ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Santalum album commonly known as Sandalwood is used traditionally for health and wellness. It is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree and has a long history in Indian religious rituals and traditional Chinese medicine. Due to its wide application in cosmetics and therapeutics, we have done this study to explore the possibility of using aqueous extract of S. album as antibacterial and antioxidant agent. The S. album extract was prepared in distilled water. The activity of aqueous extract was evaluated against eight bacterial pathogens including two strains of Escherichia coli, one each of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas species and Klebsiella oxytoca. The anti-oxidant activity was analyzed by two most common radical scavenging assays of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (1,1- diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl). Results showed that S. album had strongest inhibitory activity against S. aureus (MTCC 902) i.e. 87% whereas; it showed no inhibition against E.coli (ATCC 25922) and B. subtilis (MTCC736). The S. album extract showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration–dependent manner with maximum scavenging of 64% in presence of 500μl of aqueous extract. The FRAP assay also proved antioxidant potential of S. album with the highest value of 0.628mM at 200μl of aqueous extract.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Citation: Shamsi TN, Parveen R, Afreen S, Azam M, Fatma T, Haque QMR and Fatima S. In-vitro Antibacterial
and Antioxidant Activities of Sandalwood (Santalum Album). Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng. 2014;1(2): 3.
Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng - Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2014
Submit your Manuscript | www.austinpublishinggroup.com
Fatima et al. © All rights are reserved
Austin Journal of Biotechnology &
Bioengineering
Open Access
Full Text Article
Abstract
Santalum album commonly known as Sandalwood is used traditionally for health and
wellness. It is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree and has a long history in Indian religious
rituals and traditional Chinese medicine. Due to its wide application in cosmetics and
therapeutics, we have done this study to explore the possibility of using aqueous extract
of S. album as antibacterial and antioxidant agent. The S. album extract was prepared
in distilled water. The activity of aqueous extract was evaluated against eight bacterial
pathogens including two strains of Escherichia coli, one each of Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas species
and Klebsiella oxytoca. The anti-oxidant activity was analyzed by two most common radical
scavenging assays of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-
2-picrylhydrazyl). Results showed that S. album had strongest inhibitory activity against S.
aureus (MTCC 902) i.e. 87% whereas; it showed no inhibition against E.coli (ATCC 25922)
and B. subtilis (MTCC736). The S. album extract showed DPPH radical scavenging activity
in a concentration–dependent manner with maximum scavenging of 64% in presence of
500μl of aqueous extract. The FRAP assay also proved antioxidant potential of S. album
with the highest value of 0.628mM at 200μl of aqueous extract.
Keywords: Antibacterial activity; Antioxidant activity; Santalum album; Aqueous extract
Material and Methodology
Plant material
Sandalwood purchased from Local Ayurvedic Clinic.
Chemicals and reagents
All solvents and chemicals (analytical grade) used for antioxidant
and antibacterial assay were purchased from Merck and Himedia.
DPPH and TPTZ were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.
Test microorganism
e following eight clinical isolates of bacteria were used for
the study: Two species of Escherichia coli, one each of Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Aeromonas species and Klebsiella oxytoca. All these
cultures were maintained on nutrient agar plates at 4OC.
Methodology
Preparation of aqueous extract
e Sandalwood was ground nely and then strained through
muslin cloth. 1 gram of sample was soaked for 2 hours in 20 ml of
distilled water (50 mg/ml). e sample was then centrifuged and
the supernatant was picked which served as aqueous extract for the
further studies.
Antibacterial Assay
Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract was tested against
three gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Aeromonas species.
and Staphylococcus aureus) and ve gram-negative bacteria (two of
Escherichia coli and one each of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella
oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Overnight cultures were
prepared in Luria broth (LB) media by inoculation with a single
Abbreviations
DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; FRAP: Ferric Reducing
Antioxidant Power; mg: Milligram; ml: Milliliter; CFU: Colony
Forming Units; OD: Optical Density; TPTZ: 2,4,6-Tripyridyl-s-
Triazine
Introduction
In present world of medical and pharmaceutical advancement,
microbes have evolved with resistance against the drugs by changing
their metabolism and genetic structure [1,2]. ese drug resistant
microorganisms are more pathogenic with high mortality rate and
have become a threat against human race. To overcome microbial
drug resistance, scientists are looking forward for the development of
alternative and novel drugs [3]. Natural sources such as plants, algae
and animals provide an array of natural medicinal compounds for
the treatment of various infectious diseases [4-6]. Studies by various
researchers have proved that plants are one of the major sources for
drug discovery and development [7,8].
