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Quality characteristics of West African Shea Butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) and approaches to extend shelf-life

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... At global level it is in great demand among chocolate, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as well as biodiesel production (Bello-Bravo et al., 2015). Shea fat is the main component of the kernel and it is principally composed of triglycerides and a large fraction (5-17%) of unsaponifiable compounds that make this fat useful for cosmetic purposes (Maranz et al., 2004;Nahm, 2011). Among shea fatty acids, stearic fatty acid and oleic fatty acid represent 90% of the total fatty acids (Honfo et al., 2014;Maranz et al., 2004). ...
... Among shea fatty acids, stearic fatty acid and oleic fatty acid represent 90% of the total fatty acids (Honfo et al., 2014;Maranz et al., 2004). The unsaponifiable fraction of shea butter is mainly composed of triterpene alcohols, tocopherol, phenols, and sterols (Maranz et al., 2003;Nahm, 2011). Shea fat distribution and structure in the kernel are important in determining its physical and chemical properties as well as its extractability. ...
... All these conditions often lead to the germination of the nuts and exposed the nuts to external agents such as microorganisms, moisture and insects, which affected the quality of the final products (kernel and butter). Germination of nuts also led to the reduction of butter yield, affected the quality and gave the butter a bitter taste (Nahm, 2011). ...
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Two traditional treatments for shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) butter processing namely storage of fresh nuts and duration of subsequent boiling were studied by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine best treatment. Experimental treatments influenced several kernel parameters, such as fat content (38-52% dw), redness (a* values between 6.3 and 11.7), and butter parameters, viz. yield (24 to 36% wet weight of kernel mass), brightness (L* values between 70-80), yellowness (b* values between 16-23), and free fatty acid (FFA) percentage (0.5-2%). On the other hand, the moisture content (6-8%) of the kernels and the peroxide values (2.3-3.8 meq O 2 /kg) of the butter were not affected. Storage for 3 days and boiling for 28 ± 3 min gave the best results, that is, kernels with a moisture content of 7% and a fat content of 50% dw. Butter extracted by traditional technique from these kernels yielded 32% on wet weight of kernel mass with 0.8% of FFA, and 2.5 meq O 2 /kg of peroxide. This butter can be used for food and cosmetic purposes without refining. Furthermore, the microstructure of fresh shea nuts, studied with Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy, showed large and small fat globules with some free spaces inside.
... Unrefined Shea butter is ivory to yellow in colour with a slightly nutty aroma. It predominantly comprises of approximately 40-45% of stearic acid and oleic acid in almost equal proportion depending on geographical distribution [1]. Shea butter also contains relatively high amounts of unsaponifiable matter ranging from 4 to 16% as compared to other fats such as Cocoa butter with unsaponifiable content <2% [2]. ...
... Shea butter is well known as a natural vitamin A cream used for a wide range of skin solutions including; moisturizing, anti-aging, rejuvenating, sunscreen, antiinflammatory among others [1]. West Africa Shea butter is solid to semi solid at room temperature. ...
... West African Shea butter such as Ghana and Nigeria Shea butter is mostly used in the confectionary industries as Cocoa butter substitute (CBS) due to similarity in hardness and Fatty acids profile [1]. Shea butter used as CBS is always refined. ...
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Shea butter, like other polymorphic fats are susceptible to morphological changes due to post harvest practices to produce either smooth and consistent fat containing predominantly β'-crystals or coarse and grainy fat containing predominantly β-crystals. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of temperature control (tempering) and agitation on the rheological and microstructural properties of Shea butter. Shea butter was heated at 80°C for 30 minutes and then fast cooled to room temperature. Tempered Shea butter was kept constant at tempering temperature with continuous agitation for 6 hours. Slip melting point and viscosity of tempered Shea butter was significantly reduced. The hardness index (mm) showed twice reduction compared to control. Rheological properties of tempered butter in comparison with control were in agreement with differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction results and micrographs.
... paradoxa), commonly known as shea butter tree, belongs to Sapotaceae family and is largely distributed to the semi-arid zone of sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal in the west to Uganda [11] . Shea butter has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa for medicinal, culinary and other applications and served as a cocoa butter equivalent in the manufacture of chocolate as well as an ingredient in cosmetics [12] . It is the main edible oil for the people of Northern Ghana and much of Western Africa and the most important source of fatty acids and glycerol in their diet [12] . ...
... Shea butter has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa for medicinal, culinary and other applications and served as a cocoa butter equivalent in the manufacture of chocolate as well as an ingredient in cosmetics [12] . It is the main edible oil for the people of Northern Ghana and much of Western Africa and the most important source of fatty acids and glycerol in their diet [12] . Despite being increasingly replaced by commercially produced lotions in many communities, shea butter is traditionally used as a skin and hair moisturizer and for the protection against the sun [13] . ...
... The healing effect of L. abyssinica extract was observed from the ninth day (the third day of treatment) since there was a significant and dosedependent decrease of bacterial load in infected animals under treatment. Similarly, there was a slight decrease in bacterial load in negative control group animals but the load remained relatively high on the last day of treatment (1.93×10 6 ) as compared to that of animals receiving different doses of extract which were healed after 12 ...
Article
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Objective To evaluate the effect of bacterial infection on cell oxidation and to study the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Ludwigia abyssinica and Vitellaria paradoxa. Methods The Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats (1.5×108 CFU) concurrently received either different doses of plant extract (55, 110, 220 and 440 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (vitamin C 100 mg/kg) daily for 18 d. The parameters like, lipid profile, reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and bilirubin were assessed. Results Infection has resulted in an increase of heart reduced glutathione, heart and kidneys malondihaldehyde and liver superoxide dismutase activity followed by decreases of that of heart. The administration of the extract at 55, 110, 220 and 440 mg/kg body has resulted in the correction of some of these injuries. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that aqueous extract of Ludwigia abyssinica and Vitellaria paradoxa can fight against bacterial infection and cell oxidation induced by infection with Salmonella typhimurium.
... The major cause of photocarcinogenesis is UVB radiation (290-320 nm) since it directly interacts with cellular DNA, forming cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and thymine glycols [45]. Cinnamate esters of triterpene alcohol which are the main constituent of Shea butter's unsaponifiable fraction are known to have strong absorbance of UV radiation in the wavelength range at 250-300 nm, which make the addition of Shea butter's unsaponifiables into sunscreens provide synergistic sun-protection by increasing absorption of UVB radiation [46]. However, the effectiveness of the triterpenes is somewhat doubted since studies using double-fractionated Shea butter with 20% of triterpene esters found that this triterpenic fraction only provided the sun protection factor (SPF) of 3-4 [36,47]. ...
... As an emollient and skin moisturizer: Due to its semi-solid characteristics and buttery consistency, Shea butter is great emollient and moisturizer for the skin, scalp and hair even without further processing [46]. However Shea butter is usually found as active component of processed moisturizers [48]. ...
... However Shea butter is usually found as active component of processed moisturizers [48]. In addition, fractionated Shea butter especially olein fraction is easily formulated in creams or surfactant based products such as bath products and shampoo to provide the skin, scalp, and hair with well-maintained or increased moisture [36,46,49]. Shea butter melts at body temperature, acts as a "refatting" agent, has good water-binding properties and absorbs rapidly into the skin; making it useful for skin care [50]. ...
Article
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Shea butter is the fat extracted from the nut of Africa Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa). It is used in cosmetic formulations and as a substitute for Cocoa butter in chocolate industries. It is edible and used cooking fat in Africa. The saponifiable fraction of Shea butter is composed primarily of stearic and oleic acids with lesser amounts of palmitic, linoleic and arachidic acids while the unsaponifiable fraction of Shea butter is composed of bioactive substances that are responsible for Shea butter's medicinal properties. Shea butter is a solid at room temperature and melts at body temperature. It is therefore useful for skin care as it has sun screening properties and acts as an emollient and skin moisturizer. Topical use of Shea butter has also demonstrated anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary intake of Shea butter has hypocholesterolemic effect and reduces serum and organ protein concentrations.
... The major cause of photo carcinogenesis is UVB radiation (290-320 nm) since it directly interacts with cellular DNA and subsequent formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and thymine glycols [45]. Cinnamate esters of triterpene alcohol which are the main constituent of Shea butter's unsaponifiable fraction are known to have strong absorbance of UV radiation in the wavelength range at 250-300 nm, which make the addition of Shea butter's unsaponifiables into sunscreens provide synergistic sun-protection by increasing absorption of UVB radiation [46]. However, the effectiveness of the triterpenes is somewhat doubted since studies using double-fractionated Shea butter with 20% of triterpene esters found that this triterpenic fraction only provided the sun protection factor (SPF) of 3-4 [36,47]. ...
... As an emollient and skin moisturizer: Due to its semi-solid characteristics and buttery consistency, Shea butter is great emollient and moisturizer for the skin hair, scalp and hair even without further processing [46]. However Shea butter is usually found as active component of processed moisturizers [48]. ...
... However Shea butter is usually found as active component of processed moisturizers [48]. In addition, fractionated Shea butter especially olein fraction is easily formulated in creams or surfactant based products such as bath products and shampoo to provide the skin, scalp, and hair with well-maintained or increased moisture [36,46,49]. Shea butter melts at body temperature, acts as a «refatting» agent, has good water-binding properties and absorbs rapidly into the skin; making it useful for skin care [50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Shea butter is the fat extracted from the nut of Africa Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa). It is used in cosmetic formulations and as a substitute for Cocoa butter in chocolate industries. It is edible and used cooking fat in Africa. The saponifiable fraction of Shea butter is composed primarily of stearic and oleic acids with lesser amounts of palmitic, linoleic and arachidic acids while the unsaponifiable fraction of Shea butter is composed of bioactive substances that are responsible for Shea butter's medicinal properties. Shea butter is a solid at room temperature and melts at body temperature. It is therefore useful for skin care as it has sun screening properties and acts as an emollient and skin moisturizer. Topical use of Shea butter has also demonstrated anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary intake of Shea butter has hypocholesterolemic effect and reduces serum and organ protein concentrations.
... The insoluble impurities were determined using the IUPAC 2.604 method as described in Hee (2011). ...
... On the contrary, shea butter moisture content (Table 2) and percentage clayey soil have no direct relationship. Meanwhile moisture is a chemical contaminant which is usually well mixed with oil and significant amount of moisture in oil support microbial growth (Alirezalu et al., 2011) and lipid oxidation leading to rancidity (Hee, 2011) and thereby reducing the shelf life of the shea butter. Low moisture content indicates good quality butter (Olaniyan and Oje, 2007) and the minimum shea butter moisture level is 5.23% (Quainoo, 2012) which is higher than the findings (4.70%) of this research. ...
