Phase 1 Trial of Allogeneic Gene-Modified Tumor Cell Vaccine RCC-26/CD80/IL-2 in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Department of Urology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany. Human gene therapy
(Impact Factor: 3.76).
09/2009; 21(3):285-97. DOI: 10.1089/hum.2008.192
Preclinical studies showed that the allogeneic tumor cell line RCC-26 displayed natural immunogenic potential that was enhanced through expression of CD80 costimulatory molecules and secretion of interleukin-2. Here we report the study of RCC-26/CD80/IL-2 cells in a phase 1 vaccine trial of renal cell carcinoma patients with metastatic disease (mRCC). Fifteen patients of the HLA-A*0201 allotype, with at least one metastatic lesion, were included. Irradiated vaccine cells were applied in increasing doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 x 10(6) cells over 22 weeks. Primary study parameters included safety and toxicity. Sequential blood samples were analyzed by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays to detect tumor antigen-associated (TAA) effector cells. The vaccine was well tolerated and the designated vaccination course was completed in 9 of 15 patients. Neither vaccine-induced autoimmunity nor systemic side effects were observed. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions were detected in 11 of 12 evaluated patients and were particularly strong in patients with prolonged survival. In parallel, vaccine-induced immune responses against vaccine or overexpressed TAA were detected in 9 of 12 evaluated patients. No tumor regressions occurred according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria; however, median time to progression was 5.3 months and median survival was 15.6 months, indicating substantial disease stabilization. We conclude that vaccine use was safe and feasible in mRCC. Clinical benefits were limited in these patients with advanced disease; however, immune monitoring revealed vaccine-induced responses against multiple TAAs in the majority of study participants. These results suggest that this vaccine could be useful in combination therapies and/or minimal residual disease.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is bone marrow plasma cell malignancy. A clinical trial utilizing intravenous administration of oncolytic measles virus (MV) encoding the human sodium-iodide symporter (MV-NIS) is ongoing in myeloma patients. However, intravenously administered MV-NIS is rapidly neutralized by antiviral antibodies. Because myeloma cell lines retain bone marrow tropism, they may be ideal as carriers for delivery of MV-NIS to myeloma deposits. A disseminated human myeloma (KAS 6/1) model was established. Biodistribution of MM1, a myeloma cell line, was determined after intravenous infusion. MM1 cells were found in the spine, femurs, and mandibles of tumor-bearing mice. Lethally irradiated MM1 cells remained susceptible to measles infection and transferred MV to KAS 6/1 cells in the presence of measles immune sera. Mice-bearing disseminated myeloma and passively immunized with measles immune serum were given MV-NIS or lethally irradiated MV-NIS-infected MM1 carriers. The antitumor activity of MV-NIS was evident only in measles naive mice and not in passively immunized mice. In contrast, survivals of both measles naive and immune mice were extended using MV-NIS-infected MM1 cell carriers. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that systemically administered cells can serve as MV carriers and prolonged survival of mice with pre-existing antimeasles antibodies.
Available from: Dolores J Schendel
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ABSTRACT: Adoptive therapy with genetically engineered T cells carrying redirected antigen specificity is a new option for the treatment of cancer. This approach is not yet available for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), due to the scarcity of therapeutically useful reagents. We analyzed tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from RCC to identify T-cell specificities with shared tumor-specific recognition to develop T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T lymphocytes for adoptive therapy of RCC.
We established a T-cell clone from TIL that recognized a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted tumor antigen. The TCR alpha- and beta-chain genes were isolated, modified by codon optimization and murinization, and retrovirally transduced into peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A TCR-expressing indicator line (B3Z-TCR53) was established to screen for antigen prevalence in RCC, other malignancies, and normal cell counterparts.
TCR53-engineered PBL recapitulated the specificity of the TIL and showed tumor-specific HLA-A2-restricted effector activities (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, cytotoxicity). PBL-TCR53 of healthy donors and RCC patients exhibited similar transduction efficiency, expansion, and polyfunctional profile. Using B3Z-TCR53 cells, 130 tumor and normal cells were screened and shared TCR53 peptide: MHC expression was found in >60% of RCC and 25% of tumor lines of other histology, whereas normal tissue cells were not recognized.
To date, TCR53 is the only TCR with shared HLA-A2-restricted recognition of RCC. It fulfills the criteria for utilization in TCR gene therapy and advances T cell-based immunotherapy to patients with RCC and other malignancies expressing the TCR ligand.
Available from: Birgit Sawitzki
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ABSTRACT: Despite novel targeted agents, prognosis of metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) remains poor, and experimental therapeutic strategies are warranted. Transfection of tumor cells with co-stimulatory molecules and/or cytokines is able to increase immunogenicity. Therefore, in our clinical study, 10 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A(*)0201(+) patients with histologically-confirmed progressive metastatic clear cell RCC were immunized repetitively over 22 weeks with 2.5-40 × 10(6) interleukin (IL)-7/CD80 cotransfected allogeneic HLA-A(*)0201(+) tumor cells (RCC26/IL-7/CD80). Endpoints of the study were feasibility, safety, immunological and clinical responses. Vaccination was feasible and safe. In all, 50% of the patients showed stable disease throughout the study; the median time to progression was 18 weeks. However, vaccination with allogeneic RCC26/IL-7/CD80 tumor cells was not able to induce TH1-polarized immune responses. A TH2 cytokine profile with increasing amounts of antigen-specific IL-10 secretion was observed in most of the responding patients. Interferon-γ secretion by patient lymphocytes upon antigen-specific and non-specific stimulation was substantially impaired, both before and during vaccination, as compared with healthy controls. This is possibly due to profound tumor-induced immunosuppression, which may prevent induction of antitumor immune responses by the gene-modified vaccine. Vaccination in minimal residual disease with concurrent depletion of regulatory cells might be one strategy to overcome this limitation.
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