Free radicals are inevitably produced in biological systems
and also encountered exogenously, and are known to cause
various degenerative disorders like mutagenesis, carcinogenesis,
cardiovascular disturbances and ageing [9].
Sandalwood, Santalum album, has been used since ancient times
for religious purposes in incense, in fragrances, and as medicine.
Various types of sandalwood trees grow in dierent countries of the
world [10].
e present research has been conducted to study the medicinal
properties like antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of aqueous
extract of Santalum album so that they can be a hope in the eld of
phytodrugs.
Research Article
In-vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of
Sandalwood (Santalum Album)
Shamsi TN1, Parveen R1, Afreen S2, Azam M2,
Fatma T2, Haque QMR2 and Fatima S1*
1Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia,
India
2Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, India
These authors contributed equally to this work
*Corresponding author: Sadaf Fatima, Department of
Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025,
India
Received: July 10, 2014; Accepted: August 10, 2014;
Published: August 11, 2014
Austin
Publishing Group
A
Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng 1(2): id1008 (2014) - Page - 02
Fatima S Austin Publishing Group
Submit your Manuscript | www.austinpublishinggroup.com
colony from agar plates and incubated at 37OC for 12 hrs. Overnight
cultures were diluted with fresh LB media to approximately 104
colonies forming units (CFU) and incubated at 37OC for 12-14 hrs
in the presence of S. album compared to the growth of the control
culture where only media and bacterial inoculum was taken. e
experiment was repeated twice for the conrmation. e percentage
inhibition was calculated by using the formula:
Percentage Inhibition (%) = [(dc - dt)/dc] x 100,
where dc and dt represent OD600 of control and treated sample
strains respectively.
Antioxidant Activity
DPPH Assay
e antioxidant activity of S. album and the standard was checked
on the basis of the free radical scavenging eect of the stable 1,
1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by the method of Braca et al.
with minor modications [11]. A range of diluted working solutions
of the S. album were prepared in distilled water. Ascorbic acid (1
mg/ml) in distilled water was used as standard. 0.1mM DPPH was
prepared in ethanol and 500μl of this solution was mixed with 500μl
of working sample solutions and standard solution separately. ese
solution mixtures were kept in dark for 30 min and optical density
was measured at 517 nm using Spectrophotometer. 0.1mM DPPH
solution was used as control. e range of diluted aqueous extracts
was taken as blank. e optical density were recorded and DPPH
scavenging was calculated using the formula given below:
DPPH scavenging Activity (%) = [(dc - dt)/dc] x 100,
where dc and dt represent OD517 of control and test sample
respectively.
FRAP Assay
Antioxidant activity assay was also done following the ferric-
reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method described by Benzie &
Strain method with minor modications [12]. FRAP reagents was
freshly prepared by mixing 10 ml acetate buer (300mM, pH 3.6),
1 ml 2,4,6-tris (2-pyridyl)-S-triazine (TPTZ) solution (10mM TPTZ
in 40mM/L HCl) and 1 ml FeCl3 (20mM) water solution. A range of
diluted working solutions of the S. album were prepared in distilled
water. Each sample (200 μl) was added in 1.5 ml of freshly prepared
FRAP reagent and mixed and aer 5 min, absorbance was measured
at 593 nm, using FRAP working solution as blank. Ascorbic acid
was used as standard. e results were expressed in mM Fe2+/ml of
aqueous extract. Higher absorbance indicates higher reducing power.
Results
Antibacterial Assay
Antimicrobial assay of the aqueous extract was examined against
various bacterial strains by accessing the percentage inhibition in
presence of S. album compared to the control where only media and
cultures were added. e results suggested that S. album exhibits
bactericidal property in-vitro i.e. the growth of microorganisms was
inhibited in its presence as shown in Table 1.
It was found that S. album had strongest inhibitory activity against
S. aureus (MTCC 902) i.e. 87% whereas, it showed no inhibition
against E.coli (ATCC 25922) and B. subtilis (MTCC736) as shown in
Figure 1.