... The findings of this research suggest that the shea butter from the Savelugu district is the most contaminated with insoluble impurities andNanumba North is the least contaminated. Hamilton and Rossell (1986) and Hee (2011) agree that insoluble impurities in shea butter refer to dirt and other foreign materials. Shea butter from the Nanumba North district and the Yendi Municipality can be classified under Grade 1 (Table 3) due to their low levels of insoluble impurities (0.03 and 0.09 respectively) as shown in Table 2. ...
Article
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Soil variation and its effect on the physical and chemical properties of shea butter, a product from the nut of the shea tree, were investigated in four districts of the northern region of Ghana. Thirty-six samples of freshly extracted shea butter together with 36 soil samples were collected and stored at 25°C for analysis. Clinical analysis of soil properties and the clinical analysis of the physical and chemical properties of shea butter were investigated using standard methods. The results showed that the soil organic matter (1.78%), soil organic carbon (1.03%), soil nitrogen (0.10%) and sandy soil have significant positive impact on the fat content (48.69%) of the shea kernel, and the soil cation exchange capacity (6.61%) has a negative effect. Soil properties do not have an impact on the chemical properties of the shea butter. This study thus concludes that apart from other factors such as the method adopted for the extraction of shea butter, soil composition contributes significantly to the quantity of shea butter extracted from the shea kernels.
... The insoluble impurities were determined using the IUPAC 2.604 method as described in Hee (2011). ...
... On the contrary, shea butter moisture content (Table 2) and percentage clayey soil have no direct relationship. Meanwhile moisture is a chemical contaminant which is usually well mixed with oil and significant amount of moisture in oil support microbial growth (Alirezalu et al., 2011) and lipid oxidation leading to rancidity (Hee, 2011) and thereby reducing the shelf life of the shea butter. Low moisture content indicates good quality butter (Olaniyan and Oje, 2007) and the minimum shea butter moisture level is 5.23% (Quainoo, 2012) which is higher than the findings (4.70%) of this research. ...
... The findings of this research suggest that the shea butter from the Savelugu district is the most contaminated with insoluble impurities andNanumba North is the least contaminated. Hamilton and Rossell (1986) and Hee (2011) agree that insoluble impurities in shea butter refer to dirt and other foreign materials. Shea butter from the Nanumba North district and the Yendi Municipality can be classified under Grade 1 (Table 3) due to their low levels of insoluble impurities (0.03 and 0.09 respectively) as shown in Table 2. ...
... Hee, 2011) and lipid oxidation leading to rancidity (Hee, 2011) thereby reducing the shelf life of the fat and its corresponding products. Conversely, low moisture content of shea butter is indicative of good quality (Olaniyan and Oje, 2007). ...
... Insoluble impurities refer to dirt and other foreign materials in shea butter (Hamilton et al., 1986;Hee, 2011). It has been reported that some of these materials are bonded to the butter via the machinery employed in the extraction of the butter. ...
... Insoluble impurities may also make their way into the butter through physical contact of the butter with the soil, water, ground as well as packaging materials. The amount of insoluble impurities is identified as another important quality parameter which determines shea butter deterioration since metals can catalyse the oxidation of shea butter and thus decreases its market value (Hee, 2011). The insoluble impurities were determined using the IUPAC 2.604 method as described in Paquot et al. (1987). ...
... High levels of lipid oxidation lead to disagreeable rancid taste due to the formation of oxidation products (Jensen et al., 2001;Baker, 2002). High moisture content in nuts at harvest, during processing or in postharvest storage leads to an increased microbial invasion as well as lipid oxidation which results in rancidity (Baker, 2002;Nahm, 2011;Canneddu et al., 2016). ...
... Nuts within this commercial range of moisture content have an increased kernel recovery during cracking and higher stability against oxidation during storage (Walton, 2005). Various drying techniques such as sun-drying, in-bin drying, hot air drying, heat pump drying, di-electric drying using microwave or radio frequency, vacuum drying, and freeze-drying have been studied and employed by the nut industry to improve kernel quality before storage (Mursalim and Dewi, 2002;Zhang et al., 2006;Nahm, 2011). ...
... Tree nuts have higher oil contents ( ± 60%) than peanuts ( ± 40%) (Pannico, 2014;Rengel et al., 2015;Navarro and Rodrigues, 2016). Nuts are rich in unsaturated fatty acids (Table 1), therefore, undergo hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration during postharvest processing and storage, leading to degraded sensory and chemical kernel quality and reduced shelf life (Nahm, 2011;Rengel et al., 2015;Srichamnong and Srzednicki, 2015). Oxidative rancidity occurs when unsaturated oil reacts with low molecular weight oxygenated constituents such as alcohols, ultimately resulting in the development of off-flavours, while in hydrolytic rancidity the hydrolysis of the triglycerides produces glycerol and free fatty acids which can also produce a disagreeable flavor (Borompichaichartkul et al., 2009;Rengel et al., 2015;Walton et al., 2017). ...
Article
Moisture content (MC), oil content (OC), fatty acid composition and rancidity are considered as major determinants of quality of nuts. These parameters are destructively quantified from a batch of representative samples used to estimate quality of nuts of an entire orchard. Although destructive techniques are helpful, they involve extensive sample preparation and solvent extractions, are slow, expensive and obtained results specifically reflect the properties of the evaluated produce. Recently, non-invasive analytical methods and instruments for evaluating quality of various produce have become popular with researchers putting more effort in developing them. Non-destructive methods are an alternative to traditional methods for inspection of internal quality parameters because they are fast, simple and cost-effective. In this review, invasive and non-invasive analytical methods and instruments for evaluating MC, OC, fatty acid composition and rancidity in different nuts are discussed. This paper also reviews the implementation of visible to near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography on nuts for evaluation of quality attributes. Technical challenges and future possibilities for commercial use of these non-invasive methods for quality evaluation of nuts are presented.
... The pre-treatment and storage of the shea kernels before the butter extraction process is a critical stage that affect the quality of shea butter produced. The first adverse effects are seen in the decrease in oil phenols and in the reduction of volatile compounds responsible for the various properties of shea butter (Hee, 2011). Angerosa et al. (2004), notes that in several operative conditions involving long-term storage of seeds and high relative humidity, mould contamination increases the free acidity due to the production of fungal enzyme lipase, and simultaneously forms the characteristic sensory defect of "mould". ...
... Moisture is a chemical contaminant usually mixed with oil. Presence of moisture in oil affects the quality of the oil and significant amount of moisture in oil support microbial growth (Alirezalu et al., 2011;Hee, 2011) and lipid oxidation leading to rancidity (Hee, 2011) thereby reducing the shelf life of the fat and its corresponding products. ...
... Moisture is a chemical contaminant usually mixed with oil. Presence of moisture in oil affects the quality of the oil and significant amount of moisture in oil support microbial growth (Alirezalu et al., 2011;Hee, 2011) and lipid oxidation leading to rancidity (Hee, 2011) thereby reducing the shelf life of the fat and its corresponding products. ...
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Shea butter is a high-value shea nut fat used as an edible oil, antimicrobial and moisturiser in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, respectively. The annual worldwide export of shea nut from Africa is 350,000 MT of kernels with a market value of approximately $120 million to producing countries. The multifunctional properties of the shea butter depend strictly on its compositional properties: the peroxide value, moisture content, free fatty acid level and the insoluble impurities. Standard extraction technologies: the traditional, mechanized, enzymatic and chemical methods were used for shea butter extraction. Current extraction technologies which rely on different extraction parameters for shea butter extraction are yet to yield the desired qualities and efficiencies of butter. Application of hydrolysing enzymes during enzyme extraction however eliminates the laborious, tedious and labour-intensive extraction processes creating alternative, selective and mild extraction conditions. The current review gives an overview of shea butter extraction technologies, the efficiencies, qualities and a perspective into the shea butter industry.
... The tree is the main indigenous oil producing wild plant spontaneously growing in Africa (Honfo et al., 2012). Hee (2011) reported that the Shea tree begins to bear fruit of commercial quantities after approximately 20 to 50 years. In comparison to other trees grown as plantation crops, Shea tree takes longer time to reach maturity, which discouraged its commercial plantation. ...
... Alander (2004) reported that the trees do not reach maturity until 45 years and can continuously produce Shea nuts for up to 200 years in commercial quantities. The tree grows wild across a 500 km wide belt of savanna (Masters et al., 2004), including West African countries like Senegal, Mali, Code D'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, and in East Africa such as Uganda, Sudan and Ethiopia (Hee, 2011). Four of these countries account for about 600,000 MT (approx. ...
... 80%) of world Shea nut production, which includes, Nigeria (370,000 MT), Mali (85,000 MT), Burkina Faso (70,000 MT) and Ghana (61,000 MT) (Karen, 2005). Among these countries, Ghana and Burkina Faso are the main Shea nut exporters (Hee, 2011). Nigeria produces about 50% of global Shea nut production, but tends to consume most of its Shea nuts locally (Karen, 2005). ...
Research
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Shear nut oil is one of the most abundantly available vegetable oils produced in the sub Sahara region. It is mostly used for food and medicine. The need to use it for biodiesel to solve the energy need of the region has been a major concern for African. Three extraction methods, namely: Traditional, solvent and mechanical method was used to extract shear nut oil. Some food and biodiesel properties of the oil were tested and compared between each other. Properties investigated were; colour, moisture content, protein, free fatty acid, saponification, solidification, viscosity, melting point, specific gravity, flash point, cloud point, refractive index, iodine value. The results showed that extracting methods of Shea nut oil have a significant effect (p<0.05) on moisture content, protein, free fatty acid, saponification, viscosity, melting point and iodine but not on solidification, specific gravity, flash point, cloud point and refractive index. Among the three extraction methods compared, mechanical method had less effect on food and bio-diesel properties of shear nut oil, followed by the traditional method and then the solvent method.
... ds kernel and nuts either by mechanical press or by solvents (Akpabio et. al., 2011). Shea butter is a vegetable fat extracted from the kernel of the fruit of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa), a tree belonging to the family of sapotaceae. The tree is the main indigenous oil producing wild plant spontaneously growing in Africa (Honfo et al., 2012). Hee, (2011 reported that Shea tree begins to bear fruit of commercial quantities after approximately 20 to 50 years. In comparison to other trees grown as plantation crops, shea trees take much longer time to reach maturity, which discouraged its commercial plantation. Alander, (2004) reported that the trees do not reach maturity until 45 years an ...
