comparison between classical approach (OSPF) and proposed work (FLCS) was conducted by multiple experiments using NS-3 [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. We have performed a group of simulations in the scenario composed of MPLS-TE together with constraint based routing. ...
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Outdoor community mesh networks based on 802.11 have seen tremendous growth in the recent past. The current understanding is that wireless link performance in these settings in inherently unpredictable, due to multipath delay spread. Consequently, researchers have focused on developing intelligent routing techniques to achieve the best possible performance. In this paper, we are specifically interested in mesh networks in rural locations. We first present detailed measurements to show that the PHY layer in these settings is indeed stable and predictable. There is a strong correlation between the error rate and the received signal strength. We show that interference, and not multipath fading, is the primary cause of unpredictable performance. This is in sharp contrast with current widespread knowledge from prior studies. Furthermore, we corroborate our view with a fresh analysis of data presented in these prior studies. Based on our results, we argue that outdoor rural mesh networks can indeed be built with the link abstraction being valid. This has several design implications, and opens up a fresh perspective on a wide range of technical issues in this domain.
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A framework for mpls in transport networks
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M. Bocci, A framework for mpls in transport networks, Internet RFC 5921.
Direct code execution: revisiting library os architecture for reproducible network experiments
  • H Tazaki
  • F Uarbani
  • E Mancini
  • M Lacage
  • D Camara
  • T Turletti
  • W Dabbous
H. Tazaki, F. Uarbani, E. Mancini, M. Lacage, D. Camara, T. Turletti, W. Dabbous, Direct code execution: revisiting library os architecture for reproducible network experiments, in: Proc. of the 9th ACM CoNEXT, 2013, pp. 217-228.