Antioxidant Activity
DPPH assay
DPPH radical scavenging assay is the most widely used method
for screening antioxidant activity, since it can accommodate many
samples in a short period and detect active ingredients at low
concentration. e decrease in the absorbance of the DPPH radical
caused by antioxidant was due to the scavenging of the radical by
hydrogen donation. It is visually noticeable as the colour changes
from purple to yellow. S. album showed DPPH radical scavenging
activity in a concentration–dependent manner as shown in the gure
(Figure 2).
FRAP Assay
e ferric reducing antioxidant power of S. album is presented
in gure (Figure 3). e results showed that FRAP value of S. album
increase in the concentration-dependent manner. e highest
absorbance of FRAP was observed in S. album at 200 μl and the lowest
was that in at 20μl i.e 0.628 and 0.078 as compared to standard i.e.
0.210 and 0.965 respectively. ese concentrations were eective to
react with ferric tripyridyltriazine (FeIII-TPTZ) complex and produce
a blue colored ferrous tripyridyltriazine (FeII-TPTZ). From the
observations, it is clear that S. album showed fair antioxidant activity
comparable to ascorbic acid.
S.No. Bacterial strain Percentage Inhibition
E.coli (ATCC 25922) 0
K. pneumoniae (ATCC 700603) 69.2
S. aureus (MTCC 902) 87
B. subtilis (MTCC 736) 0
E.coli (MTCC 443) 78.1
P. aeruginosa (MTCC 2453) 65.5
Aeromonas spp. (A10 MDR) 76.8
K. oxytoca (A13 MDR) 77.4
Table 1: Percentage Growth inhibition of various bacterial strains in presence
of S. album.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
E.coli (ATCC
25922)
K.
pneumoniae
(ATCC
700603)
S. aureus
(MTCC 902)
B. subtilis
(MTCC 736)
E.coli (MTCC
443)
P.
aeruginosa
(MTCC 2453)
Aeromonas
spp. (A10
MDR)
K. oxytoca
(A13 MDR)
% inhibition
Microorganisms
Figure 1: Graphical representation of % inhibition of Antibacterial potential
of S. album.
Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng 1(2): id1008 (2014) - Page - 03
Fatima S Austin Publishing Group
Submit your Manuscript | www.austinpublishinggroup.com
Discussion
Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties possessed by various
plant extracts have recently been of great interest in both research
and food industry, due to their possible use as natural additives which
emerged from a growing tendency to replace synthetic antioxidants
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
DPPH radical scavenging
Amount(μl)
S. album
Ascorbic Acid
Figure 2: DPPH scavenging assay of S. album in comparison with Ascorbic
acid.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 50 100 150 200 250
FRAP value (mM)
Amount (μl)
Ascorbic acid
S. album
Figure 3: FRAP values of S. album in comparison with Ascorbic acid.
with natural ones. Owing to the antioxidant and antibacterial activities
exhibited by the plant extracts, we have done this study to nd out
their possible role in food and pharmaceutical industries. Also,
results show that aqueous extract of S. album possesses the potent
antioxidant & antimicrobial substances which may be responsible for
its anti-tumor, anti-carcinogenic activity and remedy for hepatitis
B viral infection mechanism as well as justify the basis of using this
plant’s extract as traditional remedies.
References
1. Raghunath D. Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special
reference to India. J Biosci. 2008; 33: 593-603.
2. Tenover FC. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Am J Med.
2006; 119: S3-10.
3. Kumar G, Karthik L, Venkata K, Rao B. Antibacterial activity of aqueous
extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaves- An in vitro study. Int J of Pharma Sci
Rev Res. 2010; 4: 141-144.
4. Khan UA, Rahman H, Niaz Z, Qasim M, Khan J, Tayyaba, et al. Antibacterial
activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria.
Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2013; 3: 272-274.
5. Al-Saif SS, Abdel-Raouf N, El-Wazanani HA, Aref IA. Antibacterial substances
from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia.
Saudi J Biol Sci. 2014; 21: 57-64.
6. Degiam DZ, Abas AT. Antimicrobial activity of some crude marine Mollusca
extracts against some human pathogenic bacteria. Thi-Qar Med J. 2010; 4:
142-147.