... MT) (Karen, 2005). Among these countries, Ghana and Burkina Faso are the main shea nut exporters (Hee, 2011). Nigeria produces about 50 % of global shea nut production, but tends to consume most of its shea nuts locally (Karen, 2005). ...
... Therefore, refining the crude oil improves its quality attributes. Specific gravity is an important physical property that can give information on the identity of the sample as well as aid in detection of adulteration of Shea butter oil (Hee, 2011). It can also provide information for the shippers on the weight of the Shea butter from the given volume while exporting it in large volumes (Hamilton and Rossell, 1986). ...
Article
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The industrialization of oil seeds is fast becoming an important agro-industrial activity worldwide. This study presents the results of extraction, refining and characterization of both crude and refined Nigerian shea butter oil. The results of characterization of crude and refined oil shows specific gravity of 0.86 and 0.89, moisture content of 2.29 % and 0.12 %, saponification value of 389.89 mg KOH/g and 162.61 mg KOH/g, while the acid value of 8.42 mg KOH/g and 3.36 mg KOH/g, peroxide value of 15 meq/kg and 9.40 meq/kg, and refractive index of 1.472 and 1.467 respectively with it colour observed as milky-cream which are within the required standard specification. The grading of the oil based on the west African standard classified the crude and refined shea butter oils as 3 rd and 2 nd grade respectively, thus establishing their potential for the needs of food industry for manufacturing confectionary, chocolate, edible oil, and a basis for margarines. The shea butter of 3 rd grade is recommended to be used in soap-making or further refined for direct consumption. Introduction In Nigeria, there are abundant vegetable oils, namely; palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, soya bean oil and conophor seed oil, e.t.c (Dawodu, 2009). Vegetable oils are normally extracted from fruits, seeds kernel and nuts either by mechanical press or by solvents (Akpabio et. al., 2011).
... Unrefined Shea butter is ivory to yellow in colour with a slightly nutty aroma. It predominantly comprises of approximately 40-45% of stearic acid and oleic acid in almost equal proportion depending on geographical distribution [1]. Shea butter also contains relatively high amounts of unsaponifiable matter ranging from 4 to 16% as compared to other fats such as Cocoa butter with unsaponifiable content <2% [2]. ...
... Shea butter is well known as a natural vitamin A cream used for a wide range of skin solutions including; moisturizing, anti-aging, rejuvenating, sunscreen, antiinflammatory among others [1]. West Africa Shea butter is solid to semi solid at room temperature. ...
... West African Shea butter such as Ghana and Nigeria Shea butter is mostly used in the confectionary industries as Cocoa butter substitute (CBS) due to similarity in hardness and Fatty acids profile [1]. Shea butter used as CBS is always refined. ...
... Others are the cumulative rate of change in stimulation currents, the tracking error, and the cumulative tracking error during the movement. The integrals/Integrals of time of the stimulation current for the SMC and the PID control schemes were 8.9776 mA, 35 Fig. 10 shows the phase plot of the system with the tremor; SMC still maintained the as it is very close to the desired response. The system with PID has oscillations occurring again at the end. ...
... However, the value is less than that reported for shea butter oil [18]. Refractive index can be used for rapid sorting of oil and fat that are adulterated [35] . with 6 C reported by [36], but contrasts with -6 C reported by [25]. ...
Article
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The effect of Gum Arabic (GA) assisted ultrasonication dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the physico-mechanical properties of recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE) composite was investigated. MWCNTs synthesized via chemical vapor deposition technique was purified using NaOH and HNO through two steps oxidation method. The purified and Gum Arabic treated 3 MWCNTs were separately dispersed in distilled water and spread onto shredded RLDPE water sachets. The MWCNTs spread RLDPE were partially dried in air and then in the oven to remove moisture. Composite samples of varying compositions were fabricated using two rolls compounding and hot press method, and their physical and mechanical characteristics evaluated. The results showed slight increase in density with increase in GA/MWCNTs content while some level of water and oil absorption were seen in sample CNTs 2 and CNTs 3 indicating the presence of micro holes. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength, flexural strength and hardness values of sample CNTs 1 were enhanced by 20.9%, 44.5%, 5.36% and 41.6% respectively. This can be attributed to its compact structure, better CNTs dispersion and good interfacial bonding between the GA/MWCNTs and the RLDPE. On the contrary, further increase in GA/MWCNTs loading led to decrease in samples' mechanical properties owing to the presence of micro holes, poor MWCNTs dispersion and increased GA concentration in the matrix. GA/MWCNTs reinforced recycle low density polyethylene composite can find application in automobile, aerospace and petrochemical industries.
... Lipid oxidation is a major deteriorative reaction affecting the quality of macadamia nuts by causing off-flavours that develop as a consequence of autooxidation (Nahm, 2011;Walton et al., 2017). Autooxidation is a self-sustaining free radical mechanism that produces primary products such as hydroperoxides (Márquez-Ruiz et al., 2007;Phatanayindee et al., 2012). ...
... Consumers consider a good quality of macadamia kernels based on appearance (size, shape, colour, gloss, wholeness and freedom from defects) at the initial purchase (Walton and Wallace, 2009, 2011. From Fig. 10, it can be observed that raw kernels of 'A4' and 'Beaumont' cultivars had poor (p < 0.001) appearance with increasing storage. ...
Article
Macadamia nut is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, which are known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases when included as part of a healthy human diet. On the negative side, high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids lead to oxidative reactions, which result in rancidity thus decreases the quality of the nut. Drying and roasting are, therefore, needed to reduce moisture content and hence alleviate the above-mentioned problems. This research was conducted to evaluate and compare the quality properties of raw and roasted macadamia nuts during the accelerated storage of 70 days. Two commercially important macadamia cultivars, namely, 'A4' and 'Beaumont' were used as model cultivars. Nuts were roasted at 125 °C for 15 min using a hot air oven dryer. Roasted kernels of 'A4' and 'Beaumont' cultivars had significantly lower concentration of peroxide value (PV), high concentration of flavonoids, phenols and antioxidants activity and good sensory quality compared to raw kernels which had a higher concentration of polyphenol oxidase activity, PV, low concentration of flavonoids, phenols and antioxidant activity and poor sensory quality during the accelerated storage of 70 days. These results indicated that roasting significantly improved kernel quality and shelf life of 'A4' and 'Beaumont' macadamia cultivars.
... Indeed, according to these authors, shea butter has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere for medicinal, culinary, and other applications. Nowadays, this oleaginous plant serves as a cocoa butter equivalent in the manufacture of chocolate as well as ingredient in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries (Pesquet, 1992;Hall et al., 1996;Pontillon, 1996;Nahm, 2011;Aarhus Karlshamn [AAK Global], 2012). About shea butter exploitation in these latest industries, it is worth noting that shea Butter has shown to be a superb moisturizer, with exceptional healing properties for the skin. ...
... According to the PNUD (2010) and the FAOSTAT (2012), the highest shea producers' countries originated from West Africa (701510 tons) and Côte d'Ivoire represents the fifth producer with average 30000 tons. In the whole producing countries, the shea butter industry depends mainly on the work of women and their own approach of process (Nahm, 2011). (Carette, Malotaux, Van Leeuwen, & Tolkamp, 2009;Mégnanou & Diopoh, 2008). ...
Article
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Many standards constitute shea butter trading conditions, but the exploitation of this greasy product is submitted to other industrial exigencies. The aim of this study was to characterize and evaluate the utilization potentiality of the artisanal shea butter produced in Côte d’Ivoire, on the basis of the industrials exigencies. Hence, both beige and yellow artisanal (original and market) shea butters were collected and analyzed. The refractive indexes (1.46 ± 0.00) did not vary while specific gravity at 40 °C (0.86 ± 0.00 - 0.92 ± 0.00), unsaponifiable matter (1.80 ± 0.01 - 3.76 ± 0.02%) and pH values (5.39 - 6.69) showed significant differences from a sample to another. The viscosity was very high at 40 °C (86.78 ± 0.89 - 130.10 ± 0.26 mPas) and decreased with the temperature increasing (40 to 65 °C). The UV-Vis spectrum showed a very weak absorption from 300 to 400 nm (UV-B and UV-A domains) while the near infra-red (NIR) one, revealed peaks at 450 and 700 nm for yellow shea butters only and peaks at 1200, 1400, 1725 and 2150 nm for all the samples. The fatty acids profile highlighted four main fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids); saturated fatty acids (56.00 ± 0.20 - 63.00 ± 0.20%) were the most important. All these interesting characteristics should arouse attention for using traditional shea butters in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
... There are also the problems of the use of inconsistent raw materials (water, shea nut), dirty utensil and work environment (normally under a shea tree), lack of quality control and poor butter storage facilities. Nahm (2011) and Carette et al. (2009) have painstakingly documented the comprehensive list of attendant problems associated with shea kernel processing in Ghana. ...
... In this study, five major fatty acids were identified which is consistent in similar proportion with the result of other researchers (Okullo et al., 2010;Nahm, 2011). Although there were significant differences among and within the zones, the characteristics relative abundance of the five major fatty acids was not altered. ...
Article
Low quality of shea butter has continued to be a major challenge in the shea tree value chain. The quality and identity characteristics of market-ready shea butter produced by family-based processors, the highest contributors to the butter output in Nigeria were studied using standard methods of analysis for two consecutive fruiting years to ascertain the consistency in quality status. This was with the view to determining the suitable market segment the butter could serve. The result generally show significant inconsistencies in both quality and identity parameters within and among the villages and zones studied for the two years. The free fatty acid (ffa), acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value, iodine value, moisture, dirt unsaponifiable matter, saponification value ranged from 5.40±0.14 to 13.45±0.44, 10.50±0.22 to 27.06±0.04, 3.50±0.02 to11.17±0.06, 1.72±0.03 to 4.75±0.08, 38.67±0.68 to 60.37±0.57, 0.56±0.02 to 0.40±0.03, 0.86±0.04 to 1.72±0.01, 5.90±0.04 to 9.27±0.06, 193.0±0.72 to 224.67±0.67 while in the second year, the range were correspondingly 5.26±0.05 to 10.13±0.06, 9.19±0.05 to 20.17±0.12, 2.24±0.01 to 8.07±0.08, 2.08±0.25 to 5.03±0.0.2, 36.97±0.21 to 60.57±0.42, 0.21±0.02 to 0.84±0.03, 0.50±0.03 to 1.46±0.03, 6.60±0.10 to 10.09±0.11 and 189.07±2.06 to 236.5±0.66. The mean values computed for the villages did not approximate the data obtained by pooling and analysing the samples from the respective zones very well. The present status of the butter quality did not describe a particular trend and only suits the local market.
