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Field Sampling of Vegetative Carbon Pools in Coastal Ecosystems

Authors:
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4
© Miguel An gel MAteo
Field Sampling of Vegetative Carbon
Pools in Coastal Ecosystems
LEAD AUTHORS
James Fourqurean, Beverly Johnson, J. Boone Kauman, Hilary Kennedy, Catherine Lovelock, Neil Saintilan
CO-AUTHORS
Daniel M. Alongi, Miguel Cifuentes, Margareth Copertino, Steve Crooks, Carlos Duarte, Miguel Fortes,
Jennifer Howard, Andreas Hutahaean, James Kairo, Núria Marbà, Daniel Murdiyarso, Emily Pidgeon,
Peter Ralph, Oscar Serrano
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4GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

         


 
          



  

       







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
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
MANGROVES

 





et al
(Fig. 4.1
69
4

et al
 





 

A B
C D
AB
Figure 4.1 


Figure 4.2 


4           
          


         
       


et alet al
Field Sampling Considerations




 









Fig. 4.3



              
           
    
  
            






4
Biomass Estimates



LIVE TREES
           
          


          

 
 
 
               

               
            

   et al   
Figure 4.3 



Leaf litter
Downed wood
Shrubs
Mangrove trees
SIZE OF SAMPLING AREA
SIZE OF ITEM BEING SAMPLED
72
4et
al






              
     
et al

         
              





           
(Chave et al
    

          
Table 4.2
Diameter at Breast Height (dbh): 


      

Fig. 4.4

             
Fig 4.4A)
 Fig 4.4B)
 
(Fig 4.4C)
 Fig 4.4D)
 Fig 4.4E)
 
Fig 4.4F
73
4
    Rhizophora       
above the highest stilt (Fig 4.4G




              


        

Wood Density: 
3


  

               

            


  


Figure 4.4 et al
1.3 m
1.3 m
1.3 m
1.3 m
1.3 m
1.3 m
1.3 m
Just
below
fork
Just
above
buttress
A B C D
E F G

433,



       



 33)
             




    


Table 4.1
Allometric equations for mangrove tree biomass: 
et al
et al           
Table 4.2
Table 4.3










4
Table 4.1 33et alet
al
SPECIES n
AVERAGE
WOOD
DENSITY
(TONNES/m3)
STANDARD
ERROR
Avicennia germinans  
Avicennia marina 6 
Avicennia ocinalis 3 
Brugueria gymnorrhiza 8 
Ceriops decandra 2 
Ceriops tagal 7 
Excoecaria agallocha 7 
Heritiera fomes 3 
Heritiera littoralis 6 
Laguncularia racemosa 3 
Rhizophora apiculata  
Rhizophora mangle 7 
Rhizophora mucronata 9 
Sonneratia alba 6 
Sonneratia apetala 2 
Xylocarpus granatum 7 
Average 0.71 0.02
76
4Table 4.2 


3), D
SPECIES GROUP N Dmax LOCATION BIOMASS EQUATION R2
     
   Asia  
Avicennia germinans   

 
Avicennia germinans 8   
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
(leaf)
  Australia  
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza

326  Micronesia  
Laguncularia racemosa   

 
Laguncularia racemosa     
Rhizophora apiculata     
Rhizophora apiculata

  Micronesia  
Rhizophora apiculata
stylosa (leaf)
23 23 Australia  
Rhizophora apiculata
stylosa (stilt roots)
23 23 Australia  
Rhizophora mangle     
Rhizophora spp
(racemosa and mangle)
9 32 

 
Sonneratia alba   323 Micronesia  
77
4
Table 4.3 
          

3), D

SPECIES GROUP N Dmax Hmax BIOMASS EQUATION R2
    2
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza    2H) 
Lumnitzera littorea    2H) 
Rhizophora apiculata    2H) 
Rhizophora mucronata 73   2H) 
Rhizophora     2H) 
Sonneratia alba  323  2H) 
Xylocarpus granatum    2H) 
Variance from Allometric equations:          


