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Two Remarkable New Species of Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae) from Central Ecuador

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Abstract

FREIBERG M. 1998. Two remarkable new species of Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae) from Central Ecuador. -Phyton (Horn, Austria) 38 (1): 167-173, 2 figures. -English with German summary. The Gesneriad Flora of the Bosque Protector Otonga, Province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador, has been investigated. The new species Gasteranthus magentatus M. FREI-BERG (a small herb with magenta coloured flowers) and G. otongensis M. FREIBERG (corolla shorter than the red calyx) are described and illustrated. Zusammenfassung FREIBERG M. 1998. Zwei bemerkenswerte neue Arten von Gasteranthus (Ges-neriaceae) aus Zentral-Ecuador. -Phyton (Horn, Austria) 38 (1): 167-173, 2 Abbil-dungen. -Englisch mit deutscher Zusammenfassung. Die Gesneriaceenflora des Bosque Protector Otonga, Provinz Cotopaxi, Ecuador, wurde untersucht. Die neuen Arten Gasteranthus magentatus M. FREIBERG (krautig, mit magentaroten Blüten) und G. otongensis M. FREIBERG (Krone kürzer als der rote Kelch) werden beschrieben und illustriert.
Phyton (Horn, Austria)
Vol.
38
Fase.
1 167-173
14.
8. 1998
Two Remarkable
New
Species
of
Gasteranthus
(Gesneriaceae)
from Central Ecuador
by
Martin
FREIBERG*)
With 2 Figures
Received December 22, 1997
Keywords: Gasteranthus magentatus spec, nova, Gasteranthus otongensis
spec,
nova, Gesneriaceae. - Taxonomy. - Flora of Ecuador
Summary
FREIBERG
M. 1998. Two remarkable new species of Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae)
from Central Ecuador. - Phyton (Horn, Austria) 38 (1): 167-173, 2 figures. - English
with German summary.
The Gesneriad Flora of the Bosque Protector Otonga, Province of Cotopaxi,
Ecuador, has been investigated. The new species Gasteranthus magentatus M.
FREI-
BERG
(a small herb with magenta coloured flowers) and G. otongensis M.
FREIBERG
(corolla shorter than the red calyx) are described and illustrated.
Zusammenfassung
FREIBERG
M. 1998. Zwei bemerkenswerte neue Arten von Gasteranthus (Ges-
neriaceae) aus Zentral-Ecuador. - Phyton (Horn, Austria) 38 (1): 167-173, 2 Abbil-
dungen. - Englisch mit deutscher Zusammenfassung.
Die Gesneriaceenflora des Bosque Protector Otonga, Provinz Cotopaxi, Ecuador,
wurde untersucht. Die neuen Arten Gasteranthus magentatus M.
FREIBERG
(krautig,
mit magentaroten Blüten) und G. otongensis M.
FREIBERG
(Krone kürzer als der rote
Kelch) werden beschrieben und illustriert.
Introduction
The Bosque Protector Otonga
is
located about 4
km
North West
of San
Francisco
de Las
Pampas, Province
of
Cotopaxi, Central Ecuador. This
is
*) Dr. Martin
FREIBERG,
Abteilung Spezielle Botanik, Universität Ulm, Albert-
Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm, Germany.
©Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at
168
about 40 km of direct line southeast to Quito. The private Reserve of
Otonga consists of about 300 ha of mainly primary premontane and mon-
tane wet tropical forest. The Station of the Reserve is located at 0° 25' S
and 79° 0' W at 1800 m a.s.l. The altitude ranges between 1600 m a.s.l. on
the border of the reserve at Rio Esmeraldas and 2200 m a.s.l. on top of the
surrounding ridges. The topography is heavily ridged, with ground in-
clinations up to 45°. Data on precipitaion and temperature are not com-
plete for a year round basis, but first measurements and comparisons to
nearby locations show that an average yearly rainfall of 3000 mm and a
temperature between about 15°C to 21°C is to be expected. A dry season
exists between July and October, but during these months the area is still
regularly covered by clouds. The average canopy height is about 20-30 m,
whereas the canopy is not completely closed and a lot of openings support
a dense shrubby and herbaceous ground flora. Reserve and station was
initiated and is managed by Dr. Giovanni
ONOKE
of Pontificia Universidad
Catdlica de Quito with help of Cesar, Carmen, Elicio, Italo, Irene and Ar-
turo
TAPIA
of San Franciso de Las Pampas.
Gasteranthus magentatus
M.FREIBERG
spec, nova (Fig. 1)
Diagnosis: Forma et color corollae calycisque Gasterantho trifoliato
M.
