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Flu pandemics: homeopathic prophylaxis and definition of the epidemic genius

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Recent studies on viral genetics establish swine-H1N1 – responsible for the ongoing pandemics – as a remainder or continuation of the agent causing the flu epidemics of 1918. This study aimed at analyzing whether this common etiology also result in significant correlations of clinical manifestations. To do so, data were collected to compare the clinical evolution of cases in the 1918 and 2009 epidemics. This historical revision was the ground for evaluating the response to treatment including homeopathy in the former epidemics. It is discussed the convenience of including homeopathic prophylaxis grounded on the diagnosis of the epidemic genius among public health actions.
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Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(28): 100-109
100
Original Article
Flu pandemics: homeopathic prophylaxis and
definition of the epidemic genius
Renan Marino
Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto, FAMERP, São Paulo, Brazil
ABSTRACT
Recent studies on viral genetics establish swine-H1N1 responsible for the ongoing pandemics
as a remainder or continuation of the agent causing the flu epidemics of 1918. This study aimed
at analyzing whether this common etiology also result in significant correlations of clinical
manifestations. To do so, data were collected to compare the clinical evolution of cases in the 1918
and 2009 epidemics. This historical revision was the ground for evaluating the response to
treatment including homeopathy in the former epidemics. It is discussed the convenience of
including homeopathic prophylaxis grounded on the diagnosis of the epidemic genius among
public health actions.
Keywords: Homeopathy; Collective health; Epidemics; Influenza A H1N1.
Introduction
The Italian term Influenza was first used in 1743 to indicate the probable etiology (“Influenza del freddo”:
Influence of coldness) of a respiratory illness that fast affected a large number of people during the winter.
Grippe (French), Greifen (German), Flu (English) and Cripu (Russian) are used to designate this universal,
severe pandemic infectious disease that bursts out after irregular and relatively long periods of time (20-40
years or more). [1]
Recent data indicate that ongoing Hog Flu actually had its epicenter in the United States in 1918 from where
it spread to Europe to become known as Morbus ibericus or Spanish Flu. Its viral etiology could only be
established in 1933, when Smith, Andrews and Laidlaw were able to verify Koch’s postulates reproducing the
picture of flu in ferrets and white mice after nasal instillation of clinical materials of human origin. [2]
The new subtype of Influenza virus A-H1N1 was classified by the CDC (Center for Disease Control) as
A/California/04/2009, a representative of a triple rearrangement of human, aviary and swine genes. [3]
Genetic analysis of isolated California virus showing the direct relationship between swine variant H1N1 and
the 1918 epidemics certainly results in clinical developments and implications that are discussed below. [4]
Characteristic symptoms of Influenza A-H1N1 then and now: piecing the puzzle together
Retrospective studies show that pandemic cycles present high mortality in their remission or second wave,
which appears 6 months 1 year after the occurrence of the initial, and usually moderated, cases [5].
Regarding the clinical manifestations observed during the Spanish Flu, our reference are the archives
researched by Coutinho [1], which include the detailed description of signs and symptoms that he classified as
described in Table 1.
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The search for common points can be achieved from the comparison of the clinical characteristics of the former
epidemics as described above and the clinical manifestations of the ongoing epidemics as described in June
2009. To do so, data supplied by SINAN (Information System of Disease Notification) of the Brazilian
Ministry of Health (MS) were analyzed, using as sample 378 confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory
syndrome due to Influenza A-H1N1 occurring until the epidemiologic week 29/2009. [6] As relevant, we
highlighted sudden fever of 39
o
C, with dry and continual cough leading to intense dyspnea and facial
cyanosis, chills, general muscle and joint pain, besides contuse headache, extreme prostration fast progressing
into cardiovascular failure with hypotension and shock.
Table 1: Symptoms of Spanish Flu [1]
Stage/ Organs or
systems affected
Synoptic description of signs and symptoms of human Influenza, 1918
Prodrome
Lassitude, the body feels as after prolonged and exhausting exertion, with physical
and mental depression, sudden high fever and intense headache. Joints and
muscular pain, mainly in the calves and lumbar area, sweating and morbiliform
rash in 30% of cases.
Eyes and
rhinopharynx
Frequent sneezing with nasal obstruction and discharge, dryness and itch in the
throat with dry, whooping, frequent and painful cough. Slight catarrhal
conjunctivitis, pale face and cyanosis around the mouth; frequent epistaxis.