Fig. 4.5
et al
   Bruguiera      
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
80
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
80
10K
6K
0
8K
4K
2K
10K
6K
0
8K
4K
2K
Diameter at breast height (cm) Diameter at breast height (cm)
Aboveground biomass (kg)
Aboveground biomass (kg)
Kauffman & Cole (2010) BRGY equ
(max 132 cm)
Komiyama et al. (2008) general eqn
(max 49 cm)
Chave/Komiyama et al. (2008) general eqn
Chave et al. (2005) general eqn (max 42 cm)
Komiyama et al. (2008) BRGY eqn (max 25 cm)
Kauffman & Cole (2010) SOAL equ
(max 323 cm)
Komiyama et al. (2008) general eqn
(max 49 cm)
Chave/Komiyama et al. (2008) general eqn
(max 50 cm)
Chave et al. (2005) general eqn (max 42 cm)
A. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza B. Sonneratia alba
Figure 4.5 Burguiera gymnorrhizaSonneratia alba
et al
et al
78
4
et alSonneratia
alba

    
et al

   
 



Determining the Carbon within the Live Tree Component (kg C/m2): The live tree carbon




2

 
et al
the carbon content of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza   Rhizophora apiculata  
and Sonneratia alba

EXAMPLE
 
 2
2)
SCRUB MANGROVES





et alet alet al

et al


           
             

Fig. 4.6
79
4



            
     
    
(Fig. 4.2A
2
Determining the Carbon within the Scrub Mangrove Component (kgC/m2): The scrub

     
  

2




EXAMPLE
              

 2
2)
W1
Crown
Depth
Height
D30Z
W1
W2
Elliptical crown area = (W1 * W2/2)2
Where W1 is the widest length of the plant
canopy through its center, and W2 is the
canopy width perpendicular to W1.
Crown volume = elliptical crown area * crown depth
Height is measured from the sediment surface
to the highest point of the canopy.
D30 is the mainstem diameter at 30 cm.
Figure 4.6 


et al

4STANDING DEAD TREES


Fig. 4.7
Decay status 1:

Decay status 2: 
Decay status 3: 
     

Decay status 1: 


et al

Decay status 2: 




Decay Status 3: 
           

1 2 3
Figure 4.7 



4

 


       


dtopbasebase
 

 32
2
 3basetopbasetop
3
3
 3
3

if that is not practical, a list of standard densities based on size (Table 4.4) can be used for
Table 4.4


     

Table 4.4 

SIZE CLASS
(cm DIAMETER) DENSITY ±SE (g/cm3) SAMPLE SIZE (n)
   
   
  69
   
Determining the Carbon within the Standing Dead Tree Component (kg C/m2): The



2
82
4

et al

EXAMPLE
              

 2
2)
LIANAS

Fig 4.8




et al

            
 

 
Figure 4.8 

A B
83
4
Determining the Carbon within the Liana Component (kg C/m2): 


2


et al

EXAMPLE
 
 2
2)
PALMS AND OTHER NON-TREE VEGETATION

           

Nypa fruticans, Fig. 4.9







              





Figure 4.9 Small Nypa fruticans

A B
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4             



Determining the Carbon within the Palm Component (kg C/m2):   
           


         




2


et al
EXAMPLE FOR SMALL PALMS
 2
2
EXAMPLE FOR LARGE WOODY PALMS
 

 2
2
PNEUMATOPHORES
 Avicennia, Brugueira, and Sonneratia
Rhizophora, these
 Fig. 4.10


222

      




4
      


              

Sonneratia alba
Determining the Carbon within the Pneumatophore Component (kg C/m2): The




            


          


EXAMPLE
      2     
2
Figure 4.10 


AB
86
4LITTER
      
   


    
   

    

of the carbon pool due to the high
  
     

      
   
   
     
     

      

 Fig. 4.11 

Determining the Carbon within the Leaf Litter Component (kg C/m2): 

             




et al
 

             2  

et alet al

EXAMPLE
    2  
2)
Figure 4.11 

87
4
DEAD AND DOWNED WOOD



Fig. 4.12

 

             

Line (or planar) intersect technique for sampling downed wood: The line (or planar)





 
 

 

              



      
Table 4.5

Fig. 4.13
Figure 4.12 Rhizophora and Sonneratia

AB
88
4
Table 4.5 
DESCRIPTION DIAMETER
 
 
 
 