FREIBERG
similis, sed ab eo corollis majoribus, habitu herbaceo, nodis
bifoliatis et foliorum lamina ovato-elliptica distinguitur.
Description: Low, erect herb, between 50 and 80 cm high, stems
unbranched, internodes tomentose, especially close to the apex, pale green,
round. Leaves of a pair equal, somewhat clustered at apex, petiole 20 mm,
shortly tomentose, lamina ovate-elliptic, 10-11 cm long and 4 cm wide in
the middle, cuneate at base, acuminate at apex, entire, membranous, scar-
cely tomentose and shiny above, tomentose beneath, especially on the
veins,
primary veins 8-10 pairs, dark green above, pale green beneath,
clustered stomata as conspicous white dots; Inflorescence a pseudoterm-
inal axillary cyme reduced up to one flower, peduncle 5-10 cm, usually one
flower, but up to three per node, glabrous, pale green, the pedicels 1 cm,
glabrous, bracts minutely, reduced. Calyx lobes subequal, ovate, obtuse,
base connate for 3-5 mm, margin entire, glabrous externally, glandulous
internally, light green, with base and veins paler, pale dotted, the dorsal
lobe 20-23 x 13-15 mm, the lateral lobes 20 x 8-10 mm, the ventral
22 x 10 mm, all lobes widest at base. Corolla horizontal in calyx, urceolate,
ventral pouch 15-20 mm wide, magenta coloured, in total 25-32 mm long,
glandular tomentose externally, spurred at ventral base, the spur 5 mm
long and 5-6 mm wide, throat contracted, opening 3x3 mm, petal lobes
subequal, entire, rounded, 3x4 mm, glandular tomentose. Stamens in-
cluded, about 5 mm inserted above base of the corolla, free part 10-14 mm,
©Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at
169
Gasteranthus magentatus
2 mm 9
Fig. 1. - Gasteranthus magentatus M.
FREIBERG.
- a habit and detail of leaf margin. -
b side view of corolla and calyx. - c front view of corolla and calyx. - d base of corolla
showing spur. - e dorsal view of the base of the gynoecium (sepals and petals
removed) showing the nectary and the staminodium. - f lateral view of the
gynoecium. - g anthers from above.
glabrous, flat, base 1 mm enlarged towards spur, staminode 5 mm, glab-
rous,
inserted at the base of the spur, anthers connate, 2x3 mm. Ovary
laterally compressed, glabrous, 7 mm long, 7 mm high and 5 mm wide,
style included, 10-12 mm, glabrous, stigma bilobed. Nectary half-ring
©Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at
170
shaped, dorsally, 1.5 mm high, 5 mm wide, glabrous. Fruit a flattened, bi-
valved, fleshy capsule, about 10 x 15 mm, calyx lobes enlarged and bended
downwards. Seeds black, tuberculate, 0.5 x 0.2 mm.
Gasteranthus magentatus grows in primary, montane forests at about
1800 m a.s.L. March is the main flowering season. It has also been reported
from the Rio Guajalito Reseve, which is located about 30 km northeast of
Bosque Protector Otonga.
Form and colour of the corolla resemble G. trifoliatus M. FREIBERG,
which has been described from the Los Cedros Biological Reserve in the
Northwest of Ecuador (FREIBERG 1996), but the habitus of G. magentatus
being a small herb rather than a shrub, the larger corolla and the different
leaves make it a well defined, distinct species.
Etymology: "magentatus" refers to the conspicously magenta co-
loured corolla of this species, which makes it visible for up to a hundred
meters in direct sight.
Holotype: ULM M. FREIBERG 96047, 05. 04. 1996
Gasteranthus otongensis M.FREIBERG spec, nova (Fig. 2)
Diagnosis: Haec species insignis calycibus longioribus quam cor-
ollis,
calycibus conspicue rubris, crassis et indumento totae plantae vil-
loso-tomentoso.
Description: Erect subshrub, up to 1 m high, base slightly woody,
stems usually unbranched, densely villous-tomentose below apex, less
near base, internodes 2-5 cm long, 4-8 mm in diameter, round, seagreen.
Leaves of a pair equal, petiole 1-2.5 cm long, densely villous-tomentose,
lamina elliptic, 9-12 cm long and 4-6 cm wide, cuneate at base, obtuse to
shortly acute at apex, crenate, chartaceous and reticulated, villous-to-
mentose above and beneath, especially on the veins, primary veins 7-11
pairs,
deep green from above, appearing grey from side, sea-green beneath.