Respiratory and
thorax
Lung congestion especially in the base, bilateral, with dyspnea due to intense
bronchospasm, intense whooping-like cough with hemoptysis.
Gastrointestinal
Hiccups, nausea and incoercible vomiting, sialorrhea, abdominal pain around the
navel with mucous/bloody diarrhea.
Neurological
Headache, vertigo, neuralgia; modification of the level of consciousness in different
degrees, mental confusion, torpor, somnolence.
In order to manage data arising from different sources and to better understand the global dimension of the
clinical parameters of the pandemics, we included the report of 18 Mexican cases from which 7 died (39%),
where there was fever, cough and dyspnea in 100% of cases, sudden onset (72%), hemoptysis (33%),
hypotension and hypoventilation (more than 50%), stressing furthermore the occurrence of diarrhea only in
children (22%). Lymphocytopenia with less than 1,000 cells (61%), increase of CPK (creatine phosphokinase)
(72%) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) (100%) were the main laboratory parameters verified. [7]
We also sought to define the 5 main risk factors among the Brazilian population, on the grounds of the 222
patients monitored until epidemiologic week 28/2009/MS/SINAN [8]: 1) pregnancy representing the group
with higher mortality risk associated with hemorrhagic phenomena, placental abruption, hypoventilation and
shock; 2) lung disease; 3) arterial hypertension; 4) heart disease; 5) immune depression.
The clinical comparison of Spanish Flu (1918), Mexico (2009) and Brazil (2009) makes evident the strict
correlation of symptoms among them, a fact of high relevance as it also allows making a retrospective
evaluation of the outcomes of homeopathic treatment between 1918 and 1920 which can supply reliable
criteria to face the ongoing pandemics.
Foundations of homeopathic prophylaxis
Preventive use of homeopathy was first applied in 1801 during an epidemics of scarlet fever in Königslütter,
Germany, when Samuel Hahnemann the founder of homeopathy prescribed a single dose of Belladona, as
the remedy of the epidemic genius to susceptible children in the town with 100% success [9]. Homeopathic
Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(28): 100-109
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prophylaxis is grounded on the ability of homeopathic remedies to avoid or attenuate manifestations of
disease when chosen according to the principle of similarity. According to authors such as Trousseau and
Tetau it is also grounded on the notion of “terrain” and inheritance that would include the set of individual
factors related to the constitution, predisposition and refractoriness to disease and metabolism[10]. Eizayaga
sustains that homeopathic remedies increase individual unspecific resistance to infections, whereas nosodes
increase specific immunity regarding definite etiologic agents[11]. Ullman attributes the prestige of
homeopathy in Europe and the United States in the 19
th
century to its success in the treatment of epidemics.
[12]
Antecedents of the use of homeopathy in the pandemics Influenza A-H1N1 (1918)
Pandemics continued to cause high mortality in the 20
th
century: the Spanish Flu claimed 20-40 million
victims, the Asiatic Flu H2N2 (1957), 1 million and the Hong Kong Flu H3N2 (1968), 700 thousand. [13]
In this study, we restricted historical revision of the use of homeopathy in epidemics to pandemics of human
Influenza. As sources, we employed Winston’s major study on the use of homeopathy in 1918 epidemics [14],
while establishing as criteria the selection of rigorously verified data - through historic and scientific
documents and ratified by official sources we focused on Dewey’s paper (cited in Winston) [15], published in
1921 in the Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy with the title “Homeopathy in Influenza: A
Chorus of Fifty in Harmony.
At that time, Dewey was professor of materia medica and therapeutics at Michigan University, which
acquainted him with academic standards, so that he recorded with utmost care data highly significant for our
research as exhibited in Table 2.
Table 2: Data mentioned by Dewey
Cases of human Influenza treated with homeopathy in 1918
Source
Place
Total number of patients
Mortality rate
Pearson, W. A.
Philadelphia
26.795
1,05%
30 doctors from several cities
Connecticut
6.602
1%
Wieland, F.
Chicago
8.000
0,01%
Sappington, E. F.
(Homeopathic Medical Society)
District of Columbia
(Washington)
50.000
0,01%
McCann, T.A.