... The tree is the fundamental indigenous oil producing wild plant openly cultivated in Africa (Honfo et al., 2012). The tree grows wild and covers about 5000 km of the savanna belt (Masters et al., 2004), including West African nations like Nigeria, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin, Niger, Cameroon, Uganda, Sudan and Ethiopia (Hee, 2011). Four of these nations represent around 600,000 MT (about 80 %) of world shea nut production. ...
... MT) (Karen, 2005). Among these nations, Ghana and Burkina Faso are the principle shea nut exporters (Hee, 2011). Nigeria produces about 50% of the world shea nut production, yet has a t endency to expend the majority of its shea nuts locally (Karen, 2005). ...
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Carrot, garden eggplant, okra and pepper were coated with melted shear butter oil by robbing it around the vegetabels and then stored for a period of twenty days.
... higher than that given by the crude palm oil of 0.55%. The USM of Shea butter had been reported to be relatively higher than other vegetable oils, given up to 4% USM [38]. The high USM content of Shea butter shows that the oil is rich in desirable bioactive components such as; antioxidants, antimicrobial, and antiinflamatory substances [38] as well as the fat soluble vitamins. ...
... The USM of Shea butter had been reported to be relatively higher than other vegetable oils, given up to 4% USM [38]. The high USM content of Shea butter shows that the oil is rich in desirable bioactive components such as; antioxidants, antimicrobial, and antiinflamatory substances [38] as well as the fat soluble vitamins. It has also been used to lower cholesterol levels by a pharmaceutical company, BSP Pharma [39]. ...
... Specific gravity helps to identify a sample and thus detects adulteration [21]. The specific gravity values obtained for CSB and TSB are 0.911 and 0.910 respectively. ...
... Shea butter is a versatile plant fat extracted from kernels of shea nuts, seeds of shea trees (Vitellaria paradoxa). Shea butter has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa for medicinal, culinary, and other applications and serves as a cocoa butter equivalent in the manufacture of chocolate as well as an ingredient in cosmetics[1] .Shea butter is a slightly yellowish or ivorycolored fat. It is widely used in cosmetics as a moisturizer, salve or lotion. ...
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In this study, the upgrade of the indigenous method of production of shea butter was investigated. This was achieved by the use of Electric Food processor for the kneading process. The effects of Time, Temperature and Speed on the extract of the shea butter were investigated by using a 23 factorial plan. The effect of roasting of the shea butter seeds before extraction was also investigated. The extracted shea butter was analyzed for its fatty acid distribution using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer and some physic-chemical properties. Higher extraction temperature and shorter time increased the yield of shea butter. The effect however depended on the level of other factors. Kneading time had the most significant effect on the yield. Roasting the shea butter seeds before extraction gave higher yield (33.4%) compared with 2.8% for non roasting. Although the physico-chemical properties of the shea butter from both roasted and unroasted seeds were similar, there was still some significant difference between their acid values- 12.3 for roasted and 5.3 for non roasted, and in their ester values- 155.99 for roasted and 205.07 for non roasted. The chromatographic analysis indicated lower fractions of the oleic acid (7.92% and 0 % in roasted and unroasted seed respectively) and stearic acid (24.9% and 23.01% in roasted and unroasted seed respectively). This contrasts with literature values (Oleic acid 46.4% and Stearic acid 41.5%). Further studies are needed to confirm if these differences may be attributed to regional varieties of the shea nuts.
... Specific gravity is an important physical property that can give information on the identity of the sample as well as aid in detection of adulteration of shea butter oil [16]. It can also provide information for the shippers on the weight of the shea butter from the given volume while exporting it in large volumes [17]. ...
Article
Soxhlet extraction of oil from seeds of Vitelleria paradoxa was carried out using n-hexane as the solvent. Standards methods were adopted in the analysis of the physiochemical properties; moisture content, melting point, total ash content, pH, specific gravity, iodine value, saponification value, acid value, free fatty acid value and ester value were all evaluated. The oil recovery rate was good with 32.6% yield, moisture content of 3.1%, melting point of 52oC and pH 5.7. Total ash content was 50.3%, specific gravity of 0.9 g/cm3, iodine value 39 mg/L, saponification value 224.6 mgKOH/g, acid value 59.9 mgKOH/g free fatty acid (FFA) 29.9 mgKOH/L and ester value 164.7 mg/L. The results shows that oil from Vitelleria paradoxa seed holds the potentials for wider applications in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, lubricants and soap making.
... The V. paradoxa butter is an anti-ageing, good sun screening agent and it contains vitamins A and E, which makes it a good moisturizer for hair (Nahm, 2011;Maanikuu and Peker, 2017) and Vitamin F which has the ability to act as a rejuvenator for soothing, healing rough and chapped skin (Malachi, 2013). It is widely used to lower cholesterol and protection of hair against the harmful free radicals in the air, water and harsh weather conditions (Masters et al., 2004;Maanikuu and Peker, 2017).As a deciduous woody perennial species, V. paradoxaplays a major role in nutrients restoration through the decay of its leaves and fine roots on the soil surface (Bayalaet al., 2005). ...
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The dearth of quantified information on the growth response of Vitellaria paradoxa seedlings to plant based organic manure has limited its propagation. In an attempt to enhance the slow growth of V.paradoxa, research was carried out to assess the growth response of V. paradoxa seedlings to leaf litters of selected nitrogen fixing acacia trees.The experiment adopteda Completely Randomized Design with seven treatments replicated five times. The treatments consisted of 200g each of leaf litters of selected nitrogen fixing acacia trees (Acacia tortilis, Acacia senegal, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Acacia leucophloea and Acacia albida) and control on the growth of V. paradoxa. A total of thirty five (35) seedlings were involved in the experiment. A-year old V. paradoxa seedlings planted in the soil in the pot with and without manure was subjected to 200ml of water twice daily. Growth parameters evaluated include height, girth, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, fresh and dry weight. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)at 5% level of probability. Leaf litters of selected nitrogen fixing acacia trees significantly enhanced the growth response of V. paradoxa seedlings. Highest height (44.20cm)., girth (4.16cm)., number of leaves (16.8)., leaf area (147.07cm 2).,leaf area index (1.53)., total fresh weight (20g)., total dry weight (11.95g) were recorded from seedlings planted in the soil enhanced with A. leucophloea. Highest nitrogen (3.6%) and phosphorus (458mg/100g) were recorded from leaf litters of A. leucophloea. Planting of V. paradoxa in the soil influenced with leaf litters of A. leucophloea enhanced its seedling growth.
... Also, high moisture content in plant fats and oils usually leads to increased microbial load and lipid oxidation resulting in rancidity (Hee, 2011). ...
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The study was carried out between March, 2012 and January, 2013 at the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala campus, Ghana. The objectives of the study were to characterize farmer shea nut varieties to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the shea nut butter and determine appropriate shea nut quality for the domestic market. The shea nuts were characterized as T1 (small nuts), T2 (medium nuts), T3 (big nuts) and T4 (very big nuts). These nuts were arranged in a completely randomized design and replicated three times for shea nut butter extraction and assessed for free fatty acid (FFA), moisture content and sensory quality. The study reveals strong correlation between shea nut size and butter quality with bigger shea nuts recording lower FFA and moisture content hence higher butter quality. There were differences in colour and texture of the shea butter extracted from the different shea nut sizes. It is recommended that, further research be carried out at different geographical locations to assess the effect of shea nut size on butter quality.
... Shea tree (ST) is abundantly found in the wide belt of savannah (Masters et al. 2004) including West African countries like Nigeria, and further east in Uganda (Goreja 2004). It belongs to Sapotaceae family and the German botanist Carl Gaertner was the first to name it as Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Nahm 2011) and was renamed as Butyrospermum parkii (Maranz and Wiesman 2003). Shea fruit like other fruits has three layers: green epicarp (the outer part); a fleshy mesocarp (pulp) and a relatively hard endocarp (shell) containing embryo known as shea kernel (Olaniyan and Oje 2007a). ...
Article
Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p < 0.05) on the %yield of SB, with R2 - 0.8989 which showed good fitness of a second-order model. Based on this model, optima operating variables for the extraction process were established as: sample weight of 30.04 g, solvent volume of 346.04 ml and extraction time of 40 min, which gave 66.90 % yield of SB. Furthermore, the result of the physico-chemical properties obtained for the shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.
... (O'Brien and Richard 2009). The effect of production method on peroxide value also resulted variation between 2.15 and 15.32 mEq/ kg (Hee 2011). The lowest and highest peroxide values reported were 0.5 and 29.5 mEq/kg, respectively (Honfo et al. 2013). ...
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The quality of Shea butter is highly affected by processing factors. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of conditioning duration (CD), moisture content (MC), and die temperature (DT) of screw expeller on Shea butter quality. A combination of 33 full factorial design and response surface methodology was used for this investigation. Response variables were refractive index, acid value, and peroxide value. The model enabled to identify the optimum operating settings (CD = 28–30 min, MC = 3–5 g/100 g, and DT = 65–70°C) for maximize refractive index and minimum acid value. For minimum peroxide value 0 min CD, 10 g/100 g MC, and 30°C were discovered. In all-over optimization, optimal values of 30 min CD, 9.7 g/100 g MC, and 70°C DT were found. Hence, the processing factors must be at their optimal values to achieve high butter quality and consistence.
... In order to overcome this challenge, timely picking of Shea fruits from the bush is recommended. However this requires contingent arrangement because of the tedious and clumsy nature of the work in addition to being faced with some challenges such as snakebite, poor visibility, covering long distances, harassment by monkeys, and other reptiles (Nahm, 2011). As a result of the difficulties associated with Shea fruit collection, the processors insist on processing every kernel picked irrespective of its quality status that is a major determinant of Shea butter quality. ...
... Analysis of the kernel revealed the presence of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epigal-locatechin gallate as well as quercetin and transcinnamic acid [26]. Works on this plant are mostly focused on the fruit, kernel, seed and the fat from the seed [27][28][29][30][31]. ...
