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Terpenoids and Phenolic Compounds Production of Mint Genotypes in Response to Mycorrhizal Bio- Elicitors

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Mentha spicata is known as a rich source of valuable secondary metabolites with lots of medicinal properties. Application of many fungal species as bio-elicitors to improve secondary metabolite biosynthesis is recommended, but few studies have been conducted regarding the obvious effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the content of secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic pathways in host plants. In this study, the effect of two species of mycorrhizal fungi Glomus etunicatum and Glomus mosseae on concentrations of essential oil, expression of limonene synthase gene (the key regulating gene in the biosynthesis pathway of terpenoids) and amount of total phenolic compounds in three genotypes of Mentha spicata with origin of Isfahan, Kermanshah and Yazd was investigated. In addition, activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyaz (PAL) enzyme and the number of trichome (main sites of essential oil synthesis) in fresh leaves was measured. In this study, application of mycorrhizal bio-elicitors increased content of phenolic compounds (especially in root), to higher degree compared to essential oil content and limonene synthase gene expression in mint genotypes. The results of increasing of phenolic compounds accumulation in treated mint genotypes were observed following increase in PAL enzyme activity. Increased Essential oil in mint inoculated plants, was associated to biomass content and number of glandular trichomes significantly. Also the mycorrhiza inoculation did not lead to significant changes in expression of limonene synthase gene in these plants. This study showed that difference in the increase of secondary metabolites is dependent on fungal species of Glomus as bio-elicitor and host plants' genotype.
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... These are in line with the findings of this study, whereas increases in the vegetative growth and yield of oil in both localities and cuts were recorded from plants grown in soil infested with VAM integrated with the tested yeast followed by VAM alone as compared to the control. A Significant relationship between the density of gland trichome and essential oil concentration in mint genotypes was reported by Bagheri et al. (2014). The greater number of glands in mycorrhizal plants may be associated with changes in the hormonal profiles and increased levels of auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin in plants, which eventually lead to the increase of the essential oil content (Torelli et al., 2000). ...
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