Dayton, Ohio
1.000
0%
Outcomes of patients treated with homeopathy are remarkable, especially when compared with those of
patients treated exclusively with conventional remedies, as e.g. a group of 24,000 patients in Ohio, where
mortality was 28.2%. It is particularly noteworthy the comment of F. Wieland, from Chicago, on the use of
Gelsemium during the epidemics, which according to him “was virtually the only remedy prescribed” [16].
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Hughes’ contribution: a map leading to the eye of the hurricane”, or how to actually find the
epidemic genius
Although to find the epidemic genius repertory analysis of the most remarkable, rare, strange and peculiar
symptoms present in most cases during an epidemics may have some success, it is needed to resist the
seduction of simple arithmetic additions, as this perhaps is the chief reason of mistakes in the diagnosis of the
epidemic genius.
Richard Hughes, a leading representative of 19th century homeopathy believed that the selection of a remedy
ought not to be grounded only on subjective symptoms, but rather on the characteristic nucleus of the
symptomatic picture that was mandatorily expressed in the pathological effects experimentally verified in
human beings and animals [17]. By the same token, he sustained that together with the principle of
similarity, also pathology ought to be taken into account. For this reason, between 1884 and 1890, with the
collaboration of Dake, he subjected the homeopathic materia medica to revision and depuration, which
resulted in his 4-volume A Cyclopaedia of Drug Pathogenesy. Besides excluding purely clinic symptoms he
emphasized provings conducted with low dilutions, i.e. below 6cH in order to obtain highly reliable data [17].
“Hughes’ filter” a tool seeking to ensure that the selected remedy is necessary and sufficient to
pharmacologically minimize the physiopathology of an illness sought to prevent or heal is extremely useful
when candidates for epidemic genus are many, as in the case of the ongoing flu epidemics, were possible
remedies include Aconitum napellus, Bryonia alba, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Influenzinum, Phosphorus and
Rhus toxicodendron among others besides Ipecacuanha. Application of “Hughes’ Filter” results in the
peremptory indication of Ipecacuanha, on the grounds of the unmistakable specificity of its pattern of
medicinal dynamics as it is shown below.
Grounds for the diagnosis of Ipecacuanha as epidemic genius in the ongoing Influenza A-H1N1
pandemics
Data on Ipecacuanaha agree among the different sources of the homeopathic materia medica beginning from
Hahnemann’s initial Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum… published in 1805 [18]. Phatak’s materia
medica was selected as an example to deepen the study of the general action of this remedy, which includes:
continual nausea, hemorrhages and frightening respiratory disturbs always accompanying most symptoms,
such as bleeding gastrointestinal disorders; severe prostration with alteration of the level of consciousness;
seizures and tetanus-like spasms complete the picture of symptoms. [19] It must be highlighted that
aggravation occurs by both cold and heat, whereas this extraordinary hypersensitiveness to extreme
modalities of temperature [20], although uncommon, has a direct relationship to the persistence of cases of
Influenza A-H1N1, even in the lack of low temperatures, which leads us to conclude that these are instances
not only of “Influenza del freddo” but also of “Influenza del caldo”, manifesting a recently acquired ability of
the present time mutant virus.
Regarding the high mortality rate among pregnant women, Phatak highlights profuse hemorrhages gushing
out, with nausea, tachypnea, constant abdominal pain in the hypogastrium, stitches from the navel to the
uterus, placenta previa and uterine prolapse.
The objective sequence of symptoms composing the physiopathologic and pathogenetic picture of Ipecacuanha
must be seen as a dynamic picture, comprehending the extension of symptoms such as intense headache from
the nape to the root of the tongue, with sensation as from a wound, as if the head had been beaten by blows,
with nausea and cold sweating on the face, constriction of the chest and the larynx, with incessant,
exhausting and violent cough at each breath, which makes the patient become stiff and cyanotic on the face,
Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(28): 100-109
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with uncontrollable hemoptysis, extenuated and almost unconscious, febrile and often evolving to
bronchopneumonia, shock and death [19].
For reasons we ignore, Ipecacuanha is not listed anymore among the best remembered remedies by
homeopaths. However, it was included in the first list of 24 polycrest remedies made by Hahnemann, i.e.
remedies “which have many indications” [10].
The contribution of experimentation of Ipecacuanha in animals
Uraoga, ou Cephaelis ipecacuanha Swartz (Figure 1) is a plant native to center-west Brazil; a small shrub of
20-40 cm height, its chemical composition includes catechols (ipecacuanic acid), nitrogen heterosides,
glycoproteins with allergenic properties and mainly about 3% isoquinoline alkaloids, among which emetine
(60-75%). Its active principles are mainly concentrated in the dried root, which is the part used in the
preparation of the remedy [21].