Inflorescence axillary, projecting over the apex, subumbellate, cymes with
6-20 flowers, only one open at a time, peduncle 3-8 cm, densely villous-
tomentose, grey-green, the pedicels 3-6 (8) mm, densely villous-tomentose.
Calyx lobes subequal, thick, lanceolate, acuminate, base connate for 4 mm,
margin denticulate to subentire, densely villous-tomentose on both sides,
red, basally paler, the dorsal lobe 23x6 mm, bended upwardly, the lateral
lobes 27 x
7
mm, the ventral 28-30 x 6-7 mm, all lobes widest at base. Cor-
olla horizontal in the calyx, ventricose, ventral pouch 2 mm, yolk yellow to
flame coloured, pale yellow towards base and spur, densely villous-to-
mentose externally, glabrous at base, hairs red towards apex, total length
18-22 mm, spurred at ventral base, the spur obtuse, about 2 mm long,
throat not contracted, limb terminal, lobes subequal, entire, rotund, 2-
3x3 mm, tube towards apex slightly tomentose internally, basally pa-
pillose. Stamens included, about 2-3 mm inserted above base of the cor-
©Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at
171
Gasteranthus otongensis
Fig. 2. - Gasteranthus otongensis M.
FREIBERG.
- a habit and detail of leaf margin,
indumentum not shown. - b side view of corolla showing spur. - c front view of cor-
olla. - d side view of calyx and almost completely hidden corolla. - e dorsal view of
the base of the gynoecium (sepals and petals removed) showing the nectary. - f lateral
view of the gynoecium. - g anther from above (left) and below (right).
olla, free part 6-7 mm, glabrous, basally papillose, staminode 3 mm, an-
thers connate, 2.5x2 mm. Ovary ovoid, laterally compressed, tomentose,
4 mm long, 3 mm high, 2 mm wide, style included, 6 mm long, tomentose,
stigma bilobed. Nectary annular, dorsally bilobed, laterally and ventrally
reduced, sparsely tomentose towards ovary, basally glabrous, dorsally
©Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at
172
1.5 mm high, 3 mm wide. Fruit a flattened, bivalved, fleshy capsule, calyx
lobes widened and bended downwards. Seeds black.
Gasteranthus otongensis grows in primary, montane forests of the
Bosque Protector Otonga. Stands are scattered in shaded areas close to
small creeks. It is especially abundant in the valley along Rio Esmeraldas.
The flowering season starts in July, fruiting season is March and April.
The corolla of this Gasteranthus is totally hidden in the conspicously
red coloured calyx lobes, which are themselves clustered in dense in-
florescences above the apex of the stems. In most other species of the genus
the brightly coloured corolla functions as the main pollinator attractor.
Superficially it resembles Gasteranthus quitensis
BENTH.,
but form, size
and colour of this species along with differences of the leaves provide
clearly distinct features.
Etymology: "otongensis" is derived from the Bosque Protector
Otonga, which is the only location so far where this species was found.
Holotype: QCA M.
FREIBERG
96263,
27. 07. 1996 (Isotypes QCNE,
ULM)
Discussion
The Genus Gasteranthus consists of about 40 species in the tribe
Beslerieae of the subfamily Gesnerioideae in the family Gesneriaceae
(BURTT
&
WIEHLER
1995). It is closely related to the genus Besleria, with
which it was combined by several authors (e.g.
MORTON
1939) as a section
or subsection, until
WIEHLER
1975 redefined Gasteranthus as a distinct
genus. The genus Gasteranthus itself was established already in 1846 by
BENTHAM
(p. 233), based on G. quitensis, but at that time defined on su-
perficial structures. Main differences are the fleshy capsule rather than a
berry, clustered stomata on the surface of the leaves, which often appear as
pale dots, and the shape of the nectaries.
Two groups in Gasteranthus can be distinguished: those with urceo-
late,
mostly pouched, ornithophilous flowers and those with funnelform
flowers, the latter which is often pollinated by Euglossine bees
(WIEHLER
1975).
Both groups could be considered as sections in the genus. G. ma-
gentatus clearly has urceolate flowers and rises the known number of
Gasteranthus of this section. G. otongensis is a somewhat intermediate: the
throat is not constricted, but a small pouch at the base of the corolla can be
distinguished.
The very local distribution of some Gasteranthus species and the still
rising number of species make it difficult to further subdivide the genus.
Studies on the pollination biology together with detailed distribution
maps,
especially in the highly ridged areas of the Andes, would help a lot
in our further understanding of this genus. The ongoing deforestation and
consequently the endanger of endemic species is thus a great obstacle.
©Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at
173
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the Director of the Herbarium of Pontificia Universidad
Catölica del Ecuador (QCA), Dr. Renato
VALENCIA,
who gently provided logistical
support. The friendly help of Dr. Giovanni
ONORE
of Pontificia Universidad Catölica
de Quito, the manager and owner of Otonga as well as Carmen, Elicio, Italo, Irene
and Arturo
TAPIA
and especially Cesar
TAPIA
of San Franciso de Las Pampas made
this investigation possible and is honored very much. Thanks also to Dr. E.
FREIBERG,
who patiently helped in making the illustrations and supported the investigation in
all directions. Financial support was given by DFG (German research council) grant
FR
1150/3-1.
References
BENTHAM
G. 1846. Plantas hartwegianas. - London
BURTT
B. L. &
WIEHLER
H. 1995. Classification of the Family Gesneriaceae. - Ges-
neriana 1: 1-4.
FREIBERG M.
1996. The Gesneriad Flora of the Los Cedros Biological Reserve, North-
west Ecuador, Part 1: Four new species in Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae). -
Phyton (Horn, Austria) 36: 303-309.
MORTON C. V.
1939. A Revision of Besleria. - Contr. U.S. nation. Herb. 26: 395-474.
WIEHLER
H. 1975. Besleria L. and the re-establishment of Gasteranthus
BENTH.
(Gesneriaceae).
- Selbyana 1: 150-156.
Phyton (Horn, Austria) 38 (1): 173-174 (1998)
Recensio
ROTH
Lutz &
KORMANN
Kurt 1997. Duftpflanzen Pflanzendüfte. Ätherische Öle
und Riechstoffe. - Gr., 544 Seiten, 10 Schwarz-Weiß-Abbbildungen, 164 Farb-
Abbildungen; geb. - Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft D-86887 Landsberg. - DM
128,-.
-
ISBN 3-609-65140-7.
Der Einführungsabschnitt (p. 9-43) enthält kurze Hinweise zur Geschichte der
Duftstoffe und ihrer Gewinnung, Erläuterungen von Fachbegriffen (z.B. Balsame,
Absolues, Concretes, Enfleurage), einen Abschnitt über die Rohstoffe (natürliche,
synthetische, Lösungsmittel), Tabellen von Pflanzen bzw. Pflanzenprodukten nach
©Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at
... It should be noted that there is considerable variation in A. divaricatum from northern Peru (Boggan et al., 2008) and that further studies may merit recognition of additional species. This species and the one following were among 10 published by Martin Freiberg based on collections from expeditions in northwestern Ecuador (Freiberg, 1996(Freiberg, , 1998(Freiberg, , 2000. Some of the types designated by Freiberg and isotypes cited in his publications as being at Ecuadorian herbaria have either not yet been distributed or are still only available from the University of Ulm (ULM). ...
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Fieldwork and current research projects in Central and South America on the Gesneriaceae have shown that nomenclatural and taxonomic changes are needed. The Ecuadorian endemic species Columnea albovinosa (M. Freiberg) J. L. Clark & L. E. Skog is transferred from Dalbergaria Tussac. The name Pentadenia lutea M. Freiberg is synonymized with C. angustata (Wiehler) L. E. Skog. Amalophyllon ecuadoranum (Wiehler) J. L. Clark, comb. nov., is recognized as a species distinct from A. divaricatum (Poepp.) Boggan, L. E. Skog & Roalson. The application of the name C. serrata (Klotzsch ex Oerst.) Hanst. is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The new name Drymonia ovatifolia J. L. Clark is made for the species Nautilocalyx dressleri Wiehler. Resia bracteata, a name originally published without a Latin diagnosis, is here validly published as R. bracteata J. L. Clark & L. E. Skog. El trabajo de campo en Gesneriaceae realizado en Centro y Sur América, ha evidenciado la necesidad de realizar algunos cambios taxonómicos y nomenclaturales. Columnea albovinosa (M. Freiberg) J. L. Clark & L. E. Skog, especie endémica de Ecuador, se transfiere de Dalbergaria Tussac. Pentadenia lutea M. Freiberg es sinonimizada con C. angustata (Wiehler) L. E. Skog. Se reconoce a Amalophyllon ecuadoranum (Wiehler) J. L. Clark, comb. nov., como una especie diferente de A. divaricatum (Poepp.) Boggan, L. E. Skog & Roalson. Para preservar la estabilidad de la especie se designa un neotipo para C. serrata (Klotzsch ex Oerst.) Hanst. Se crea un nuevo nombre, Drymonia ovatifolia J. L. Clark, para la especie Nautilocalyx dressleri Wiehler. La especie Resia bracteata, orignialmente publicada sin la diagnosis en latín, es válidamente publicada como R. bracteata J. L. Clark & L. E. Skog.