Fig. 4.14


            
Figure 4.13 







Transect
1 2 3 4
BC
D
A
Plot Center
Wood
size
Wood size
no
measurement
Counted, measured (diameter), recorded “sound” or “rotten”
2 m – Nested subplot boundary 7 m0 m 10 m 12 m
2.5 – 7.5
cm
0.6 – 2.5
cm
< 0.6
cm
≥ 7.5
cm
Figure 4.14 


89
4
            
  


 2

 2

Table 4.6

along the entire transect is recorded (Fig. 4.14
               
             



et al


Wood density: 


              






Table 4.6 
Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia alba, and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza

SIZE CLASS
(cm diam.)
DENSITY ±SE
(g/cm3) SAMPLE SIZE
DIAMETER
(cm)
QUADRATIC
MEAN
DIAMETER (cm)
SAMPLE
SIZE
     
     
  69   
   na na na

4
             3 
22

 322
 3
22
 322222
 
      

 33)
Determining the Carbon within the Downed Wood Component (kg C/ha): 
   


EXAMPLE
 

BELOWGROUND TREE BIOMASS
             
        
    

et al
 
          
        

et
alet al
 3)

            
et al   



4
EXAMPLE
 

 2
2)
TIDAL SALT MARSHES
         


      






Fig 4.15

              
 
 




Low or none
High
TNC: Conservation Maps and GIS Data
Figure 4.15 et al
92
4
Fig. 4.16




             
         



          
 et al       et al 

          
        

et al


            
             

  2              

et al


et al
BRACKISH
MARSH
HIGHER HIGH
MARSH
HIGH MARSH LOW MARSH
hydroperiod
elevation
Figure 4.16 

93
4
            

             

       et al    



Field Sampling Considerations
              

             
         


          


  

Fig. 4.17

Vegetation Sampling
A
B
C
20 m
50 m
135
246
Figure 4.17 



vegetation or other structural gradients,





4
            


et al
et al
      



Biomass Estimates
    


GRASSES, SEDGES AND OTHER HERBACEOUS PLANTS






         

the green height (Fig 4.18
Total height
Living height
Single Stem Single StemStem Cluster
Separate clusters
into stems
Figure 4.18 

4
       
         
     

   

    
    Fig. 4.19      
   


Determining the carbon pool in tidal salt marsh grasses (kg C/m2): The grass carbon
      

 
       
2

et al
EXAMPLE
 2
2)
Stem Biomass (g)
Stem Height (cm)
Figure 4.19 
96
4SHRUBS


genus Atriplex, Borricha, and Iva
Tecticornia
et al
 



              
    


             
          
      
Fig. 4.20

Determining the carbon pool in shrubby tidal salt marsh (kg C/m2): The shrub carbon




2
Figure 4.20 


et al
W1
Crown
Depth Height
D30Z
W1
W2
Elliptical crown area = (W1 * W2/2)2
Where W1 is the widest length of the plant
canopy through its center, and W2 is the
canopy width perpendicular to W1.
Crown volume = elliptical crown area * crown depth
Height is measured from the sediment surface
to the highest point of the canopy.
D30 is the mainstem diameter at 30 cm.
97
4



EXAMPLE
       

 2
2
BELOWGROUND BIOMASS
           
      et al   et al  
          
   

           

et al
Table 4.7
    S. alterniora  


Table 4.7 
Spartina alternioraet al
EQUATION
ABOVE-GROUND COMPONENTS
INCLUDED (FOR AN ENTIRE PLOT) r2


 


 


All live and dead aboveground 



      
      
et al


(Saunders et al           

98
4et al


 

 2

2
 2

Determining the carbon within the belowground biomass (kg/m2):


          
       

           





EXAMPLE (BIOMASS DETERMINED BY ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS)
 2
2)
EXAMPLE (BIOMASS DETERMINED BY SAMPLING)
        2  

 

LITTER






99
4

              

EXAMPLE
    2  
2)
DEAD AND DOWNED WOOD








SEAGRASS MEADOWS


Fig. 4.22  

           

Figure 4.21 

4         

         
et alet
alet alet alet al
       
       
 et al            
    
          
    et al        
           
             
et al

         
et al

           
et al
   2          

            et al
et al    

            

in Table 4.8
Zostera
marina
Cymodocea
rotundata
Posidonia
oceanica
Thalassia
hemprichii
Figure 4.22 