Figure 1: Uragoga Ipecacuanha [22]
Records of experimentation of Ipecacuanha in animals (frogs and rabbits) mainly express disorders attributed
to emetine, such as hemorrhage, depression of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, pneumonia and
vomiting, among others. [23] (Figure 2)
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Figure 2: Records of experimentation of Ipecacuanha in animal [23].
Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(28): 100-109
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Validity of the use of homeopathic complexes in epidemics
Use of remedies synergically associated in epidemics constitutes an interesting resource and besides
acknowledged by experienced practitioners, it is justified in order to widen the scope of action resulting in
higher effectiveness [10]. Therefore, in the current circumstance, it seems pertinent to add to Ipecacuanha
selected as epidemic genius a second remedy arising from the application of the criterion of etiopathogenic
similarity, viz. nosode Influenzinum in fact nosode of H1N1 would be better indicated. Despite it is prepared
from antigenic variant H2N2 (Asiatic Flu, 1958), it is still indicated according to Kent’s remark in Lection
XXIX: “prophylaxis requires a lesser degree of similarity than the one needed to heal” [24].
Gelsemium sempervirens can also be added, as a complementary of Ipecacuanha [25] in order to strengthen
the effect of the prescription during the prodrome, increasing in this way the prophylactic value of the
complex.
Moreover, in a paper presented to the I Panamerican Congress of Homeopathy in 1977 dealing with
“Prophylaxis of infectious diseases in the first months of life with homeopathic nosodes”, Castro mentioned
that during the 1918 flu epidemics, Gelsemium was the epidemic genius, whereas during the 1957 epidemics,
Influenzinum prepared by Nelson Laboratory in London was prescribed with success [26].
Table 3 describes more details of the abovementioned remedies.
Table 3: Basic data of the remedies included in the complex [27]
Influenzinum (nosode)
Ipecacuanha
Source:
Flu vaccination prepared by
Pasteur Institute, consisting
in a mixtre of 3 parts of
culture of Asian virus A-
Singapour I-1957 and 1 part
of culture of European virus
APR-8
Source:
Dry root collected before blossoming.
Original habitat: Brazil
Famíly: Rubiaceae
Scientific name: Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Swartz
Pathogenetic trial [33]
Pathogentic trial [35]
Regarding indications found in homeopathic repertories related to the use of Influenzinum, Gelsemium
sempervirens and Ipecacuanha in Influenza, we found mentions in Boericke [28] and Farias Dias [29].
Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(28): 100-109
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Conclusions
Prejudice or ignorance are not valid reasons to rule out homeopathic prophylaxis as an adjuvant tool in the
fight against resurgent epidemics but conversely, rejection implies in dismissing logic, evidence and scientific
neutrality itself.
The scope and effectiveness of application of homeopathy in collective health has been strongly hinted at,
more recently in the control of dengue in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro and São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
[32].
The Brazilian health system is in state of alert facing the impact of the flu pandemics; to approach
successfully this crisis it is legitimate to include the homeopathic model in the strategy adopted by the
Ministry of Health.
In public health, when a homeopathic remedy is preventively prescribed in single doses, the choice of the
dilution is a significant technical factor, strictly dependent on the projected repetition of the medicinal
stimulus. In the current condition, for the effect of the stimulus to last at least 3 months, the most indicated
dilution is 12cH.
References:
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[2] Bier O. Bacteriologia e Imunologia. 18
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[8] Boletim Eletrônico Epidemiológico. Situação epidemiológica da nova influenza A (H1N1) no Brasil,
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[12] Ullman D. Homeopatia: medicina para o século XXI. São Paulo: Cultrix; 1988.
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Publishing; 1998.
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of Homeopathy. 1921; 13: 1028-1043
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[homepage]. 2009-[publish in 2009 Apr 28, cited 2009 Sep 21]. Available from:
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[17] Campbell A. As duas faces da homeopatia. Rio de Janeiro: Matéria Médica; 1991.
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Pandemia de gripe: homeoprofilaxia e definição do gênio epidêmico
RESUMO
Estudos recentes de genética viral estabelecem o vírus H1N1 suíno responsável pela atual pandemia como
remanente ou continuação do agente que produziu a epidemia de gripe de 1918. Este estudo visou analisar se
esta etiologia comum também se acompanha de correlação significativa das manifestações clínicas. Para
tanto, foram coletados dados a fim de comparar a evolução clínica nos casos nas epidemias de 1918 e 2009.
