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This position paper outlines the authors' vision on how the Web of Things, using interconnected devices, including sensor nodes, mobile phones and conventional computers can help improve the overall health and wellbeing of its users. We describe ongoing work being carried by our research group both at PUC-Rio and at Lancaster University as well as the motivating background.
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... External access to intrabody nanonetworks requires a hybrid interface device that understands both paradigms' communication protocols, specifically biochemical signals generated by intrabody nanonetworks and electromagnetic signals received from the Internet. Bio-cyber interfacing can be summarily defined as a set of operations performed in sequence to convert biochemical signals received from intra-body nanonetworks into electrical signals for the cyber domain of Internet and vice versa [23]. In other words, the design and modeling of the bio-cyber interface are crucial yet challenging in IoBNT implementation. ...
... Flexible and stretchable wearable electronics are getting interdisciplinary research attention as they promise to deliver continuous patient monitoring [23], [124] while circumventing the possible discomfort caused by regular wearable electronics. There are a number of biomedical conditions that require frequent monitoring of patients at regular intervals, for example, glucose monitoring for diabetic patients, fitness monitoring of athletes, real-time detection of pathogens in biofluids for the plausible onset of disease [125]. ...
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Advances in synthetic biology and nanotechnology have contributed to the design of tools that can be used to control, reuse, modify, and re-engineer cells' structure, as well as enabling engineers to effectively use biological cells as programmable substrates to realize Bio-NanoThings (biological embedded computing devices). Bio-NanoThings are generally tiny, non-intrusive, and concealable devices that can be used for in-vivo applications such as intra-body sensing and actuation networks, where the use of artificial devices can be detrimental. Such (nano-scale) devices can be used in various healthcare settings such as continuous health monitoring, targeted drug delivery, and nano-surgeries. These services can also be grouped to form a collaborative network (i.e., nanonetwork), whose performance can potentially be improved when connected to higher bandwidth external networks such as the Internet, say via 5G. However, to realize the IoBNT paradigm, it is also important to seamlessly connect the biological environment with the technological landscape by having a dynamic interface design to convert biochemical signals from the human body into an equivalent electromagnetic signal (and vice versa). This, unfortunately, risks the exposure of internal biological mechanisms to cyber-based sensing and medical actuation, with potential security and privacy implications. This paper comprehensively reviews bio-cyber interface for IoBNT architecture, focusing on bio-cyber interfacing options for IoBNT like biologically inspired bio-electronic devices, RFID enabled implantable chips, and electronic tattoos. This study also identifies known and potential security and privacy vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies for consideration in future IoBNT designs and implementations. INDEX TERMS Bio-cyber interface, Internet of bio-nano things, bio-electronic device security, bio-inspired security approaches.
... Even counting on individual agents, whose behaviors are relatively simple, these systems have complex behaviors due to interactions between its agents. This architecture was proposed for facilitating the integration of the following technologies:  Collaborative 3D environments;  Sensors and actuators used in a ubiquitous computing environment [10];  Wearable computers -clothing and accessories with computer devices connected to sensors and actuators; due to their proximity to the body, these wearables are part of the personal space of the users [11];  Tangible interfaces, employing physical artifacts to represent and control digital information [12]; and  MASs, which allow the simulation of intelligent behavior, such as problem solving and learning ability, using approaches such as neural networks and Markov Models. ...
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