4
Table 4.8 et al
REGION
LIVING SEAGRASS BIOMASS
(MgC/ha)
SOIL ORGANIC CARBON
(MgC/ha)
n Mean ± 95% CI n Mean ± 95% CI
    
  ND ND
North Atlantic    
    
Mediterranean   29 
South Atlantic    
   8
  ND ND
South Australia   9

Field Sampling Considerations
          
          
          


            
2)


             
    



Biomass Estimates and Carbon Content



LIVING BIOMASS

             

4
   
Fig. 4.23
       
Fig. 4.24





  


Figure 4.23 
Figure 4.24 Ruppia maritime
Belowground Biomass Aboveground Biomass

4
Determining the Carbon within the Living Vegetation Component (kg C/m2): In the


2






EXAMPLE
 2      
2)
EPIPHYTE BIOMASS
   


  Fig. 4.25

    

  

     
    

    




    
Fig. 4.26
   


or it can abrade the surface of the






Figure 4.25 


4
Determining the Carbon within the Epiphyte Component (kg C/m2):


            


 
(Fig. 4.26
 
 
 
 
 
  

 
 
 

          





2
Figure 4.26 

(© Oscar Serrano, ECU)
AC
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
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LITTER


              






         


EXAMPLE
 

2


EXAMPLE
      2        
2)
TOTAL CARBON STOCK



Step 1: 
Step 2:       
          
2
          2 
2
REPEAT FOR EACH VEGETATIVE TYPE MEASURED
Step 3: 
             


4REPEAT FOR ALL PLOTS
Step 4:          




      

Standard Deviation 
(XX) 2 2 X) 2 nX) 2
]

 
X
X2

 
Step 5: 



          
              

Step 6:           
     
            



) = AN)2
 T

A



N

            

Step 7: 



(calculated in Step 6)

4
QUICK GUIDE
Step 1: Plot design
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Step 2: Measure vegetative components (above- and belowground as well as living and
dead components)
 

Mangrove forests
 
 
Standing dead trees
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tidal Marshes
Shrubs
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Step 3: Calculate Total Vegetative Carbon Stock
 
 

 

 