Article
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Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total phenolics and flavonoids content of stem barks of Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn., and identify its main chemical constituents. Methodology: V. paradoxa stem barks were extracted by maceration with methanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed on the crude methanol extract (CME). Besides, total polyphenols contents (TPC) and total flavonoids contents (TFC) contents were also evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and complexation with aluminum chloride respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FIC (ferrous ion chelating) assays. Chromatographic isolation of the crude methanol extract (CME) followed by the spectroscopic identification of the isolated compounds was performed adopting 1D NMR and MS techniques. Results: All the compounds tested were found to be present in the CME of V. paradoxa stem barks. The extract was found to be rich in phenolics (18.48 ± 1.43 mgGAE.g-1) and flavonoids (3.98 ± 0.44 mgGAE.g-1). The CME showed high antioxidant activity as DPPH free radical scavenging and a low FIC activity. A new ursane type-triterpenoid named vitellaric acid (4) along with four known compounds (+)-catechin (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), betulinic acid (3a), and bassic acid (3b) were isolated from CME. Conclusion: The results of preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts revealed the presence of phytochemicals which could be used as medical regimens. The study provides scientific evidence for the use of V. paradoxa stem barks for the treatment of diseases mainly those associated with oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species. Results yield a new addition to the chemical literature of V. paradoxa, in addition it increases the importance of NMR and MS techniques in structure elucidation.
... After collection, the usual norms or practices require the processing of the nuts in many stages by a group of women and children (that is, labour intensive). De-pulping the fleshy layer of the fruit is the first stage, followed by parboiling the nuts, then draining the nuts, then drying the nuts on a clean floor free from chemical and animal droppings though the process is usually disrupted by unpredicted weather condition such rainfall and sand wave which could lead to damage of the kernel as reported by Nahm (2011). This process is followed by cracking and removal of the kernel from the shell, then re-drying the kernel for 3 to 4 days, and finally packaging in jute sacks. ...
Article
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The Shea butter industry in Nigeria is fragmented, private-driven and less regulated. This paper explores the roles, practices, and behaviour of local supply chain stakeholders who mainly consist of rural women entrepreneurs that engage in Shea nut picking and Shea butter processing. Also, the research examines the local buying agents (LBA) who serve as the middlemen between the rural women and the exporters of Shea butter. This study deploys qualitative research design, guided by the Role theory. The study reveals that the rural women and the local buying agents are the key stakeholders who participate in the agricultural supply chain. Granting the fundamental principle of the sustainable supply chain, the findings indicate that the present active engagement and practices of these local stakeholders do not align with the principles of the sustainable supply chain. The study also exposes that factors such as gender disparity, weak access to financial support, and information asymmetry are major contributors to the present roles, practices, and behaviour of the local actors. The current study, therefore, put forward several recommendations to the Nigerian Government to encourage the construction of sustainable engagement and sustainable supply chain in the rural supply chain network..
... The Shea nut butter obtained from the fruits of shell tree is also known as Chamen, Kandayi/Mankade, Osisi/Okwuma and Emi/Orioyo among the Tiv, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba people of Nigeria, respectively [10] (Julius et al., 2013). [11] Hee, (2011) reported that shea tree begins to bear fruit of commercial quantities after approximately 20 to 50 years. Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income [12]. ...
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More exploration on medicinal plants and other natural products in the present era of increase in poverty level and multi-drug resistance has become crucial. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory activities of Vitellaria paradoxa seed oil extract on isolated staphylococcal conjunctivitis. Cultured sample of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient’s eye discharge in the Teaching Hospital Laboratory of the Imo State University, Nigeria having been diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis at the eye Clinic. After the incubation period, the diameter of zones of inhibition both horizontal and vertical were measured. Concentrations (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa were assayed for the antibacterial activity - Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at concentration of 100mg /ml exhibited the highest zone of inhibition at 37.4mm for 24hrs followed by 50mg /ml and lowest using 25mg/ml (5.0mm) indicating a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on Staphylococcal conjunctivitis. S. aureus isolated from conjunctivitis swab was susceptible to ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml concentrations, suggesting ethanolic extract of V. paradoxa oil as possessing antimicrobial property. Further exploration for its use as an ocular anti-bacterial agent is recommended.
... The unsaponifiable fractions of shea butter even though small compared to the triglyceride component of shea butter is responsible for the healing properties of shea butter (Nahm, 2011). They dissolve in fat and are insoluble in aqueous solution but soluble in organic solvent after saponification as reported by Hamilton and Rosell, (1986). ...
Article
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This preliminary study investigates the various routes for the production of improved quality shea butter to meet export requirements (African Standard for Unrefined Shea Butter) ARSUSB. Fresh shea fruit were collected, de-pulped, boiled and dried using three methods viz-a vis; sun drying, traditional oven drying and manually operated rotary drying (MORD). The fresh shea nuts were subjected to boiling times of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The drying stage was preceded by cooking, milling, kneading and curd boiling to obtain shea oil. Physicochemical properties of the shea oil for example, yield, iodine value, free fatty acid, peroxide value, percentage impurities, refractive index, moisture content, absorbance, saponification value and unsaponifiable fractions were determined. The results for each of the treatment methods i.e for sun drying,(yield, 20-37%), (density, 0.894-0.980g/cm3), (iodine value, 23-34.6g/100g), (free fatty acid, 3.99-6.91%), (peroxide value, 2.42-5.20mEq/100g),(impurity,1.0-2.00%), (refractive index,1.465-1.468), (saponification value, 178.12-293mgKOH/g), (unsaponifiable fractions, 5.07-9.31g/kg), for traditional oven drying, (yield, 21-42%), (density, 0.896-0.991g/cm3), (iodine value,26.6-40.43g/100g), (free fatty acid,4.62-7.51%), (peroxide value, 2.99-4.95mEq/100g), (impurity,0.69-2.0%), (refractive index,1.465-1.469), (saponification value,173.4-287.4mgKOH/g), (unsaponifiable fraction 4.78-9.2g/kg), and for manually operated rotary dryer, (yield,25-32%), (density, 0.898-0.988g/cm3), (iodine value, 22.01-46.020g/100g), (free fatty acid, 3.05-7.32%), (peroxide value,2.99-5.82mEq/100g), (impurity, 1.05-2.00%),(refractive index,1.4650-1.469), (saponification value,154.1-268.5mgKOH/g), (unsaponifiable fractions, 1.15-8.72g/kg). The results of parameters obtained refractive index (1.465-1.468), density (0.896 g/cm 3-0.991g/cm 3) and moisture content (0.211-1.264) are comparable with ARSUSB, however some other parameters for example saponification value 178.12 mgKOH/g-293mgKOH/g), free fatty acid, (4.62%-7.51%), Iodine value (26.6 g/100g-40.43g/100g), and peroxide value (2.42 mEq/100g-5.20mEq/100g), were found to be at variance with ARSUSB. The percentage impurity (1.05%-2.00%), was found to be high as compared to ARSUSB of percentage impurity figure of 0.09%-0.2% necessitating further treatment for good industrial application like biodiesel production.
... Rancidity, a relatively slow ageing process of fats on long exposure to air, is also due to hydrolysis of the constituent glycerides with liberation of free fatty acids, making the fat exhibit higher acid reaction and a disagreeable odour. The free fatty acid level of natural shea butter had been earlier adjudged the most variable parameter in a study that assessed what quality characteristics were important (Nahm, 2011). ...
Article
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Natural shea butter (NSB), extracted by traditional methods resulting in its poor quality, is nevertheless widely traded within Africa and beyond due to its several useful applications. This study examined effects of simulated laboratory/domestic heat treatments on quality of the commodity obtained from a cross section of Nigerian markets. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities of NSB samples procured from four selected markets located across three Nigerian states were evaluated by standard methods before and after graduated thermal stress treatments from 50 through 120 °C over 5, 15, or 30 min durations, respectively, and filtration at 60 °C. Mean physicochemical quality values of NSB samples determined, namely: specific gravity at 29 °C (0.90-0.94); softening, melting temperatures (33-36, 36-39 °C; respectively); acid, iodine, and saponification values (10.5- 29.3, 46.4-59.1, 110-470; respectively), were not adversely or significantly altered by the thermal treatment types and stresses. Whereas all untreated NSB samples demonstrated microbial contamination (total viable counts: 3 6 10 -10 cfu/g) with Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Aspergillus, or Candida species, the graduated heat treatments produced varied sanitizing effects. Higher temperatures (100, 120 °C) gave greater and more rapid cleansing action than the lower temperatures (50, 75 °C), both intensity-ranges being aided by length of holding time. Hot filtration eliminated all the NSB contaminants. In conclusion, while untreated NSB is found grossly contaminated by microbes, unhygienic and unsafe for human use, this study has demonstrated efficient contaminants-cleansing action of heat treatments (³100 °C × ³ 30 min) on NSB, and the total sanitizing effect of hot filtration process. Key words: Natural shea butter, Physicochemical quality, Microbiological quality, Heat treatment, Hot filtration.
... High USM content of groundnut (kuli-kuli) oil is probably due to it virgin nature. Earlier researchers reported that considerably high presence of USM is an indication that the oil is rich in desirable bioactive components such as; antimicrobial, antioxidants, and antiinflammatory substances, including the fat soluble vitamins (Nahm, 2011). ...
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ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to assess the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid profile of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed oil and compare with some commercial seed oils (refined palm kernel oil, Grand soya oil and groundnut oil) sold in Rivers State, Nigeria. Edible oils were extracted from the seed of fluted pumpkin. The oils were analysed for chemical composition, physical properties, and fatty acid profile.Percentage moisture impurities and volatile matters (MIV) ranged from 0.065% - 0.095%, with fluted pumpkin seed oil given the least value of 0.065%.There was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the specific gravity of fluted pumpkin seed oil and those of the commercial vegetable oils (at 300C).The cloud and slip melting points of fluted pumpkin seed oil (FPSO) and Grand soya oil were significantly lower than those of the unbranded commercial vegetable oils. The smoke and flash points of FPSO were 244.500C and 299.000C, respectively. All the oil samples had colour within the standard acceptable range for refined vegetable oil. The free fatty acids, acid value and peroxide value of FPSO were 0.040%, 0.080% and 1.070mEq/kg, respectively, these values were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those of groundnut oil and refined palm kernel oil (RPKO), but not significantly different from Grand soya oil.Iodine values for FPSO, Grand soya oil, groundnut oil and RPKO were respectively 119.85g/100g, 128.10g/100g, 90.25g/100g and 20.05g/100g. The total unsaturated fatty acids in FPSO was 80.1%, with 62.4% linoleic acid (omega-6). Grand soya oil, groundnut oil and RPKO gave total unsaturated fatty acid values of 86%, 83.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Fluted pumpkin seed oil and Grand soya oil were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids than groundnut and palm kernel oils. The physicochemical properties of fluted pumpkin seed oil meet the recommended FAO standard, compares favourably with the branded Grand soya oil, and performs better than unbranded groundnut and palm kernel oils. Keywords: Physicochemical, Fatty Acid Profile, Fluted Pumpkin, Commercial Vegetable Oils
... Spreading on hand might cause better result due to skin temperature. The analysis of Shea Butter fatty acid methyl esters found triacylglycerides (TAGs) were comprised of four major fatty acids, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, among which stearic and oleic acids were dominant ( [20], [21]). This was similar to the resulted TLC chromatogram which suggest the presence of the same fatty acids in tested samples. ...