Esta revisão histórica foi a base para avaliar a resposta ao tratamento, incluindo o homeopático, na epidemia
passada. Discute-se a conveniência de incluir homeoprofilaxia entre as medidas de saúde pública, com base no
diagnóstico do gênio epidêmico.
Palavras chave: homeopatia; saúde coletiva; epidemias; influenza A-H1N1.
Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(28): 100-109
109
Pandemia de gripe: profilaxis homeopática y
definición del genio epidémico
RESUMEN
Estudios recientes de genética viral establecen el virus H1N1 porcino responsable por la pandemia actual
como remanente o continuación del agente que provocó la epidemia de gripe de 1918. Este estudio buscó
analizar si esta etiología en común también se acompaña por correlación significativa de las manifestaciones
clínicas. Con este fin, fueron recogidos datos con el propósito de comparar la evolución clínica en casos de las
epidemias de 1918 y 2009. Esta revisión histórica sirvcomo base para evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento,
incluyendo homeopatía, en la epidemia anterior. Se discute la conveniencia de incluir profilaxis homeopática
entre las medidas de salud pública, basada en el diagnóstico del genio epidémico.
Palabras llave: homeopatia; salud pública; epidemias; influenza A-H1N1
Licensed to GIRI
Support: authors declare that this study received no funding.
Conflict of interest: authors declare there is no conflict of interest.
Received: 01 September 2009; Revised 25 September 2009; Published: 30 September 2009.
Correspondence author: Renan Marino, renanmarino@uol.com.br.
How to cite this article: Marino R. Flu pandemics: homeopathic prophylaxis and definition of the epidemic genius. Int J
High Dilution Res. 2009 [cited YYYY Month dd]; 28 (8): 100-109. Available from:
http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/354/399.
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The mankind has been under the wrath of various H1N1 viruses tracing back to the Spanish flu (SF) in 1918 down to pandemics in 1957 H2N2, 1968 H3N2, 2009 H1N1 and COVID 19 in 2020. Despite a lot of advancements in genomic viral studies, laboratory techniques, medical advancement and treatment options in the form of antiviral and antibiotics, the threat of pandemics is hovering on mankind with a challenge at global and national level to fight against it. Homoeopathy has played a contributory role in the treatment and prevention in various epidemics in the past. In this overview, the role of homoeopathic medicines used in the treatment of Pandemic SF 1918, in reducing the mortality is highlighted. © 2020 Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy | Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.
... [17] The selection of a remedy ought not to be grounded only on subjective symptoms, but rather on the characteristic nucleus of the symptomatic picture that was mandatorily expressed in the pathological effects experimentally verified in human beings and animals. [18] For prophylaxis there is required a less degree of similitude than is necessary for curing. A remedy will not have to be so similar to prevent disease as to cure it so we must look to homoeopathy for protection as well as for cure. ...
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Homoeopathy is a therapeutic system founded by German physician Dr Samuel Hahnemann in the late 1700’s and has been used for 200 years around the world in acute and chronic disease conditions. Homoeopathy has also flourished during the times of epidemic diseases and the use of homoeopathic remedies as genus epidemicus and homoeoprophylaxis began with Hahnemann. Although the effectiveness of the homoeopathic remedies in epidemics has been scarcely proved by controlled studies, yet there is vast historical evidence which proves that homoeopathic remedies have been successfully used to prevent these conditions. The homoeopathic literature was searched to find out the historical evidences of the use of homoeopathic remedies during epidemics and pandemics. Homoeopathic treatment during epidemics is reviewed in Eight diseases and their results are found for epidemics of Scarlet fever, Typhus, Cholera, Dysentery, Spanish flu, Diphtheria, Measles, Whooping cough. Also the prophylactic effect of homoeopathic medicines is found in Fourteen epidemic diseases namely Scarlet fever, Smallpox, Poliomyelitis, Meningitis, Whooping cough, Dengue, Cholera, Japanese Encephalitis, Leptospirosis, Diphtheria, Influenza, Hepatitis, Malaria, Chikungunya. Many clinical trials have also been conducted during the epidemics of Chikungunya, Influenza like illness, Dengue, Acute Encephalitis Syndrome/Japanese Encephalitis. The current novel Coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has rapidly spread over the globe and has been declared as pandemic by World Health Organization. Till now, no specific treatment or vaccine has emerged to control this pandemic. However, many homoeopaths over different parts of the world have treated a wide range of COVID positive cases with different remedies. This review not only brings forward the success stories of homoeopathy during past epidemics but also presents its utility in the current pandemic.