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Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae; Beslerieae) includes 38 species restricted to the New World tropics. The genus has a limited distribution in Central and South America, with a center of diversity in western Ecuador. This study investigates cladistic relationships among species of Gasteranthus using floral and vegetative morphological data. Corolla shape in Gasteranthus ranges from funnelform to urceolate and ventricose, with additional variation in corolla spur and corolla ventral pouch morphology. Our analysis revealed that there were likely single primary innovations of the three major corolla types, although only one of the three types forms a monophyletic group. Apparently, ventricose corollas were derived from funnelform corollas and urceolate corollas were derived from ventricose corollas, making the funnelform and ventricose corolla groups both paraphyletic. Spurs have been lost twice in Gasteranthus. Conspicuousness of stomatal clusters is quite homoplastic given the phylogenetic hypothesis. Communicating Editor: Thomas G. Lammers
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The gesneriad flora of the Reserva Río Guajalito, Province of Pichincha, and Bosque Protector Otonga, Province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador have been investigated. Three new species,Gasteranthus aurantiacus M. Freiberg,G. atrolimbus M. Freiberg, andG. acuticarinatus M. Freiberg, are described and illustrated in preparation for a contribution for the Gesneriaceae in the Flora of Ecuador. While bothG. acuticarinatus andG. atrolimbus are characterized by a dorsal keel on a tubular, pink to wine-red corolla, the infundibulate, bright orange-colored corolla ofG. aurantiacus has a rather wide opening and a large limb.
Duftpflanzen Pflanzendüfte. Ätherische Öle und Riechstoffe. -Gr. 8°, 544 Seiten, 10 Schwarz-Weiß-Abbbildungen, 164 Farb- Abbildungen; geb
  • Roth Recensio
  • Lutz
  • Kormann Kurt
Phyton (Horn, Austria) 38 (1): 173-174 (1998) Recensio ROTH Lutz & KORMANN Kurt 1997. Duftpflanzen Pflanzendüfte. Ätherische Öle und Riechstoffe. -Gr. 8°, 544 Seiten, 10 Schwarz-Weiß-Abbbildungen, 164 Farb- Abbildungen; geb. -Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft D-86887 Landsberg. -DM 128,-. - ISBN 3-609-65140-7.
) enthält kurze Hinweise zur Geschichte der Duftstoffe und ihrer Gewinnung
  • Der Einführungsabschnitt
Der Einführungsabschnitt (p. 9-43) enthält kurze Hinweise zur Geschichte der Duftstoffe und ihrer Gewinnung, Erläuterungen von Fachbegriffen (z.B. Balsame, Absolues, Concretes, Enfleurage), einen Abschnitt über die Rohstoffe (natürliche, synthetische, Lösungsmittel), Tabellen von Pflanzen bzw. Pflanzenprodukten nach
Plantas hartwegianas
  • Burtt B L Wiehler H
BENTHAM G. 1846. Plantas hartwegianas. -London BURTT B. L. & WIEHLER H. 1995. Classification of the Family Gesneriaceae. -Gesneriana 1: 1-4.
Besleria L. and the re-establishment of Gasteranthus BENTH. (Gesneriaceae)
WIEHLER H. 1975. Besleria L. and the re-establishment of Gasteranthus BENTH. (Gesneriaceae). -Selbyana 1: 150-156.
The Gesneriad Flora of the Los Cedros Biological Reserve, Northwest Ecuador, Part 1: Four new species in Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae)
FREIBERG M. 1996. The Gesneriad Flora of the Los Cedros Biological Reserve, Northwest Ecuador, Part 1: Four new species in Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae). - Phyton (Horn, Austria) 36: 303-309.
The Gesneriad Flora of the Los Cedros Biological Reserve
  • Freiberg M
FREIBERG M. 1996. The Gesneriad Flora of the Los Cedros Biological Reserve, Northwest Ecuador, Part 1: Four new species in Gasteranthus (Gesneriaceae). -Phyton (Horn, Austria) 36: 303-309.
Besleria L. and the re-establishment of
  • H Wiehler
WIEHLER H. 1975. Besleria L. and the re-establishment of Gasteranthus BENTH. (Gesneriaceae). -Selbyana 1: 150-156.