7. Gordon MC, David JN. Biodiversity: A continuing source of novel drug leads.
Pure Appl Chem. 2005; 77: 7-24.
8. Kumar G, Karthik L, Bhaskara Rao KV. In vitro anti-Candida activity of
Calotropis gigantea against clinical isolates of Candida. J of Pharma Res.
2010; 3: 539-542.
9. Singh S, Singh RP. In vitro methods of assay of antioxidants: An overview.
Food Rev Int. 2008; 24: 392–415.
10. Anonis DP. Sandalwood and sandalwood compounds. Perfumer and
Flavorist. 1998; 23: 19-24.
11. Braca A, Sortino C, Politi M, Morelli I, Mendez J. Antioxidant activity of
avonoids from Licanialicaniaeora. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79: 379-381.
12. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a
measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996; 239:
70-76.
Citation: Shamsi TN, Parveen R, Afreen S, Azam M, Fatma T, Haque QMR and Fatima S. In-vitro Antibacterial
and Antioxidant Activities of Sandalwood (Santalum Album). Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng. 2014;1(2): 3.
Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng - Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2014
Submit your Manuscript | www.austinpublishinggroup.com
Fatima et al. © All rights are reserved
... Sandalwood oil has been widely used in the cologne manufacturing indust Sandalwood oil has shown various activities in animal laboratory tests. A santa tract has displayed a spasmolytic role in digestive motility, anti-bacterial, anti-bio inflammatory, anti-oxidant and stress-modulatory activities; and prohibited hear [150][151][152][153]. Sandalwood oil is also effective for curing psoriasis, eczema, commo Sandalwood oil has been widely used in the cologne manufacturing industry [149]. ...
... Sandalwood oil has shown various activities in animal laboratory tests. A santalum extract has displayed a spasmolytic role in digestive motility, anti-bacterial, anti-biotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and stress-modulatory activities; and prohibited heart muscle [150][151][152][153]. Sandalwood oil is also effective for curing psoriasis, eczema, common warts, and molluscum contagiosum, as well as an anti-acne agent [154]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) management can lead to various benefits for community livelihood and forest sustainability. However, such management has not been carried out optimally and sustainably in Indonesia, due to various limiting factors including ineffective policies, undeveloped cultivation technologies, and inadequate innovation in processing technologies. Further, the diversity of NTFPs species requires that policy-makers determine the priority species to be developed. Agarwood (Aquilaria spp. and Gyrinops spp.), benzoin (Styrax spp.), sandalwood (Santalum album L.), and cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell) are aromatic NTFPs species in Indonesia that forest-dwellers have utilized across generations. This paper reviews the current governance, cultivation systems, processing and valuation, and benefits and uses of these species. We also highlights the future challenges and prospects of these NTFPs species, which are expected to be useful in designing NTFPs governance, in order to maximize the associated benefits for the farmers and all related stakeholders.
... It is an evergreen, semi parasitic plant, the mostly used part of sandalwood is heartwood which appears yellowish brown when fresh and gradually turn dark in color upon exposure, the heartwood is scented and possess diuretic, disinfectant anti-pyretic haemostatic and many such properties [3]. The leaf extract of S. album is shown to have anti-microbial activity against E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas [7], its aqueous extract is shown to have strongest inhibition against S. aureus [8]. Now with the help of advancement in genome wide research and whole genome sequence available in public database like NCBI, the scientific and actual secret behind the numerous advance properties of this medicinal plant can be explore. ...
Article
From its discovery to today, antibiotics have revolutionized medicine, and various antibiotics have been studied, discovered and put to significant application and it continues to be helpful in controlling infections. Nonetheless over application of these antibiotics have given rise to Antibiotic Resistance (AR) and Multidrug Resistant pathogens (MDR) against the various antibiotic’s agents. Anti-microbial peptides are being explored as an alternative against the prevalent issue of MDR and AR. Anti-microbial peptides are the part of host’s first line of defense mechanism of innate immune response, are small peptides its molecular weight is 2-10kDa, it holds amphiphillic properties, and is usually positively charged at neutral pH value. The advantages posed by anti-microbial peptides are many like broad antimicrobial spectrum, rapid action, and lower risk of resistance, low toxicity and high selectivity. It poses many therapeutic like anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, and immunomodulator properties as well. Plants are good source of antimicrobial peptides. A variety of applications can be achieved with plant derived antimicrobial peptides, including antibacterial, insecticide, and infection control, including the control of cellular infection by viruses. AMPs exist in different molecular forms like Cyclotides, cyclic cysteine knot, defensin, thionin, snakin- Like, hevein-like, knottin like peptides etc. It is expected that anti-microbial peptides will have a positive impact on medicine, food, industries as antifouling agents and agriculture. The major objective of this review articleis to explore and identify important antimicrobial peptides in medicinal plants like Ocimum sanctum and Santalum album.