... [6] Preventive use of Homoeopathy was first applied in 1801 during an epidemic of scarlet fever in Königslütter, Germany, when Hahnemann prescribed a single dose of Belladonna, as the GE to susceptible children in the town with 100% success. [7] Some available data from the olden days reveal the prophylactic success of Belladonna for another epidemic such as scarlet fever (1820s) where only 7.5% of the 1,646 children who were given the medicine remained unprotected. Camphora, Cuprum metallicum and Veratrum album proved successful in different stages of the Cholera epidemic (1831-1832) and it was reported that mortality rate in European homoeopathic hospitals was 7%-10%, whereas with conventional treatment, it varied between 40 and 80%. ...
Article
Background and Objectives: While the world is grappling with the current pandemic of COVID-19, medical fraternity and policy makers are still trying to find ways to control its spread in the absence of any definite treatment protocol. The escalating medical costs of infrastructural requirements in health care as well as development of vaccine are but a few challenges being faced. Alternative approaches to handle the situation require to be explored. This article reviews the role homoeopathy has played in controlling epidemics afflicting the mankind in the past while summarizing the scope of this approach in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A literature search was conducted using various bibliographic databases like PubMed etc, google search engines to collect all relevant research and review articles, reports, archived texts, you tube recordings, webpages etc. in English language published uptil March 2020. Results: Scientific evidence in various epidemics clearly showcase that Homoeopathy can be used both therapeutically and/or as prophylactic with success using approaches like Genus epidemicus, nosodes etc. Its greatest successes have been recorded in the prevention & treatment of flu like illnesses. Conclusion: Homoeopathy has stood the test of time over centuries as a notable approach in controlling morbidity as well as mortality in epidemics. Administration of the homoeopathic 'Genus epidemicus' as a prophylactic for general public or adjuvant homoeopathic treatment in symptomatic cases can be an inexpensive, safe and feasible approach to manage and alleviate the compounding fear and panic that COVID-19 is creating across the globe. National polices & strategies to tackle the pandemic need to be revisited. © 2020 Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy | Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.
... The nosodes have demonstrated prophylactic role in Swine Flu, [1,2] Helicobacter pylori ulcers [3] and Leptospirosis. [4] Certain nosodes have also shown anti-disease activities in vitro, [5][6][7] animal models [8] as well as against HIV [9] and Hepatitis C [10] infected individuals. ...
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Background: Malaria officinalis, a Homoeopathic preparation used against malaria, was prepared from decomposed vegetable matter from a marshy area by G. W. Bowen in 1862. No scientific published material is available on the source of any malaria-related nosode. There is a need to develop the new nosode using the organisms. The author has developed the nosode from Plasmodium falciparum parasites, and the detailed method of preparation is described in this manuscript. Objective: Preparation and standardisation of Homoeopathic nosode prepared from P. falciparum parasites, which could be explored for further research and therapeutic efficacy. Materials and Methods: The most widely cultivated strain of malaria parasite P. falciparum was collected from Indian Institute of Technology-B (Mumbai). This parasite was triturated with nine parts of Saccharum lactis powder to achieve 1X potency. One part of 1X potency and nine parts of Saccharum lactis powder were taken to make subsequent 2X potency. Likewise, potencies till 6X were prepared by trituration method, prescribed in Homoeopathy pharmacopeia of India (HPI). Results: Nosode from P. falciparum strain was prepared by trituration method as prescribed in HPI and standardised for future research and clinical exploration. Conclusion: The nosode sourced from P. falciparum parasites will be one such addition, which will call for further exploration for its effect against malaria (and other diseases) as a prophylactic and therapeutic measure.
... Infelizmente, nos últimos anos, vimos observando em nosso país uma série de propostas para a profilaxia e/ou tratamento homeopático das epidemias de dengue e influenza que ferem a episteme homeopática hahnemanniana, sugerindo a aplicação de medicamentos homeopáticos complexos (mistura de medicamentos homeopáticos e/ou isopáticos, que desprezam a experimentação patogenética prévia e a individualização segundo a totalidade sintomática característica de cada estágio da epidemia vigente) [62,65,66] para toda a população de uma região, sem utilizar protocolos de pesquisa estruturados que permitam avaliar a eficácia e a segurança de semelhantes práticas. ...
