Difficulties in diagnosis of laryngeal cysts in children
In larynx cysts may be localized in different regions: glottis, laryngeal pouch, epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds and subglottic area. It is difficult to estimate if the cyst is acquired or congenital. Symptoms of laryngeal cyst depend on the size and localization of the cyst and include: change in the tone of voice, dysphonia, hoarseness, dysphagia, laryngeal stridor and dyspnoea. Cysts of the larynx in infants are rare but the treatment is easy once the diagnosis is made. If mismanaged, the resulting respiratory obstruction can lead to serious complications.
Analysis of cases of laryngeal cyst in children treated in the Department of Paediatric ENT Medical University of Warsaw.
A retrospective analysis of 10 cases of laryngeal cyst in children treated in the Department of Paediatric ENT in Warsaw between 2000 and 2008 was made.
The authors analyzed indications to directoscopy, endoscopic presentation, problems with establishing the right diagnosis and management.
Using a direct laryngoscopy as a golden standard in children with stridor will reduce a number of false diagnosis.
Available from: Dong Ryul Lee
- "There are a variety of pathohistological classifications of laryngeal cysts including epiglottic cysts. In 1922, Myerson classified these cysts into retention, embryonic, vascular, and traumatic types.29) However, this classification was complex and impractical. "
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ABSTRACT: From the endoscopists' point of view, although the main focus of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination is the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (usually bulb and 2nd portion including ampulla of Vater), the portions of the upper airway may also be observed during insertion and withdrawal of the endoscope, such as pharynx and larynx. Thus, a variety of pathologic lesions of the upper airway can be encountered during upper endoscopy. Among these lesions, an epiglottic cyst is relatively uncommon. The cyst has no malignant potential and mostly remains asymptomatic in adults. However, if large enough, epiglottic cysts can compromise the airway and can be potentially life-threatening when an emergency endotracheal intubation is needed. Thus, patients may benefit from early detection and treatment of these relatively asymptomatic lesions. In this report, we present a case of epiglottic cyst in an asymptomatic adult incidentally found by family physician during screening endoscopy, which was successfully removed without complication, using a laryngoscopic carbon dioxide laser.
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ABSTRACT: Subglottic cysts (SGCs) are increasingly recognized as a cause of upper airway obstruction in previously intubated infants. Endoscopic marsupialization with cold steel instruments or CO(2) laser has been reported to be the standardised treatment method for SGCs. SGC case series of 9 patients who were treated with endoscopic marsupialization with cold steel instruments or CO(2) laser and mechanical decompression with balloon dilatation are presented.
Retrospective study of 9 cases of subglottic cysts treated between 2003 and 2010 was done. Diagnoses were made by performing flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy and surgical treatment was done through endoscopic marsupialization with cold steel instruments or CO(2) laser.
The age range of SGC patients were between 3 months and 36 months (average 12, 11 months). Two of the patients were female (2/9), 7 of them were male (7/9). SGC diagnoses were made by flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. History of intubation was noted in 3 of the patients (3/9). Duration of intubation was 28 days, 6 days, and 8 days respectively. Cysts were multiple in all cases, and located posteriorly and laterally at the subglottic area and upper trachea. The patients presented with were stridor, fail to thrive, and recurrent croup attacks. Treatment methods preferred for these patients were endoscopic marsupialization with cold steel instruments or CO(2) laser and mechanical decompression with balloon dilatation. The follow-up period after treatment ranged between 8 months and 3 years. Recurrence of the SGCs did not happen and re-evaluation under general anesthesia was reserved for the symptomatic patients.
Diagnostic laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy are important in diagnosing SGC. History of premature birth and intubation are not 'sine qua non' of SGC as SGC may be congenital as well. Symptoms of SGCs may mimic the characteristic features of chronic obstructive lung disease, so evaluation of the airway should be considered in such infants if they have stridor or hoarseness not responding to routine treatment. Laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy are routinely indicated for airway evaluation in at-risk infants.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the diagnostic strategy, treatment and outcome of acquired subglottic cysts.
Retrospective, monocentric, tertiary referential center study of 172 preterm neonates assessed by endoscopic examination over a 10 years period. Identification of patients presenting with subglottic cysts.
17 children were diagnosed with subglottic cysts. Among them, 98% were prematurates (28 ± 4 weeks of gestation), and 76% had a history of hyaline membrane disease or a bronchopulmonary dysplasia. All patients were intubated during the neonatal period, for a mean duration of 14 days. Mean age at diagnosis was 8 months. An associated laryngotracheal anomaly was diagnosed in 30% of cases. Six procedures, including flexible controls, were needed to achieve full recovery. We used cold steel microinstruments, CO(2) or Thulium LASER. Mean follow up was 3 years.
Acquired subglottic cysts concern early preterm infants. Children treated for subglottic cysts should undergo a long term follow up, as there is a trend for cysts to recur, as well as a risk of secondary subglottic stenosis.
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