... The anti-oxidant activity of aqueous extract of Sandal safed was proven by most common radical scavenging assay of FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2picryl hydrazyl). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities may be responsible for its antitumor, anticarcinogenic activities, as mentioned in Unani literature 44,45 . α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models 46 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the Unani System of Medicine, Sandal safed (Sandalwood) is used in many cardiac problems as it possesses Mufarreh (exhilarant) and Muqawwi Qalb (cardiotonic) activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Sandal safed in Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction. Methods: Male Wistar rats, weighing 150-200gm, divided into five groups of ten in each. Group I and III rats were given 5% gum acacia (vehicle) and Sandalwood powder in the dose of 800 mg/kg body weight, orally once daily for seven days, followed by subcutaneous administration of normal saline on the 8th and 9th day. Group II, IV & V were administered 5% gum acacia, test drug in the dose of 600 & 800mg/kg body weight, orally once daily for seven days, respectively, followed by isoproterenol hydrochloride (50 mg/ kg body weight) subcutaneously, twice at an interval of 24 h on 8th and 9th day. On 10th day, animals were sacrificed, heart and adrenal glands were weighed, and serum cardiac enzymes and lipid profile were analysed. Histopathological study of apex of the heart was carried out. Results: In group-II rats, serum cardiac enzymes, serum cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and weight of the heart and adrenal gland were found to be increased significantly (P< 0.001), and HDL, cardiac glycogen and adrenal ascorbic acid were decreased significantly along with gross pathological changes in heart tissues, but in group IV & V rats, the above parameters were normal. Conclusion: Sandal safed revealed cardioprotective effect in dose dependent manner without any side effects.
... In yet another research, Shamsi et al. [90] have reported a clear zone of inhibition of carbon nanoparticles obtained from sandal wood bark against B. cereus, E. coli, C. violeceum and P. notatum. Sheena et al. [86] have reported enormous [30]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Activated carbon (AC) is a wonder-material that finds multifarious applications such as catalytic supports, removal of pollutants, electrodes in energy gadgets, gas storage etc. Surface area, chemical constituents and pore structures are a few traits required in the ACs which largely depend on the source of the precursors and processing methodologies adopted. In this context, the idea of recycling phytomass for producing ACs has attracted researchers seeing that the inexpensive and renewable nature of the phytomass can reduce the overall cost of producing ACs with diversified features and that it does not add CO2 to the atmosphere leading to global warming (plants release only the same amount of CO2 as they consumed while growing). Further, phytomass after their life possess no value but their conversion into ACs would be an economically profitable option leading to inexpensive ACs. As a consequent of these advantages this chapter has been planned and designed to provide certain interesting multifunctional aspects of low-cost phytomass derived ACs. The chapter is expected to provide research insights oriented towards identification of unexplored phytomass or wastes which could lead to carbon with novel properties tunable to the applications. Filth-to-wealth or in other words, recycling of wastes provides a strategy categorized under circular-bioeconomy, which is the want of the hour.