Article
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Vigorous research has been conducted into the phenology of the shea tree, its usage and that of the shea butter extracted from the nuts of the shea fruit. Shea butter is the most valuable product in the Shea tree and its use as raw or in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products was expanded in the last years. The aim was to carry out comparative study between imported South African raw Shea Butter, one sample from Poland and samples from Libyan market on their physical properties (organoleptic), thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatogram, phytochemical screening and diphenylpicrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging activity. As well as antimicrobial screening. Organoleptic test was carried out by comparing color and odor. TLC chromatogram was performed by spotting solution of samples in hexane on TLC plate and eluted twice in hexane: ethylacetate 8:2 to get good separation. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the presence of carbohydrates (Fehling test), steroids, and triterpens (Salkwiski test). DPPH assay was carried out by spraying TLC sample spots by 0.2% DPPH methanolic solution. Antimicrobial test was conducted on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Mueller-Hinton agar was used with ciprofolxacin as +ve control and DMSO as-ve control. As a result, Shea Butter samples showed wide diversity in color and odor which considered normal except two white samples that might undergo refining process, while spreadability and TLC chromatograms were similar. Samples and control showed presence of carbohydrates, steroids and triterpens. Control and samples had DPPH scavenging activity. Shea Butter control and samples had no antimicrobial activities against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.
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Industrials interest in fats as raw material, resides in their exceptional quality and potentialities of exploitation in several fields. This study aimed to exalt the optimized shea butter quality and present its wide potentialities of utilization. Hence, the characteristics of beige and yellow optimized shea butters were determined. Both samples recorded very weak acid (0.280 ± 0.001 and 0.140 ± 0.001 mgKOH/g) and peroxide (0.960 ± 0.001 and 1.010 ± 0.001 mEgO2/kg) indexes, when the iodine indexes (52.64 ± 0.20 and 53.06 ± 0.20 gI2/100 g) and the unsaponifiable matters (17.61 ± 0.01 and 17.27 ± 0.01 %) were considerable. The refractive indexes (1.454 ± 0.00 and 1.453 ± 0.00) and the pH (6.50 ± 0.30 and 6.78 ± 0.30) were statistically similar; but the specific gravity (0.915 ± 0.01-0.79 ± 0.01 and 0.94 ± 0.01-0.83 ± 0.01) and the viscosity (90.41 ± 0.20-20.02 ± 0.20 and 125.37 ± 0.20-23.55 ± 0.20 MPas) differed and decreased exponentially with the temperature increasing (35-65 °C), except for the specific gravity of the yellow butter which decreased linearly. The UV-Vis spectrum showed a high peak at 300 nm and a rapid decrease from 300 to 500 nm when the near infra-red one, revealed peaks at 450, 1200, 1400, 1725 and 2150 nm for all the samples. The chromatographic profile identified palmitic (16.42 and 26.36 %), stearic (32.39 and 36.36 %), oleic (38.12 and 29.09 %), linoleic (9.72 and 5.92 %) and arachidic (1.84 and 1.59 %) acids, and also exaltolide compound (1.51 and 0.68 %). The samples also contained essential minerals (Calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, etc.) carotene (550 ± 50 and 544 ± 50 ppm), vitamins A (0.065 ± 0.001 and 0.032 ± 0.001 µg/g) and E (2992.09 ± 1.90 and 3788.44 ± 1.90 ppm) in relatively important amounts; neither microbiological germs nor heavy were detected. All these valorizing characteristics would confer to the optimized shea butters good aptitude for exportation and exploitation in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
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ABSTRACT The protective effect of added rosemary extract (RE) on the oxidative stability of highly unsaturated Camelina sativa oil was followed by periodic determination of its peroxide value (PV) during storage in darkness at room temperature. In camelina oil containing RE, a peroxide value of 10 mmol O2 / kg, the upper limit for unrefined oils, was not attained after 11 months’ storage. Compared to unprotected camelina oil the formation of hydroperoxides in oil containing RE was reduced by more than 40 %. The effect of RE against oxidation of camelina oil was also measured by the Rancimat test. In fresh camelina oil treated with RE the induction period was extended by 60 % as compared to untreated oil. Also, RE was more effective in preventing oil from oxidation when the oil was stored in darkness than in daylight.
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The objective of this study was to determine the effect on fatty acid composition of heating olive and sunflower oils with selected natural and synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidants investigated were quercetin, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), each at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06%. Oils with no added an-tioxidants were also heated. After heating of the samples at 90°C for 72 h and 120 h, then preliminary saponification of the fat and esterification of the acids, the fatty acids were determined as the methyl esters by gas chro-matography; heptadecanoic acid was used as internal standard. The high temperatures had a negative effect on fatty acid composition. Olive oil was more resistant than sunflower oil to changes during heating. In general, the effectiveness of natural antioxidants (quercetin, caffeic acid, and protoca-techuic acid) was no less than that of the synthetic antioxidant (BHA).
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The seed oil from Butyrosporum parkii, a tropical tree, traditionally known as shea butter used as an edible oil has been isolated and the physical and chemical characteristics determined. Toxico-logical studies of the crude fat indicates the absence of gossypol and mycotoxins, while chemical analysis revealed the presence of phospho-lipids (lecithin) sterols and glycolipids. Saponification yielded saturated and unsaturated fatty acids which were separated by preferential crystallization from solutions primarily methanol and acetone saturated fatty acids predominantly confirming the solid nature of the oil at room temperature.
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The integrity of the natural environment to be inherited by the next generation of African farmer depends very much on the livelihood opportunities and constraints their parents face today. It depends on small decisions made every day by local resource users, based on consideration of costs and benefits, but often with short-term considerations necessarily foremost in mind. Thus, those concerned with sustainable management of African forests and woodlands need to consider ways to add value to the renewable non-wood products of forests and woodlands which might provide practical, market-based incentives for the sustainable management and conservation of the resources. Perhaps the g reatest potential in this respect lies in the commercial development of products from naturally occurring species with ready (if often undeveloped) market value. One such species, only found in sub-Saharan Africa, is the shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa (syn. Butyrospermumparkii, Butyrospermum paradoxum), which is indigenous to a band of vegetation extending over 5 000 km from Senegal to Ethiopia and Uganda. This article describes the non-wood products derived from t he shea tree, the local and export markets for them, and recent efforts to enhance market opportunities and increase returns to the primary producers by adding value, particularly through quality improvements and initiatives such as certification and fair trade labelling.
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Differently processed sesame seeds were used for the preparation of sesamol, seed extract, oil extract or unsaponifiable matter. Analysis of these sesame extracts revealed that dehulling and roasting of seeds had an adverse effect on their lignan and phenolic compounds content. Various concentrations of the extracts were incorporated in vegetable oils and their effectiveness in retarding the oxidative deterioration of oils was evaluated. Additionally, the formation of oxidation products in these oil samples was correlated with their antioxidant activity and their sesamol and phenolic compounds content. Results indicated that decomposition of phenolic compounds present in oil samples induced a significant reduction in their linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition capacity and a corresponding increase in their oxidative rancidity. Sesame seed extract was the most effective in protecting oils from oxidation, suggesting that seed extract, especially the one prepared from coated-unroasted sesame seeds, may have potential application as a source of natural antioxidants in oil industry.
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Pentadesma butter (Pentadesma butyracea, sabine, clusiaceae) is an extract of the kernels of tree fruits in West Africa and similar to shea butter. The study of the fatty acid composition, triacylglycerols, sterols and tocopherols of Pentadesma butter was carried out on seeds collected in ten production areas in Benin. The results obtained show that the composition in fatty acids is characterized by the presence of stearic acid and oleic acid, which represent nearly 96% of the total fatty acids. The triacylglycerols profile of the different butters is marked by the overwhelming presence of the triacylglycerols SOS and SOO. The unsaponifiable fraction shows, for the sterolic composition, a predominance of stigmasterol (nearly 68% of the total sterols) whilst the β-tocopherol is the main tocopherol.
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The effect of free fatty acid (FFA) content on the susceptibility to thermooxidative degeneration of vegetable oils was determined by Rancimat analysis. A prooxidant effect of FFA was observed in all filtered oils, independently of lipidic substrate and of its state of hydrolytic and oxidative alteration. The intensity of this effect was related to FFA concentration, but regression analysis of the experimental data did not show a general correlation law between FFA concentration and induction time (I t). Different results were obtained for freshly processed virgin olive oils, characterized by postpressing natural suspension-dispersion: opposite behavior was observed of FFA content as regards oxidative stability, depending on the presence of suspended-dispersed material. This fact is of interest because the dispersed particles play a double stabilizing effect on both oxidative and hydrolytic degradation. These results showed that avoidance of oil filtration is highly desirable to extend olive oil’s shelf life.
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The compositional variation of the fatty acid, triacylglycerol, tocopherol, tocotrienol and sterene composition of genuine cocoa butter (CB) due to different geographical growing regions and breeding lines as well as other vegetable fats used in confectionery manufacturing (cocoa butter equivalents, CBE) have been investigated. Genuine CB showed quite narrow ranges of compositional variation compared to CBEs. CBEs are prepared by blending different tropical fats to suit various technological requirements of confectionery manufacturers. Consequently, no consistent compositional patterns were observed within the latter group. The fatty acid and the triacylglycerol data presented could be utilized for the detection as well as the quantification of CBEs in plain chocolate, by using appropriate calibration models. However, the minor constituents (tocopherols, -trienols, and sterene data) are of limited use for quantitative purposes, but may be additional indicators for the presence of other vegetable fats in chocolate.
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The amount and characterization of phytosterol and other minor components present in three Indian minor seed oils, mahua (Madhuca latifolia), sal (Shorea robusta) and mango kernel (Mangifera indica), have been done. Theses oils have shown commercial importance as cocoa-butter substitutes because of their high symmetrical triglycerides content. The conventional thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) & gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques were used to characterize the components and the high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique was used to quantify the each group of components. The experimental data showed that the all the three oils are rich in sterol content and among all the sterols, beta-sitosterol occupies the highest amount. Sal oil contains appreciable amount of cardenolides, gitoxigenin. Tocopherol is present only in mahua oil and oleyl alcohol is present in mango kernel oil. Hydrocarbon, squalene, is present in all the three oils. The characterization of these minor components will help to detect the presence of the particular oil in specific formulations and to assess its stability as well as nutritional quality of the specific oil.