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Empregando o princípio da similitude curativa, a homeopatia visa estimular o organismo a reagir contra os seus próprios distúrbios. No entanto, para que o medicamento homeopático desperte uma reação homeostática efetiva, ele precisa ser individualizado, ou seja, ser escolhido pela semelhança com o conjunto de sintomas característicos do binômio doente-doença. Dessa forma, buscando diminuir as suscetibilidades individuais que predispõe ao adoecer, o medicamento homeopático atua curativa e preventivamente em muitas doenças humanas. Por outro lado, possui indicação específica no tratamento e na prevenção das doenças epidêmicas, desde que escolhido individualmente segundo o conjunto de sintomas peculiares à epidemia (denominado "gênio epidêmico"), com exemplos históricos descritos na literatura. Nessa atualização, iremos discorrer sobre as premissas epistemológicas que fazem da homeopatia hahnemanniana uma prática médica preventiva, as evidências científicas que endossam sua aplicação clínica e os requisitos mínimos para utilizá-la terapêutica e preventivamente nas doenças epidêmicas. Abstract By applying the principle of therapeutic similitude, homeopathy seeks to stimulate the organism to react against its own disturbs. For homeopathic medicines to awaken effective homeostasis responses they must be individualized, this means that they must be chosen according to their similarity to the set of characteristic symptoms of the patients. In this way, by aiming at decreasing the individual susceptibility predisposing to disease, homeopathic medicines have healing and preventive effects in many human illnesses. On the other hand, homeopathic medicines may have specific indications in the treatment and prevention of epidemic diseases provided they are also chosen according to the particular set of peculiar symptoms to a given epidemic, viz the so-called "epidemic genius", as historical examples show. This update paper discusses the epistemological foundations of Hahnemann"s homeopathy as a preventive medical approach, the scientific evidences supporting its clinical application and the minimum requirements to employ it both therapeutically and preventively in epidemics.
... Desafortunadamente, en los últimos años se han realizado una serie de propuestas en Brasil para la profilaxis y/o el tratamiento de epidemias de dengue e influenza, mismas que no cumplen con la epistemología homeopática hahnemanniana; en su lugar indican el uso de complejos homeopáticos (combinaciones de medicamentos homeopáticos y/o medicamentos isopáticos que menosprecian la experimentación patogénica anterior y la individualización de acuerdo con las características de la totalidad sintomática de cada etapa de la epidemia en curso) en toda la población de una zona determinada, sin llevar a cabo protocolos de investigación estructurados capaces de evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de tales prácticas [102][103][104] . ...
Article
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Aplicando el principio de similitud terapéutica, la Homeopatía busca estimular al organismo para que reaccione en contra de su propia perturbación. Para que los medicamentos homeopáticos puedan despertar respuestas homeostáticas efica-ces deben ser individualizados, esto significa que deben ser elegidos en función de su similitud con el conjunto de síntomas característicos de los pacientes. De esta manera, teniendo el propósito de disminuir la susceptibilidad individual que predis-pone a la enfermedad, los medicamentos homeopáticos curan y generan efectos preventivos en muchas enfermedades humanas. Por otra parte, los medicamentos homeopáticos pueden tener indicaciones específicas en el tratamiento y prevención de enfermedades epidémicas, con la condición de que también se elijan de acuerdo con el conjunto particular de sínto-mas peculiares de una epidemia determinada, a saber, el llamado "genio epidémi-co", como lo muestran varios ejemplos históricos. En este trabajo se analiza la ac-tualización de las bases epistemológicas de la Homeopatía de Hahnemann desde el enfoque médico preventivo, las evidencias científicas que apoyan su aplicación clínica y los requisitos mínimos para emplearla tanto terapéutica como preventiva-mente en las epidemias.