... The copyright holder for this preprint this version posted March 1, 2021. ; https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.01.433331 doi: bioRxiv preprint 242 were turned out to be rare and some compounds get up regulated and showed high peak in the chromatogram (Fig. 4, 243 Table 4 261 aureus (MTCC 902) (Shamsi et. al. 2014). The results from antibacterial activity of SwME revealed that E. coli was 262 the most sensitive strain with highest % inhibition towards methanolic extract. (Stenz et. al. 2008) in their study 263 showed when 9-octadecenoic acid was added after primary adhesion was developed, it stimulated biofilm formation 264 and hence bacterial gr ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The methanolic extract of sandalwood (SwME) was prepared by soxhlet apparatus and the antibacterial assay was performed. Further, the metabolite profiling of SwME and lysates of E. coli and E. coli grown in the presence of SwME was generated. SwME showed maximum inhibition against E. coli (MTCC 443) i.e. 82.71%, and minimal against B. subtilis (MTCC 736) i.e. 26.82%. The metabolome profiles of E. coli and SwME were generated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Comparative studies were done to understand to what extent metabolite modifications differ between SwME, E. coli lysate and the E. coli strain grown in presence of extract. Result revealed 23 peaks with major compounds present in E. coli were 9-Octadecenoic Acid (Z)-, Methyl Ester (26.85%), Hexadecanoic Acid, methyl ester (20.5%) and Hexadecanoic acid, trimethylsilyl ester (15.79%). When E. coli was grown in the presence of SwME, GC-MS analysis showed 25 peaks with major compounds such as 9-Octadecenoic Acid, Methyl Ester (21.97%), Hexadecanoic Acid, Methyl Ester (17.03%), and Hexadecanoic Acid, Trimethylsilyl Ester (14.96%). Correlating the metabolic profiles with the changes occurring is essential to progression their comprehension and in the development of new approaches to identify the metabolomics regulation in E. coli in response to SwME.
... Karthik et al. [11] have prepared activated carbon from Tribulus terrestris and have shown activity against E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus, and K. pneumoniae. Shamsi et al. [12] have reported a clear zone of inhibition of carbon nanoparticles obtained from sandal wood bark against B. cereus, E. coli, C. violeceum, and P. notatum due to these nanoparticles. Dheepan et al. [13] have reported in vitro evaluation of antibacterial efficacy using passiflora foetida-activated carbon against a score of pathogens. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Imprudent use of antimicrobial drugs has resulted in the microbial resistance among the known microbes and hence we foresee a pressing need towards the development of novel, low-cost, and high potent antimicrobials which should be munificent by nature. In the pursuit of the above, phosphoric acid activated low-cost carbon was produced from a renewable phytomass precursor viz., leaves of Vitex negundo L. plant and explored for its antibacterial efficacy against four human pathogens viz., S. aureus, S. pyogenes (Gram-positive bacteria), and E. coli , P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria) by adopting well diffusion method. Carbon yield, burn-off, phase purity, elemental composition, particle morphology, and surface functionalities have been studied by ultimate elemental analysis, X-ray diffractometry, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry respectively. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) was also followed. Plausible mechanism of killing the pathogens by the above activated carbon was also provided. Results Vitex negundo leaves derived activated carbon (VNLAC) was found to contain large number of O-, S- and N-containing surface groups which are supposedly responsible for bestowing antibacterial properties to the carbon derived from Vitex negundo leaves. It has emerged as a potential antibacterial agent for many Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. The inhibition zone of mean diameters ranged from 9 to 25 mm against all the pathogens was significantly ( p < 0.05) less than that of the control viz., ciprofloxacin. Thus, the fundamental experimental results may extend the limits of carbon sources but also the conventional idea of obtaining active carbon to apply in technologies where carbon is inevitable. Conclusion The work not only demonstrates the promising potential of VNLAC as an efficient antibacterial agent but also presents a feasible mechanism of action of removing pathogens. Vitex negundo- derived carbon may become a cheap substitute for cost-prohibitive drugs. The findings of the work illustrate an easy choice as an antibacterial for topical application at infected sites.
... Ethanolic extract was found to be effective against Bacillus cereus [40], and methanolic extract has been effective against B. subtilis [41,42], S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa [43] P. vulgaris, P. syryngea, and Xanthomonas malceverum [44]. The aqueous extract of S. album L. was found to be effective only against S. aureus [45]. ...
Research
Full-text available
Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of some medicinal plants used in Ayurveda in treating multiple drug-resistant human pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods: Dried parts of six medicinal plants used in Ayurveda for treating UTI were Soxhlet extracted, and the extract was concentrated in vacuo. Various concentrations of the extract were tested for antimicrobial activity against three clinical isolates of multiple drug-resistant bacteria causing UTI. Results: Preliminary results showed the promising antibacterial effect of plant extracts. Escherichia coli, the most common pathogen associated with UTI, was susceptible to aqueous extracts of all the six medicinal plants. Conclusion: This study concluded that the medicinal plants used in Ayurveda to treat UTIs are effective against multiple drug-resistant uropathogens. Further study in this regard may lead to the identification of novel antimicrobial agent for treating multiple drug-resistant urinary tract pathogens.