4
... It is noted that K. obovata stands in the study area are small trees with diameters less than 5 cm. Thus, we measured the crown depth, crown diameter, and tree height in order to calculate the AGB for K. obovata using the allometric equation adapted from [224]. The description of field data of mangrove species is shown in Table 4.2. ...
... The biomass of K. obovata was calculated using the following allometric equation from [224]. ...
... The AGB of K. obovata was calculated using the following allometric equation from Fourqurean, et al. [224]. The crown area of K. obovata was calculated based on the crown diameters and crown depth since the crown area was considered an ellipse in Eq. 6.3. ...
... Previous studies have focused on identifying factors controlling SOC storage and sequestration rates Mitsch 2008, 2012;Villa and Mitsch 2015) in shallow soils rather than methods to conduct wetland SOC stock assessment. While standardized sampling techniques exist for blue carbon ecosystems (e.g., Fourqurean et al. 2014), this is not the case for freshwater systems. Decomposition, a vital process influencing SOC accumulation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2007), varies with inundation level and also soil depth (Clarkson et al. 2014). ...
... S4 in the Supporting Information). The SOC density (g C cm 23 ) and then SOC stock of individual soil samples (g C cm 22 ) were calculated using the formulae described by Fourqurean et al. (2014) (Eqs. S5 and S6 in the Supporting Information). ...
... Bernal and Mitsch (2012) reported an average sediment accumulation rate of 2300 g m 22 yr 21 for isolated depressional wetlands, which is an order of magnitude greater than the sediment accumulation rates estimated in this study (180-460 g m 22 yr 21 ). The soils of these previous studies are all classed as mineral (Mitsch and Gosselink 2007;Fourqurean et al. 2014), indicating that carbon sequestration may be driven more by allochthonous mineral sedimentation from overland flooding, adjacent rivers and snow melt, whereas sediments in the current study were organic and SOC sequestration appears to be driven mainly by the deposition of autochthonous organic sediments. The terrestrial carbon sequestration rates measured here were much higher than global estimates for temperate forests (Fig. 4, Schlesinger 1997;Zehetner 2010;Batjes 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, there is little information on freshwater (non-tidal) wetland below ground soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, sequestration rates and, in particular, their within-wetland variation. This basic information is critical for designing programs to sample SOC stocks and identifying areas that sequester large amounts of carbon so that they can be managed to prevent degradation and carbon loss. Here, focusing on temperate seasonally inundated freshwater wetlands in south-eastern Australia, we compared SOC stocks and sequestration rates (via radiometric dating) among wetlands, within wetland locations (High water mark, Edge and Middle), and with adjacent terrestrial locations. SOC stocks varied most among wetlands but also varied inconsistently within wetlands. Wetland SOC stocks (20.4 ± 0.1 kg C m−2) were significantly greater than adjacent terrestrial locations (13.3 ± 0.1 kg C m−2). Wetland SOC sequestration rates were similar among all locations (i.e., within a wetland, ranging from 70 g C m−2 yr−1 to 87 g C m−2 yr−1). The relative lack of difference in SOC stocks among wetland locations allows for reduced within-wetland sampling and subsequently greater replication at the wetland level, at least for temperate ephemeral freshwater wetlands, although these findings need to be confirmed over a range of wetland types. This study also produced the first estimates of temperate freshwater wetland SOC stocks and sequestration rates in Australia, and is among the first studies globally to demonstrate that seasonally inundated wetlands can sequester carbon at significant rates. It therefore provides important justification to support the protection and rehabilitation of temperate freshwater wetlands worldwide.
... Biomass values were calculated as (cf. Fourqurean et al. 2014a): ...
Article
Despite the Philippines having one of the widest extents and most diverse seagrasses, there are limited reports on the contribution of seagrass vegetation health to organic carbon (OC). Comparative assessments of OC between conserved and disturbed seagrass meadows in a seascape are also lacking. Conservation programs (e.g., marine protected area [MPA]) contribute to the maintenance of ecosystem health and OC storage in seagrass. However, disturbances may negate the effects of MPAs. Disturbances are often due to coastal development pressures linked to the need for industry, food production, and human settlement. Here, we assessed and compared the aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), and OC between conserved and disturbed seagrass meadows, then, tested its correlation with vegetation and water quality variables. The study was conducted in Oyon Bay (northwest Philippines), one of the key seascape MPAs in the Philippines. The bay experienced disturbances from a coal power plant, aquaculture, and human settlements for approximately 30 years. Results showed 7× higher AGB, 11× higher BGB, and 1.7× higher OC in conserved sites. The low biomass and OC values in the disturbed sites were correlated to poor vegetation and water quality conditions (particularly high turbidity [ρ = 0.38], high phosphates [ρ = −0.19], and low dissolved oxygen [ρ = −0.31]). Our study showed the effectiveness of MPAs in maintaining ecosystem health and OC in seagrass, but the magnitude of disturbances lessened the benefits from MPAs. Our results have implications on the over- or under-estimation of carbon sequestration not just in Philippine seagrasses but also in most Southeast Asian countries facing similar coastal development pressures.