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The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karasi, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α-tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg) was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.
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The mixture of the two pentacyclic triterpenes alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin, isolated from the resin of Protium kleinii and given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) routes, caused dose-related and significant antinociception against the visceral pain in mice produced by i.p. injection of acetic acid. Moreover, i.p., p.o., intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.), or intrathecal (i.t.) administration of alpha,beta-amyrin inhibited both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of the overt nociception caused by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of formalin. Likewise, alpha,beta-amyrin given by i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v. routes inhibits the neurogenic nociception induced by capsaicin. Moreover, i.p. treatment with alpha,beta-amyrin was able to reduce the nociception produced by 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) and by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or the hyperalgesia caused by glutamate. On the other hand, in contrast to morphine, alpha,beta-amyrin failed to cause analgesia in thermal models of pain. The antinociception caused by the mixture of compounds seems to involve mechanisms independent of opioid, alpha-adrenergic, serotoninergic, and nitrergic system mediation, since it was not affected by naloxone, prazosin, yohimbine, DL-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester, or L-arginine. Interestingly, the i.p. administration of alpha,beta-amyrin reduced the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by i.pl. injection of carrageenan, capsaicin, bradykinin, substance P, prostaglandin E2, 8-Br-cAMP, and TPA in rats. However, the mixture of compounds failed to alter the binding sites of [3H]bradykinin, [3H]resiniferatoxin, or [3H]glutamate in vitro. It is concluded that the mixture of triterpene alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin produced consistent peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal antinociception in rodents, especially when assessed in inflammatory models of pain. The mechanisms involved in their action are not completely understood but seem to involve the inhibition of protein kinase A- and protein kinase C-sensitive pathways.
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Dry extraction of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) butter from shea kernel was carried out in an instrumented mechanical expression rig. Shea butter was expressed at a pressure of 8.8 MPa applied at the rate of 2.5 mm/min on crushed shea kernel heated at 50, 70, 90 and 110 degrees C. The characteristics investigated on shea butter were specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content, melting point, viscosity, colour intensity, saponification value, iodine value, free fatty acid value, ester value, total acid value, peroxide value and rancidity index. Ester values of 216.6, 211.0, 194.2 and 180.3 while iodine values of 85.4, 83.3, 81.7 and 78.8 were obtained at 50, 70, 90 and 110 degrees C, respectively and saponification values at these temperatures were 261.3, 258.1, 244.7 and 237.7 while free fatty acid values were 6.3, 7.6, 12.2 and 15.4, respectively.
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Virgin olive oil has a high resistance to oxidative deterioration due to both a triacylglycerol composition low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and a group of phenolic antioxidants composed mainly of polyphenols and tocopherols. Polyphenols are of greater importance to virgin olive oil stability as compared with other refined oils which are eliminated or drastically reduced during the refining process.This paper covers the main aspects related to the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil during storage as well as at the high temperatures of the main processes of food preparation, i.e., frying and baking. Differences between oxidation pathways at low and high temperature are explained and the general methods for the measurement of stability are commented on. The compounds contributing to the oxidative stability of virgin olive oils are defined with special emphasis on the antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds. Finally, the variables and parameters influencing the composition of virgin olive oils before, during and after extraction are discussed.
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Application of synthetic antioxidants such as tertbutylhydroquinon (TBHQ), in spite of their efficiency, is questioned because of their possible carcinogenic effect. The purpose of this study was application of mixtures of natural antioxidants that provide the best oxidative stability for margarine. Antioxidant treatments included 10 various mixtures (F1- F10) containing 100-500ppm tocopherol mixture (Toc), 100-200ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP), 100- 200ppm rosemary extract (Ros) and 1000ppm lecithin(Lec) along with a control or F0 (with no antioxidant) and F11 with 120ppm TBHQ. The effect of antioxidant mixtures on the stability of margarine samples during oven test (60°C), rancimat test at 110°C and storage at 4°C was evaluated. Final ranking of natural antioxidant mixtures was as follows: F2,F10>F5,F9>F8>F1,F3, F4>F6, F7. Considering the results of this research and ranking criteria, F2(200ppmAp + 200ppmRos) and F10(200ppmRos + 200ppmToc +1000ppmLec) were recommended as substitutes for TBHQ to maintain the quality and increase the shelf-life of margarine.
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An inexpensive disposable Pasteur pipet can be transformed into a capillary tube, which, once correctly coupled with a Quickfit adapter with a side arm by means of a rubber septum, can receive under a dried and inert atmosphere air-sensitive samples from a Schlenk-type vessel. When the air-sensitive substance is placed at the bottom of the capillary tube, it is sealed under vacuum at the appropriate length. The capillary tube is then ready to be employed for melting point determination. This method can be also extended to the storage of air-sensitive compounds and proves to exceed those already described in the literature by its simplicity of construction and use, inexpensive cost, convenience, and reliability, requiring no grease to obtain a good vacuum. Keywords (Audience): Second-Year Undergraduate
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Aim  Woody vegetation patterns in African savannas north of the equator are closely connected to human presence, but the distinctions between natural and anthropogenic landscapes have not been clear to many observers. Criteria for identifying savanna landscapes on a continuum of intensity of anthropic impact are explored.Methods  A key savanna tree species, Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae), was used as model for evaluating anthropic impact. Fruits harvested from tree populations across the species range were analysed for variation in traits valued by indigenous peoples. A simple selection index was used to scale tree populations from a hypothetical wild state to a hypothetical domesticated state. Index values were compared with trait values along climate zone gradients and evaluated in the context of indigenous savanna management practices and historical species distribution reports.Results  Trait values such as fruit size and shape, pulp sweetness, and kernel fat content show a significant influence of temperature and rainfall. At the same time, the mean values of groups of traits vary perpendicular to the general climatic zone gradient. Selection index values between Vitellaria populations vary up to sixfold, with highest values in central Burkina Faso. Comparison of present day Vitellaria distribution with historical range limits show range expansion by human migration.Main conclusions  The prevalence of major economic tree species in the savannas of Africa north of the equator is a strong indicator of human involvement in tree dispersal. This conclusion is supported by paleobotanical evidence and by recent Vitellaria range expansion as a result of human migration. The presence of high mean values of several Vitellaria fruit traits in central Burkina Faso suggests that selection for desired characteristics has occurred. The impact of indigenous savanna peoples on woody species composition and spatial distribution is probably much greater than usually thought and is the result of a deliberate strategy of altering the landscape to provide needed human resources.
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Studies were conducted on properties of seeds and oil extracted from fully ripened Phoenix canariensis date seeds. The percentage composition of the P. canariensis seeds found is: ash 1.18%, oil 10.36%, protein content 5.67%, total carbohydrate 72.59% and moisture 10.20%. The major nutrients (mg/100 g of oil) determined were: potassium (255.43), magnesium (62.78), calcium (48.56) and phosphorus (41.33). The physicochemical properties of the oil observed include: the saponification number 191.28; the iodine number 76.66, the p-anisidine value 3.67; the peroxide value 3.62 meq/kg; the unsaponifiable matter content 1.79%, the free fatty acids content 0.59%; the carotenoid content 5.51 mg/100 g; the chlorophyll content 0.10 mg/100 g and the refractive index 1.45. The main fatty acids of oil were oleic (50.10%), linoleic (19.23%), lauric (10.24%). palmitic (9.83%) and stearic (7.51%). The main triacylglycerols found in P. canariensis seed oil were: LaMM + LaLaP (18.9%), LaMP + MMM (15.31%) and LaOO + PLL + MPL (12.86%). The DSC melting curves revealed that: melting point = 3.71 °C and melting enthalpy = 62.08 J/g. The sterol marker, β-sitosterol, accounted for 76.06% of the total sterols content in the seed oil followed by campesterol (8.89%) and Δ5avenesterol (8.79%). α-Tocotrienol was the major tocol (66%) with the rest being γ-tocotrienol and γ-tocopherol.
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Triterpene alcohols and sterols were found to be present in a commercial sample of shea butter (the seed fat of Butyrospermum parkii, Sapotaceae) as esters of both cinnamic and fatty acids. These non-glyceride saponifiables represented 6% by weight of the shea butter under study, whereas free triterpene alcohols and sterols accounted for only 1 % by weight. Cinnamic acid was found neither in the free form, nor esterified to glycerol. Saponification of the non-glyceride saponifiables yielded the triterpene alcohols α-amyrin, butyrospermol, lupeol, β-amyrin and germanicol as major components. Other alcohols identified were parked, 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3-ol, dammaradienol, 24-methylenedammarenol and the two sterols α-spinasterol and Δ7-stigmastenol. Esterified to these alcohols were cinnamic (trans and cis), palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic acids. The fatty acid composition of the non-glyceride saponifiables is different from that of the glycerides. No selectivity was observed in the esterification of these fatty acids by triterpene alcohols and sterols. Investigation of the products from acid catalysed transmethylation has led to two new experimental findings: (i) the difference in reaction rate of fatty acid and cinnamic acid esters and (ii) the formation of methoxylated artifacts from alcohols having unsaturation, in the C17 side chain, between C24 and C25 by the addition of methanol across the double bond. Analysis of the lipids extracted from shea kernels confirmed that the cinnamic acid esters were only present as non-glyceride saponifiables.
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An industrially degummed Indonesian palm oil was bleached and steam refined in a pilot plant to study the effect of processing on oil color and on the levels of carotenoids and tocopherols. Five concentrations of one natural and two activated clays mixed with a fixed amount of synthetic silica were used for bleaching. For color measurement, the Lovibond method was compared to the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) L*,a*,b* method. The results showed that the L*,a*,b* method is repeatable and that the values found are highly correlated with the carotenoid content of bleached oil samples. The various clays and synthetic silica mixes removed 20–50% of the carotenoids in the degummed oil, depending on clay concentration and activity. For the two activated clays, pigment adsorption increased with clay amount. Steam refining totally destroyed carotenoids in the claytreated oils by heat bleaching. Total tocopherols in the crude oil amounted to 1000 mg/kg, with γ-tocotrienol as the main tocopherolic component followed by α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. Tocopherol concentrations increased after the bleaching treatment with the most acid clay, and the increase was proportional to the amount of clay used. Both bleaching and steam refining changed the ratios between the various to copherolic components, especially increasing the relative concentration of α-tocotrienol in the refined oil. An average 80% tocopherol retention was obtained after the treatment with acid clay + synthetic silica and steam refining of palm oil.