... Sandalwood is an incense tree indigenous to India and also found in few parts of China. Since from olden age, sandalwood oil and powder were used for medicine, religious related matter, perfumes and articles [160]. In medical field, sandalwood is used for the treatment of tumors, cancer, skin acne and infections, hepatitis B, inflammation, headache, and wound healing [161,162]. ...
Article
There is a tremendous global threat by the microbes due to their ability to easily migrate and spread in the environment. Alternatively, resistance mechanisms developed by the microbes against the conventional antimicrobial drugs is of great concern due to significant mortality and morbidity and estimates to about 10 million deaths and 100 trillion USD of the global economic burden by the year 2050. WHO’s global surveillance report of 2014 on antibiotic resistance states that at least50% or more of WHO regions including Africa (77%), West Pacific Region (72%), East Mediterranean region (50%), South East Asia (81%) have developed resistance towards various microbes such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae etc. This poses various challenges to overcome its pathogenic impacts in biomedical and healthcare sector creating a huge economic burden. In recent years, the synthesis and development of novel and potential antimicrobial agents with high antimicrobial activity is an emerging field of interest. The advent of novel nanomaterials is proven to have potential antimicrobial properties as they efficiently eradicate disease causing pathogens without any side effects due to their unique physico-chemical properties. Among various nanomaterials including carbon, activated carbon based nanoparticles (ACNPs) are emerging as effective antimicrobial agents due to their anti-microbial properties. Development of activated carbon nanoparticles, especially from biowaste derived carbon precursor materials, is a recent upcoming technology due to their easy availability, economic viability and low cost and easy methods of production. This review mainly focuses on the recent trends in the development and use of various activated carbon nanoparticles as anti-microbial agents.
... C in post diagnosed cases of breast cancer as it reduces the mortality rate and increases the quality of life. [10] Further, Santalum album, [11] Borage officinalis, [12] Coriandrum sativum, [13] Ocimum sativum, [14] and Nepeta hindostana are immunomodulators, and antioxidants properties. The study also reported that anticancer properties of C. sativum root. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the COVID19 pandemic, there is strong need of immune boosting and mental health approaches which are easily available and traditionally used for preventing as well as managing COVID19 infection. Since past 40 years, Dev Sanskriti University (DSVV) and parent institution (All World Gayatri Pariwar) has been working on various aspects of traditional herbal utility and Yagya Therapy. Vedic texts mentioned use of herbal fumes for health benefits as well as purifying air and removing seasonal pathogens from air through Bheshaj Yajnas (Yagya / Hawan). Bheshaj Yajna (herbal fumigation) was widely used in India to combat seasonal epidemics; scriptures described them in details. Studies have shown Yagya Therapy and herbal fumigation effects in various diseases i,e, common diseases such as diabetes, thyroid, as well as life threatening diseases such as cancer, multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis and in psychological ailments such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and PolyCystic Ovarian Disease, epilepsy, depression, etc., indicating potential of herbal fumes for boosting immunity and aiding psychological wellbeing; besides, the herbal fumes is made using herbs known for their immune boosting and mental health care potential in Ayurveda and traditional knowledge. Hence, the study narrated the selective herbs which are pan-available and widely used traditionally in Yagya Therapy or generating herbal fumes, which can help boosting immunity and aid psychological wellbeing.
Article
Full-text available
The antimicrobial activity of three species of marine Mollusca extracts, Sepia sp. ,Loligo sp. and marine snail Tibia insulaechorab-curta marked as S, L and T respectively were studied against five bacterial species of family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella oxytoca , Proteus mirablis and Serratia liquefaciens) that diagnosed by API 20 E technique. S & T extracts exhibited significant differences to good antimicrobial activity more than L extract. All bacteria were tested have shown susceptible to S and T extracts, Antibacterial sensitivity test of 6 antibacterial antibiotic showed the crude extracts clear effect more than the antibacterial antibiotic. The minimal inhibitory concentration of all extracts were detection .