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Original ArticleBackground: Historically, several homoeopathic medicines are known to have attributed a significant role in the control and management of infectious epidemic diseases. Objectives: This study aimed to compile a list of prospective homoeopathic medicines for the treatment and prophylaxis of the COVID‑19 epidemic by conducting a systematic review and statistical analysis of clinical characteristics of this emerging coronavirus disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic review protocol was developed according to the reporting items of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‑Analyses statement. Articles for review were selected from PubMed, World Health Organization database, MedRxiV, and BioRxiv. Studies in English and simplified Chinese from December 2019 to March 26 2020 were included. Data on clinical characteristics, laboratory and CT chest results of COVID‑19 were extracted and analysed. Several symptoms and their intensity were statistically analysed. Results: Seventy‑three studies were included. Amongst COVID‑19 patients, fever (119.869 ± 24.425 [95% confidence intervals: 71.149–168.589]), dry cough (91.028 ± 19.555 [52.007–130.050]) and dyspnoea (24.594 ± 5.949 [12.722–36.465]) were the most common symptoms. Leucopenia (16.06 ± 5.07 [5.95–26.18]) in blood, ground‑glass opacity (62.23 ± 18.82 [24.74–99.72]), patchy (21.48 ± 12.36 [3.13–46.11]) and consolidation (18.67 ± 9.18 [0.373–36.968]) in the lungs were observed. The selected sign and symptoms were repertorised, which resulted in a list of multiple homoeopathic medicines as potential medicines for COVID‑19, led by Arsenic Album (94.59%) and Bryonia alba (91.89%). Conclusion: Considering the current clinical manifestations, this is a pioneer study related to finding a plausible list of homoeopathic medicines that might help the profession in the treatment as well as to select a prophylactic of COVID‑19 disease.
Article
Background: Historically, several homoeopathic medicines are known to have attributed a significant role in the control and management of infectious epidemic diseases. Objectives: This study aimed to compile a list of prospective homoeopathic medicines for the treatment and prophylaxis of the COVID-19 epidemic by conducting a systematic review and statistical analysis of clinical characteristics of this emerging coronavirus disease. Materials and Methods: A> systematic review protocol was developed according to the reporting items of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Articles for review were selected from PubMed, World Health Organization database, MedRxiV, and BioRxiv. Studies in English and simplified Chinese from December 2019 to March 26 2020 were included. Data on clinical characteristics, laboratory and CT chest results of COVID-19 were extracted and analysed. Several symptoms and their intensity were statistically analysed. Results: Seventy-three studies were included. Amongst COVID-19 patients, fever (119.869 ± 24.425 [95% confidence intervals: 71.149–168.589]), dry cough (91.028 ± 19.555 [52.007–130.050]) and dyspnoea (24.594 ± 5.949 [12.722–36.465]) were the most common symptoms. Leucopenia (16.06 ± 5.07 [5.95–26.18]) in blood, ground-glass opacity (62.23 ± 18.82 [24.74–99.72]), patchy (21.48 ± 12.36 [3.13–46.11]) and consolidation (18.67 ± 9.18 [0.373–36.968]) in the lungs were observed. The selected sign and symptoms were repertorised, which resulted in a list of multiple homoeopathic medicines as potential medicines for COVID-19, led by Arsenic Album (94.59%) and Bryonia alba (91.89%). Conclusion: Considering the current clinical manifestations, this is a pioneer study related to finding a plausible list of homoeopathic medicines that might help the profession in the treatment as well as to select a prophylactic of COVID-19 disease.
Article
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Homeopathy has contributed throughout history to the control and eradication of epidemic diseases. Facing the challenge of controlling an outbreak of dengue, the Secretary of Health of the county of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in early 2007 carried out a "Homeopathy Campaign against Dengue". 156,000 doses of homeopathic remedy were freely distributed in April and May 2007 to asymptomatic patients and 129 doses to symptomatic patients treated in outpatient clinics, according to the notion of "epidemic genus". The remedy used was a homeopathic complex against dengue containing Phosphorus 30cH, Crotalus horridus 30cH and Eupatorium perfoliatum 30cH. The incidence of the disease in the first three months of 2008 fell 93% by comparison to the corresponding period in 2007, whereas in the rest of the State of Rio de Janeiro there was an increase of 128%. While confounding factors were not controlled for, these results suggest that homeopathy may be an effective adjunct in Dengue outbreak prevention.
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Twelve key events leading up to the emergence of the current pandemic swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus are reviewed.
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Unexpectedly, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV, informally known as swine flu) appeared in North America at the very end of the 2008-2009 influenza season and began to spread internationally. As the world mobilizes for a potential pandemic, this article summarizes the developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Homeopatia e profilaxia
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