If an organization deals with confidential and sensitive information, the choose your own device (CYOD) model may
be appropriate. In the CYOD model, the organization still owns the IT devices/equipment, but provides more options
for the user to choose from (Twentyman, 2012). BYOD is widely used around the world, particularly in mature
markets in the Americas region, and parts of Europe, with much potential to expand in emerging, high-growth
markets, such as the BRIC countries. There are several promising trends, pros, and cons in regards to BYOD.
Current issues (e.g., increased productivity, security, safety, privacy, etc.) and future directions in IS education under
BYOD environment should be evaluated, along with bring your own service (BYOS) or bring your own apps (BYOA).
III. CURRENT STATUS OF BYOD
BYOD has often been viewed as a policy allowing employees to use their mobile devices at work. However, with
BYOD’s recent popularity, it has become more than just the use of mobile devices at work. BYOD has become
associated with the benefits gained from employees using their personal devices at work in order to increase their
productivity, job satisfaction, and mobility. Organizations can choose to take either a passive or active approach to
BYOD. The passive approach is where organizations allow employees to bring their personal devices to work and
use them for work activities. The active approach is where organizations create an explicit BYOD policy and
implement it in the work environment. An active approach to BYOD relies on personal devices and requires an
infrastructure to support and evaluate efficiency (Hockly, 2012).
The use of smart technology at the workplace has been around since the invention of the Blackberry. Organizations
often provided these devices to increase the mobility and productivity of their employees. However, the introduction
of new smarts phones such as iPhone and Android have fueled BYOD in the workplace. Employees desire to use
devices that they are more familiar with, and younger employees particularly have grown up with many of these
devices prior to entering the workforce (Mansfield-Devine, 2012). While smart devices are considered a primary
source of the BYOD trend, BYOD is not limited to just these devices. BYOD devices include any device that is
mobile and purchased by the user themselves, such as laptops, netbooks, e-readers, smartphones, tab devices, and
so on (Thomson, 2012).
The BYOD phenomenon has reached a global scale with over 71 percent of companies worldwide changing at least
one process to allow for BYOD (Qing, 2013). The United States saw an 18 percent increase of active BYOD
implementation in 2013 over 2012 (Nusca, 2013). Examples of BYOD implementations can been seen in schools
(University of Tennessee Knoxville, University of South Florida, Seton Hall University), school districts (Napa Valley
Unified School District, Plum Borough School District), and organizations (Cisco, Colgate-Palmolive, IBM). The U.S.
Government has gotten on board with BYOD by providing a toolkit to support federal agencies that wish to
implement BYOD. Apple and Samsung have provided information on their websites to help organizations implement
their own BYOD solutions, while companies such as Cisco, IBM, and Intel offer BYOD solutions to organizations.
While the trend of BYOD continues to grow in the US, the highest penetration of BYOD can be viewed in Pacific
Asia with a 77 percent increase in 2013 over 2012 (Nusca, 2013). European companies have displayed a different
trend in terms of BYOD implementation with a reported 15 percent reduction of BYOD usage in 2013 over 2012
(Yahoo!, 2013). To compensate for the reduction of BYOD devices, companies in Western Europe have increased
the number of corporate-liable devices by 43 percent (Nusca, 2013).
Table 1: BYOD change from 2012 to 2013
Percent Change (2012 2013)
Europe (Corporate owned devices)
Note: 71% of companies worldwide changed at least one process to adapt to BYOD.
Despite a high penetration of BYOD among organizations in the US and Pacific Asia, not all employees actually use
their own devices at work (i.e., not all are “BYOD enabled”). Many BYOD implementations are limited to specific
areas and roles in organizations. For example, IBM has a reported 435,000 employees worldwide with only 80,000
(18.4%) of those employees being BYOD enabled. There are certain positions in an organization that fit very well
with a BYOD strategy and other positions that don’t. A common misconception about BYOD is that having
employees purchase their own devices can save the company money, but recent data proves to contradict this
notion. As Pepin (2013) reports, many BYOD solutions require the company to pay voice and data service charges
for their employees’ devices. However, the reality is that many organizations report that they implemented BYOD to
increase productivity rather than reduce costs (Intel, 2012). While BYOD has shown several advantages such as
increase mobility, job satisfaction, and productivity, there are many challenges that companies face when
implementing these strategies.