Article
Full-text available
Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, andGracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, andD. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances.
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules.
Article
Full-text available
Calotropis gigantea is a common wasteland weed and known for various medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to screen leaves of Calotropis gigantea for the antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of bacteria. The aqueous extract of the C. gigantea was studied for its antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by well diffusion method in MH agar. The extract showed significant effect on the tested organisms. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli (17.6±1.15), whereas, lowest against K. pneumoniae (12.6±1.52). Crude extract showed maximum relative percentage inhibition against B. cereus (188.52 %) and lowest relative percentage inhibition against M. luteus (24.92 %). Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was measured by modified agar well diffusion method. Extract showed 50, 25, 6.25, 3.1, 1.5 and 12.5 mg/ml MIC values for S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, M. luteus and E. coli, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to screen leaves of Calotropis gigantea for the anti-Candida properties against four clinical isolates of Candida. Aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves of Calotropis gigantea were screened against clinical isolate of Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The in vitro anti-Candida assay was performed by agar well diffusion method in potato dextrose agar (PDA). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test was performed by modified agar well diffusion assay in PDA. The inhibitory effect of aqueous extract on all four tested Candida species was significantly higher than the methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts. Aqueous extract showed low MIC values against C. tropicalis (125 μg/ml), C. krusei (250 μg/ml) and C. albicans (500 μg/ml), followed by the methanol extract against C. tropicalis, C. krusei (500 μg/ml) and petroleum ether extract against C. tropicalis (500 μg/ml). The results prove Calotropis gigantea as a potent source of natural anti-Candida compounds
Article
With the current upsurge of interest in the function, measurement of efficacy and use of natural antioxidants, testing of antioxidant activity has received much attention. Several methods are being used, both in vitro and in vivo, to determine the antioxidant activity of natural antioxidants. Although, there is a great multiplicity of the methods used for the determination of antioxidant activity, there is no approved standardized in vitro method to evaluate the antioxidants of interest. This article presents a critical review of the various in vitro methods used for the determination of antioxidant activity and their merits and limitations.
Article
Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and continues to be an abundant source of novel chemotypes and pharmacophores. With only 5 to 15% of the approximately 250 000 species of higher plants systematically investigated, and the potential of the marine environment barely tapped, these areas will remain a rich source of novel bioactive compounds. Less than 1% of bacterial and 5% of fungal species are currently known, and the potential of novel microbial sources, particularly those found in extreme environments, seems unbounded. To these natural sources can be added the potential to investigate the rational design of novel structure types within certain classes of microbial metabolites through genetic engineering. It is apparent that Nature can provide the novel chemical scaffolds for elaboration by combinatorial approaches (chemical and biochemical), thus leading to agents that have been optimized on the basis of their pharmacological activities. The proven natural product drug discovery track record, coupled with the continuing threat to biodiversity through the destruction of terrestrial and marine ecosystems and the current low number of new chemical entities in pharmaceutical industry pipelines, provides a compelling argument in favor of expanded multidisciplinary and international collaboration in the exploration of Nature as a source of novel leads for the development of drugs and other valuable bioactive agents.
Article
The antibiotic era started in the 1940s and changed the profile of infectious diseases and human demography. The burgeoning classes and numbers promised much and elimination of this major cause of human (and animal) morbidity appeared possible. Bacterial antibiotic resistance which was observed soon after antibiotic introduction has been studied extensively. Diverse mechanisms have been demonstrated and the genetic basis elucidated. The resilience of the prokaryote ecosystems to antibiotic stress has been realized. The paper presents these subjects briefly to afford an overview. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is dealt with and community practices in different countries are described. The role of high antibiotic usage environments is indicated. The implication of the wide use of antibiotics in animals has been pointed out. Steadily increasing antibiotic resistance and decreasing numbers of newer antibiotics appear to point to a post-antibiotic period during which treatment of infections would become increasingly difficult. This article attempts to review the global antimicrobial resistance scene and juxtaposes it to the Indian experience. The prevalence in India of antibiotic resistance among major groups of pathogens is described. The factors that determine the prevalent high antibiotic resistance rates have been highlighted. The future research activity to ensure continued utility of antibiotics in the control of infections has been indicated.
Article
A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.