Hippocampal volume in first episode and recurrent depression

Department of Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 09/2009; 174(1):62-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.08.001
Source: PubMed


Abnormalities in limbic-thalamic-cortical networks are hypothesized to modulate human mood states. In the present study differences in hippocampal volumes of patients with a first episode of depression, recurrent major depression and healthy control subjects were examined with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male patients with a first episode of major depression had a significantly smaller left hippocampal volume than male control subjects. Also, these patients had a significant left-right asymmetry in hippocampal volume. Female patients showed no significant alterations in hippocampal volumes. The results support the hypothesis that the hippocampus plays an important role in the pathophysiology of the early phase of major depression, especially for male patients. Implications for the neurodevelopmental and the neurodegenerative model of hippocampal change are discussed.

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Available from: Johannes Schröder, Jan 21, 2015
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    • "However, the direction of this association remains unresolved . Some studies have found that HcV is smaller in first-episode depression patients, suggesting that a reduced HcV is already present at the first manifestation of the illness and could therefore be a susceptibility factor for depression (Frodl et al. 2002; Kronmüller et al. 2009; Dedovic et al. 2010). Other studies in clinical settings favor the converse, i.e. that smaller HcV can be the consequence of depression as they have found links between recurrence and duration of depression and HcV reductions (Bell-McGinty et al. 2002; MacQueen et al. 2003; Sheline et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported smaller hippocampal volume (HcV) in depression patients; however, the temporality of the association remains unknown. One proposed hypothesis is that depression may cause HcV loss. This study evaluates whether previous depression and recent depressive symptoms are associated with HcV and HcV loss. We used a prospective cohort of older adults (n = 1328; age = 65-80 years) with two cerebral magnetic resonance imaging examinations at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated, in stratified analyses by gender, the association between indicators of history of depression and its severity (age at onset, recurrence, hospitalization for depression), proximal depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale], baseline antidepressant use, and the outcomes: baseline HcV and annual percentage change in HcV. At baseline, women with more depressive symptoms had smaller HcV [-0.05 cm3, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.1 to -0.01 cm3 per 10-unit increase in CES-D scores]. History of depression was associated with a 0.2% faster annual HcV loss in women (95% CI 0.01-0.36%). More baseline depressive symptoms and worsening of these symptoms were also associated with accelerated HcV loss in women. No associations were observed in men. Treatment for depression was associated with slower HcV loss in women and men. While only concomitant depressive symptoms were associated with HcV, both previous depression and more proximal depressive symptoms were associated with faster HcV loss in women.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Psychological Medicine
    • "Previous studies of hippocampal volume in depression have been inconsistent about laterality of reduction in hippocampal volume. Some studies have shown bilateral reduction (Cole et al., 2010; Lloyd et al., 2004) where as others have shown reduction of either right (Nifosi et al., 2010) or left hippocampal volume (Kronmuller et al., 2009). Significant reduction of posterior hippocampus in LOD might explain the cognitive impairment and increased risk for dementia in patients with LOD. "
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    ABSTRACT: While many studies have reported reduced volume of hippocampus in late onset depression (LOD), the status of hippocampus sub-regions (anterior/posterior) is yet to be explored. Evaluating hippocampal sub-regions might facilitate better elucidation of the neurobiological basis of LOD. Twenty five elderly subjects with LOD (mean age=65.28yr, SD=5.73, 15 females) and 20 healthy controls (mean age=65.35yr, SD=5.67, 7 females) were examined using 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They were also evaluated with Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE). We examined the difference in volume of Hippocampal sub-regions between the LOD group and control group controlling for the age, sex and intracranial volume. Left posterior hippocampus volume was significantly smaller in LOD group than the control group (1.01±0.19ml vs 1.16±0.25ml, F=7.50, p=0.009). There was a similar trend for the right posterior hippocampus (1.08±0.19ml vs 1.18±0.27ml, F=3.18, p=0.082). Depression severity (mean MADRS score=20.64±8.99) had a significant negative correlation with volumes of right posterior hippocampus (r=-0.37, p=0.012) and left posterior hippocampus (r=-0.46, p=0.001) in the LOD group. Specific reduction of posterior hippocampus volume and its relationship with depression severity indicates sub region specific hippocampal volumetric abnormalities in LOD. Future studies need to evaluate sub region specific hippocampal volume in LOD longitudinally for better understanding of the pathogenesis of LOD in view of the functional differences between anterior and posterior hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Asian Journal of Psychiatry
    • "Accumulating evidence suggests that depression is closely linked with the morphology and function of this circuit. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala volume is reduced in depressed patients[373839], and the left insular cortex and cingulate activation are significantly enhanced in depressed patients during a negative emotional facial stimuli task[40]. Some studies of functional connectivity have also revealed abnormal connections in areas related to the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuit. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is closely linked to the morphology and functional abnormalities of multiple brain regions; however, its topological structure throughout the whole brain remains unclear. We collected resting-state functional MRI data from 36 first-onset unmedicated depression patients and 27 healthy controls. The resting-state functional connectivity was constructed using the Automated Anatomical Labeling template with a partial correlation method. The metrics calculation and statistical analysis were performed using complex network theory. The results showed that both depressive patients and healthy controls presented typical small-world attributes. Compared with healthy controls, characteristic path length was significantly shorter in depressive patients, suggesting development toward randomization. Patients with depression showed apparently abnormal node attributes at key areas in cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuits. In addition, right hippocampus and right thalamus were closely linked with the severity of depression. We selected 270 local attributes as the classification features and their P values were regarded as criteria for statistically significant differences. An artificial neural network algorithm was applied for classification research. The results showed that brain network metrics could be used as an effective feature in machine learning research, which brings about a reasonable application prospect for brain network metrics. The present study also highlighted a significant positive correlation between the importance of the attributes and the intergroup differences; that is, the more significant the differences in node attributes, the stronger their contribution to the classification. Experimental findings indicate that statistical significance is an effective quantitative indicator of the selection of brain network metrics and can assist the clinical diagnosis of depression.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Neural Regeneration Research
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