Article

Second Asia-Pacific Consensus Guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Changi General Hospital, Singapore 529889.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Impact Factor: 3.5). 10/2009; 24(10):1587-600. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05982.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Asia-Pacific Consensus Conference was convened to review and synthesize the most current information on Helicobacter pylori management so as to update the previously published regional guidelines. The group recognized that in addition to long-established indications, such as peptic ulcer disease, early mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma and family history of gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication was also indicated for H. pylori infected patients with functional dyspepsia, in those receiving long-term maintenance proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for gastroesophageal reflux disease, and in cases of unexplained iron deficiency anemia or idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In addition, a population 'test and treat' strategy for H. pylori infection in communities with high incidence of gastric cancer was considered to be an effective strategy for gastric cancer prevention. It was recommended that H. pylori infection should be tested for and eradicated prior to long-term aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy in patients at high risk for ulcers and ulcer-related complications. In Asia, the currently recommended first-line therapy for H. pylori infection is PPI-based triple therapy with amoxicillin/metronidazole and clarithromycin for 7 days, while bismuth-based quadruple therapy is an effective alternative. There appears to be an increasing rate of resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole in parts of Asia, leading to reduced efficacy of PPI-based triple therapy. There are insufficient data to recommend sequential therapy as an alternative first-line therapy in Asia. Salvage therapies that can be used include: (i) standard triple therapy that has not been previously used; (ii) bismuth-based quadruple therapy; (iii) levofloxacin-based triple therapy; and (iv) rifabutin-based triple therapy. Both CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and cigarette smoking can influence future H. pylori eradication rates.

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    • "Consensus recommends triple therapy to eradicate Helicobacter pylori in infected children (Chey & Wong, 2007; Fock et al., 2009; Jones et al., 2005; Malfertheiner et al., 2012). However in developing countries increasingly antimicrobial resistance, mainly to metronidazole and clarithromycin, is observed (Alvarez et al., 2009; Mendonça et al., 2000; Ogata et al., 2013; Sherif et al., 2004; Wong et al., 2003) and empirical treatment presents the risk of eradication failure and/or development of secondary resistance (Kalach et al., 2002; Molina-Infante & Gisbert, 2013; Nguyen et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is increasingly important due to resistance to the most used antimicrobials agents. Only agar dilution method is approved by CLSI, but it is difficult to perform routinely. We evaluated the reliability of E-test and disk diffusion comparing to agar dilution method on Helicobacter pylori antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, furazolidone, metronidazole and tetracycline using E-test, disk-diffusion and agar dilution method in 77 consecutive Helicobacter pylori strains from dyspeptic children and adolescents. Resistance rates were: amoxicillin - 10.4%, 9% and 68.8%; clarithromycin - 19.5%, 20.8%, 36.3%; metronidazole - 40.2%33.7%, 38.9%, respectively by agar dilution, E-test and disk diffusion method. Furazolidone and tetracycline showed no resistance rates. Metronidazole presented strong correlation to E-test (r = 0.7992, p < 0.0001) and disk diffusion method (r=-0.6962, p < 0.0001). Clarithromycin presented moderate correlation to E-test (r = 0.6369, p < 0.0001) and disk diffusion method (r=-0.5656, p < 0.0001). Amoxicillin presented weak correlation to E-test (r = 0.3565, p = 0.0015) and disk diffusion (r=-0.3565, p = 0.0015). Tetracycline presented weak correlation with E-test (r = 0.2346, p = 0.04) and furazolidone to disk diffusion (r=-0.0288, p = 0.8038). E-test presented better agreement with gold standard. It is an easy and reliable method for Helicobacter pylori susceptibility testing. Disk diffusion method presented high disagreement and high rates of major errors.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
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    • "Fluoroquinolones, especially levofloxacin, have been widely used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori worldwide [2]. The American College of Gastroenterology Guideline on the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection [3], the second Asia Pacific consensus guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection [4], and the Maastricht IV/Florence-Consensus Report [5] recommend that secondline H. pylori eradication rescue therapy consists of a PPI, a quinolone, and amoxicillin as an option. However, antibiotic resistance is one of the key factors responsible for failure of eradication of H. pylori, as well as poor compliance, high gastric acidity, a high bacterial load, and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphism [2] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fluoroquinolones, especially levofloxacin, are used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori worldwide.Many consensus guidelines recommend that the second-line rescue therapy for H. pylori eradication consists of a proton pump inhibitor, a quinolone, and amoxicillin as an option. Unfortunately, quinolone is well associated with a risk of developing bacterial resistance. In this paper, we review quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens and the challenges that influence the efficacy of eradication. It is generally suggested that the use of levofloxacin should be confined to “rescue” therapy only, in order to avoid a further rapid increase in the resistance of H. pylori to quinolone. The impact of quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens on public health issues such as tuberculosis treatment must always be taken into account. Exposure to quinolone is relevant to delays in diagnosing tuberculosis and the development of drug resistance. Extending the duration of treatment to 14 days improves eradication rates by >90%. Tailored therapy to detect fluoroquinolone-resistant strains can be done by culture-based andmolecularmethods to provide better eradication rates. Molecular methods are achieved by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of a gyrA mutation, which is predictive of treatment failure with quinolones-containing triple therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BioMed Research International
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    • "For example, inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms (IL-1 gene cluster, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-8) have been reported to be correlated with GC [38]–[43]. Furthermore, a family history of GC has been shown to contribute to the clinical outcomes [44]. In addition to other H. pylori virulence factors, this information may be useful for distinguishing between GC and DU risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. Methods We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. Results H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Conclusions Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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