Article
Full-text available
Blue carbon habitats, such as mangroves and salt marshes, have been recognized as carbon burial hotspots; however, methods on measuring blue carbon stocks have varied and thus leave uncertainty in global blue carbon stock estimates. This study analyzes blue carbon stocks in northern Florida wetlands along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Carbon measurements within 1–3m length vibracores yield total core stocks of 9.9–21.5 kgC·m ⁻² and 7.7–10.9 kgC·m ⁻² for the Atlantic and Gulf coast cores, respectively. Following recent IPCC guidelines, blue carbon stock estimates in the top meter are 7.0 kgC·m ⁻² –8.0 kgC·m ⁻² and 6.1 kgC·m ⁻² –8.6 kgC·m ⁻² for the Atlantic and Gulf cores, respectively. Changes in stable isotopic (δ ¹³ C, C/N) and lignin biomarker (C/V) indices suggest both coastlines experienced salt marsh and mangrove transgressions into non-blue carbon habitats during the mid- to late-Holocene following relative sea-level rise. These transgressions impact carbon storage within the cores as the presence of carbon-poor soils, characteristic of non-blue carbon habitats, result in lower 1m carbon stocks in north Florida Gulf wetlands, and a deeper extent of carbon-rich soils, characteristic of blue carbon habitats, drive higher 1m and total carbon stocks in north Florida Atlantic wetlands. Future blue carbon research should assess carbon stocks down to bedrock when possible, as land-cover and/or climate change can impact different depths across localities. Ignoring carbon-rich soil below the top meter of soil may underestimate potential carbon emissions based on these changes.
Article
Keywords: Blue carbon seagrass Blue carbon mangroves Tropical Southeast Asian blue carbon Black carbon Southeast Asia tropical estuarine carbon Blue Carbon A B S T R A C T Climate Change solutions include CO 2 extraction from atmosphere and water with burial by living habitats in sediment/soil. Nowhere on the planet are blue carbon plants which carry out massive carbon extraction and permanent burial more intensely concentrated than in SE Asia. For the first time we make a national and total inventory of data to date for "blue carbon" buried from mangroves and seagrass and delineate the constraints. For an area across Southeast Asia of approximately 12,000,000 km 2 , supporting mangrove forests (5,116,032 ha) and seagrass meadows (6,744,529 ha), we analyzed the region's current blue carbon stocks. This estimate was achieved by integrating the sum of estuarine in situ carbon stock measurements with the extent of mangroves and seagrass across each nation, then summed for the region. We found that mangroves ecosystems regionally supported the greater amount of organic carbon (3094.69Tg C org in 1st meter) over that of seagrass (1683.97 Tg C org in 1st meter), with corresponding stock densities ranging from 15 to 2205 Mg ha −1 and 31.3 to 2450 Mg ha −1 respectively, a likely underestimate for entire carbon including sediment depths. The largest carbon stocks are found within Indonesia, followed by the Philippines,
Article
Full-text available
The Gulf of Mexico blue carbon habitats (mangroves, seagrass, and salt marshes) form an important North American blue carbon hot spot. These habitats cover 2,161,446 ha and grow profusely in estuaries that occupy 38,000 km² to store substantial sedimentary organic carbon of 480.48 Tg C. New investigations around GoM for Mexican mangroves, Louisiana salt marshes and seagrasses motivated our integration of buried organic carbon to elucidate a new estimate of GoM blue carbon stocks. Factors creating this include: large GoM watersheds enriching carbon slowly flowing through shallow estuarine habitats with long residence times; fewer SE Mexican hurricanes allowing enhanced carbon storage; mangrove carbon productivity enhanced by warm southern basin winter temperatures; large Preservation reserves amongst high anthropogenic development. The dominant total GoM mangrove blue carbon stock 196.88 Tg from total mangrove extent 650,482 ha is highlighted from new Mexican data. Mexican mangrove organic carbon stock is 112.74 Tg (1st sediment meter) plus USA 84.14 Tg. Mexican mangroves vary greatly in storage, total carbon depositional depths and in sediment age (to 3500 y). We report Mexican mangrove's conservative storage fraction for the normally-compared top meter, whereas the full storage depth estimates ranging above 366.78 Tg (high productivity in very deep sediment along the central Veracruz/Tabasco coast) are not reflected in our reported estimates. Seagrasses stock of 184.1 Tg C organic is derived from 972,327 ha areal extent (in 1st meter). The Louisiana marshes form the heart of GoM salt marsh carbon storage 99.5 Tg (in 1st meter), followed by lesser stocks in Florida, Texas, finally Mexico derived from salt marsh extent totaling 650,482 ha. Constraints on the partial estuarine fluxes given for this new data are discussed as well as widespread anthropogenic destruction of the GoM blue carbon. A new North American comparison of our GoM blue carbon stocks versus Atlantic coastal blue carbon stock estimates is presented.
MEASuRED Step 3: Sum all the vegetative components present within a single plot. total vegetative carbon in a plot (Mg C/ha) = component #1 (Mg C/ha) + component #2 (Mg C/ha) + component #3 (Mg C/ha) + … REPEAT FOR All PlOTS Step 4: determine the average amount of vegetative carbon
  • Repeat For
  • Vegetative Type
REPEAT FOR EACH VEGETATIVE TyPE MEASuRED Step 3: Sum all the vegetative components present within a single plot. total vegetative carbon in a plot (Mg C/ha) = component #1 (Mg C/ha) + component #2 (Mg C/ha) + component #3 (Mg C/ha) + … REPEAT FOR All PlOTS Step 4: determine the average amount of vegetative carbon in a plot and calculate the associated standard deviation to determine variability/error.