Found in Translation: Understanding Impulsivity and Related Constructs Through Integrative Preclinical and Clinical Research

Departments of Psychiatry and the Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 10/2009; 66(8):714-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.08.004
Source: PubMed
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    • "The approach or choice impulse is conceptualized as reward sensitivity and sensation-seeking at the personality trait level, and delay discounting and impulsive choice at the cognitive and behavioral levels. The inhibitory process, or response impulsivity (Potenza and Taylor 2009), is tapped in the popular impulsivity self-report scales (e.g., Barrett Impulsiveness Scale, Eysenck Impulsivity Scale), and at the behavioural level in motor disinhibition and rapid response tendencies. Gullo et al. (2014) reviewed the evidence for differential predictive validity of measures of these two processes in the substance use disorder area. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the structure of impulsivity within gambling disorder. A group of 51 men and 53 women with gambling disorder completed self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity. Principal component analyses found two factors. The first was interpreted as measuring trait impulsivity. This factor correlated with problem gambling severity, presence of comorbid mental health and substance use disorders, history of brain injury, and was higher in Aboriginal participants. The second factor had high loadings on the self-reported sensation-seeking scales and the behavioural measures of response impulsivity. This factor correlated with overall gambling involvement but not with indicators of pathology. Higher scores were associated with younger age. These results are consistent with an evolving model of the etiology of disordered gambling that suggests that sensation-seeking is related to gambling involvement but that trait impulsivity and mental health struggles are associated with the development of gambling disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
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    • "Depressive mood was assessed at baseline using the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck et al., 1996) and the Montgomery– Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS; Montgomery and Asberg, 1979), which is a widely used observer-rated depression scale. We assessed traitimpulsivity because of the hypothesized association between impulsivity and compulsive behaviors (Belin et al., 2008; Everitt and Robbins, 2005; Potenza and Taylor, 2009). Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11; Patton et al., 1995), which is the most widely used self-report measure of impulsive personality traits (see Table 1 for details). "
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    ABSTRACT: There are reasons for thinking that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug dependence, although conventionally distinct diagnostic categories, might share important cognitive and neurobiological substrates. We tested this hypothesis directly by comparing brain functional connectivity measures between patients with OCD, stimulant dependent individuals (SDIs; many of whom were non-dependent users of other recreational drugs) and healthy volunteers. We measured functional connectivity between each possible pair of 506 brain regional functional MRI time series representing low frequency (0.03-0.06 Hz) spontaneous brain hemodynamics in healthy volunteers (N=18), patients with OCD (N=18) and SDIs (N=18). We used permutation tests to identify i) brain regions where strength of connectivity was significantly different in both patient groups compared to healthy volunteers; and ii) brain regions and connections which had significantly different functional connectivity between patient groups. We found that functional connectivity of right inferior and superior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was abnormally reduced in both disorders. Whether diagnosed as OCD or SDI, patients with higher scores on measures of compulsive symptom severity showed greater reductions of right orbitofrontal connectivity. Functional connections specifically between OFC and dorsal medial pre-motor and cingulate cortex were attenuated in both patient groups. However, patients with OCD demonstrated more severe and extensive reductions of functional connectivity compared to SDIs. OCD and stimulant dependence are not identical at the level of brain functional systems but they have some important abnormalities in common compared with healthy volunteers. Orbitofrontal connectivity may serve as a human brain systems biomarker for compulsivity across diagnostic categories.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · NeuroImage
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    • "It has been estimated that $20% of cocaine users develop dependence (Wagner and Anthony, 2002). Impulsive individuals, i.e. people who tend to show behaviour that is premature, poorly planned and often inappropriate for the context (Moeller et al., 2001a), seem to be particularly vulnerable to making the transition from recreational to compulsive cocaine use (Verdejo-Garcia et al., 2008; Potenza and Taylor, 2009). Impulsivity, as assessed by self-report, has been shown to further increase with chronic cocaine exposure (Ersche et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by impulsive behaviours and compulsive drug-taking. Here we compared self-report, behavioural and structural magnetic resonance imaging data on a relatively large sample of cocaine-dependent individuals (n = 60) with data on healthy volunteers (n = 60); and we investigated the relationships between grey matter volume variation, duration of cocaine use, and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in the cocaine-dependent group. Cocaine dependence was associated with an extensive system of abnormally decreased grey matter volume in orbitofrontal, cingulate, insular, temporoparietal and cerebellar cortex, and with a more localized increase in grey matter volume in the basal ganglia. Greater duration of cocaine dependence was correlated with greater grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, cingulate and insular cortex. Greater impairment of attentional control was associated with reduced volume in insular cortex and increased volume of caudate nucleus. Greater compulsivity of drug use was associated with reduced volume in orbitofrontal cortex. Cocaine-dependent individuals had abnormal structure of corticostriatal systems, and variability in the extent of anatomical changes in orbitofrontal, insular and striatal structures was related to individual differences in duration of dependence, inattention and compulsivity of cocaine consumption.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Brain
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