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The contents of total and individual tocopherols of sunflower oils at different stages of industrial chemical and physical refining processes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to the results, total and individual tocopherol contents gradually decreased until the end of the refining processes. The average losses of total tocopherol content during the chemical and physical refining processes were found to be 30.2% and 35.5%, respectively. The steam distillation stage of the physical refining process caused greatest overall reduction (average 24.6%) in total tocopherol content. In contrast to the physical refining process, the degumming-neutralizing stage in the chemical refining process caused greatest overall reduction (average 14.7%) in total tocopherol content. An additional average loss of 11.0% occurred during deodorizing in the chemical refining process. In both chemical and physical refining, the bleaching stage caused similar effects. The physical refining process caused higher loss in the total and individual tocopherol contents when compared with the chemical refining process. The conditions of the refining processes should be carefully evaluated to reduce the loss of tocopherols.
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The antioxidant effect of lecithins was tested on several oils and fats varying in FA composition and tocopherol content. Standard lecithins, when added at a level of 1% w/w, exhibited a good protective effect against oxidation. This effect was observed to depend on the phospholipid content of the tested lecithins and the FA composition of the tested oils. Better results were obtained with lecithin samples containing high proportions of PC and PE. Indeed, the main antioxidant mechanism of lecithins was due to a synergistic effect between amino-alcohol phospholipids and γ- and δ-tocopherols. No synergism was observed with α-tocopherols, especially when the tested oil was rich in linoleic acid. Therefore, the antioxidant protection of lecithins was not effective for sunflower oil. Finally, the use of fractionated or enriched lecithins was not clearly advantageous compared to standard oil lecithins.
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Oxidative stability of flax and hemp oils, and of flax and hemp oils stripped of their minor components, was evaluated in the dark at 60°C and under fluorescent light at 27°C. Several analytical methods were used to assess the oxidative stability of oils. Oil extracts were also investigated for their scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and for their total phenolic contents. The results indicate that bioactive constituents of these edible oils play a major role in their oxidative stability. However, the FA composition of the oils and their total content of tocopherols as well as the type of pigments present contribute to their stability. Nonstripped flax and hemp oils were more stable than their corresponding stripped counterparts. Furthermore, nonstripped hemp oil had a higher oxidative stability than nonstripped flax oil as evidenced by scavenging of DPPH radical and consideration of total phenolic contents.
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Shea butter has been extracted from the seeds of the shea tree,B. parkii, with various organic solvents. Petroleum ether (40–60C),n-hexane, chloroform, and benzene extracted 32%–38% of fat and 8–9 mg% of vitamin E. These solvents, particularly petroleum ether andn-hexane, can be used for the production of shea butter that is free from any oxidized fat and coloring impurities.
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The effects of each individual step of the chemical refining process on major and minor components of rice bran oil were examined. In comparison with common vegetable oils, rice brain oil contains a significantly higher level of several bioactive minor components such as γ-oryzanol, tocotrienols, and phytosterols. Alkali treatment or neutralization results in a significant loss of oryzanol. In addition, it gives rise to a change in the individual phytosterol composition. After bleaching, some isomers of 24-methylenecycloartanol were detected. Because of their relatively high volatility, phytosterols and tocotrienols are stripped from the rice brain oil during deodorization and concentrated in the deodorizer distillate. At the same time, oryzanol is not volatile enough to be stripped during deodorization; hence, the oryzanol concentration does not change after deodorization. Complete refining removed 99.5% of the FFA content. Depending on the applied deodorization conditions, trans FA can be formed, but the total trans content generally remains below 1%.
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The unsaponifiable fractions of soybean, cottonseed, coconut, olive, and avocado oils have been studied in detail. The oils differed in the contents of total unsaponifiables, squalene, tocopherols, and sterols and also in the composition of the tocopherol and sterol fractions. The presence of absence of individual unsaponifiable components may help in establishing the identity of each of the investigated oils and in detecting of admixture by another oil.
Article
Triterpene alcohol constituents of the unsaponifiable lipids separated from tea seed oil fromThea sinensis L. (Theaceae), camellia seed oil fromCamellia japonica L. (Theaceae), pokeweed seed oil fromPhytolacca americana L. (Phytolaccaceae) and shea butter from the seed kernels ofButyrospermum parkii (Sapotaceae) were studied. Among a number of triterpene alcohols present in these oils, 19 components were identified as cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, parkeol, 24-methylene-24-dihydroparkeol, lanosterol, euphol, butyrospermol, tirucallol, tirucalla-7,24-dienol, dammaradienol, 24-methylenedammarenol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol, germanicol, taraxasterol, ψ-taraxasterol, taraxerol and myricadiol. Tirucalla-7,24-dienol and butyrospermol are the predominant components of the 2 Theaceae and pokeweed seed oils. Shea butter, on the other hand, contains α-amyrin followed by butyrospermol and lupeol as the major triterpene constituents.
Article
Antioxidants were evaluated for their ability to improve oxidative stability index (OSI) of enzymatically prepared rice bran oil-based structured lipid (RBOSL) containing caprylic acid. RBOSL was purified by short-path distillation. Vitamin E concentration decreased significantly in RBOSL after enzymatic modification. Total γ-oryzanol concentration after modification was not significantly different. OSI of RBOSL containing rosemary extract (RE), carnosic acid (CA), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and α-tocopherol (TOC), and 50:50 (w/w) combinations in concentrations of 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm were determined. The OSI of unmodified rice bran oil (RBO) was 12.4 ± 0.2 h and significantly higher than RBOSL which was 11.4 ± 0.0. Mean peroxide and p-anisidine values for antioxidant treatments in RBOSL with the highest OSI values were determined after incubation at 60 °C for 21 days and sampled every 3 days. Mean peroxide and p-anisidine values for CA and CA/RE were comparable to TBHQ.
Article
African shea butter, a vegetable fat produced from the seeds of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. (syn. Butyrospermum parkii L.), Sapotaceae, is a unique natural product of African countries and is of great nutritional and commercial significance. The volatile compounds of various shea butter samples were analysed to investigate the influence of differences in manufacturing (boiling/roasting or combined procedures) on the headspace composition and with regard to the different origin of the samples. Volatile compounds were analysed by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Qualitative and semi-quantitative patterns of volatile compounds investigated in this study were composed of fatty acids degradation products, e.g. acetic and hexanoic acid, carbonyl compounds (hexanal, heptanal, trans-2-heptenal, 2,4-heptadienal), 2-pentylfurane, processing compounds like furfural as well as glycerol and residue compounds from technical processing steps including milling. Comparison of the volatile profile of 16 different shea butters from four African countries showed that processing steps including drying of kernels before producing the fat and additional roasting procedures influence shea butter headspace composition significantly.
Article
The objective of this study is to compare the fatty acid composition of commercially available edible oils derived from certified organic and conventional agricultural methods. A total of 59 certified organic and 53 conventional oils were purchased from retail markets in Sydney, Australia. Organic and conventional products were matched for comparison according to the description of production methods, labelled total fat content, brand name (wherever possible), and country of origin. Total fat was extracted and the fatty acid composition of the oils was determined by gas chromatography. No consistent overall trend of difference in the fatty acid composition was observed between organic and conventional oils. Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids were all significantly different between types of oil (P < 0.001 in all three), and each had significant interaction between type and production method (P = 0.002, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) indicating that organic and conventional oils differed in these components in an inconsistent fashion. Despite this, there were large differences particularly between MUFA and PUFA components in specific pairs of oils, especially in sunflower and mustard seed oils. The absence of an overall difference in the fatty acid composition of organic and conventional oils does not support the tenet that organic foods are of a higher nutritional quality than their conventional counterparts.
Article
Flavour analysis is typically performed by human organoleptic analysis, which is often expensive and subjective. A novel approach using a surface acoustic wave sensing electronic nose (zNoseTM) for flavour analysis was explored to characterise 16 types of vegetable oils. Fatty acid composition, iodine value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value and free fatty acid analyses were conducted to determine the quality and characteristics of vegetable oils. The zNoseTM was employed successfully for qualitative distinction of flavour in different vegetable oils. This is achieved using a visual fragrance pattern, called a VaporPrintTM, derived from the frequency of the SAW detector. VaporPrintTM was shown to be particularly useful for assessing vegetable oil aroma profile in its entirety. This image is created by transforming the time variable to a radial angle with the beginning and end of the analysis occurring at 0°, or vertical. A Chemometric method, particularly principal component analysis (PCA), was conducted for electronic nose data processing and identification. Analysis of the score plot of the PCA for the zNoseTM measurement showed that 97% of the total variance in the data was described by PC 1 and PC 2. The loading plot revealed that five compounds (m,k,n,s, and p) were important for differentiate the vegetable oils.
Article
The lipid classes of kernel of shea butter tree, Butyrospermum paradoxum, were investigated. The total lipids obtained by chloroform/methanol extraction were fractionated. The nonpolar lipid components were sterols, diglycerides, free fatty acids and triglycerides. The main components of nonpolar lipids were the triglycerides. The major fatty acids of the triglyceride were stearic acid (ca. 46%) and oleic acid (ca. 41 %). Others present in relatively small quantities were 4% palmitic, 7% linoleic, and 1% linolenic acids. The free sterols were 11% campesterol, 20% stigmasterol, and 68% β-sitosterol. The polar lipid components in phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin). The glycolipid component was digalactosyldiglyceride and the main sugar moieties were galactose (ca. 32%) and glucose (ca. 66%). The predominant fatty acids in phospho- and glycolipids were stearic (36–50%), oleic (41–50%), and linoleic (6–11%).
Article
This work reviews the literature on the compositional data of vegetable fats used or proposed as alternatives to cocoa butter in chocolate and confectionery products. Cocoa butter is the only continuous phase in chocolate, thus responsible for the dispersion of all other constituents and for the physical behaviour of chocolate. Unique to cocoa butter is its brittleness at room temperature and its quick and complete melting at body temperature. There were, and are, strong efforts to replace cocoa butter in part for chocolate production for technological and economic reasons. Such cocoa butter alternatives are the so-called cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs), cocoa butter substitutes (CBSs) and cocoa butter replacers (CBRs). These are mostly mixtures of various vegetable fats (often modified) and can consist of palm and palm kernel oil, illipé fat, shea butter, sal fat and kokum butter. In addition, a large variety of other vegetable oils can be used. Their composition according to triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols and other unsaponifiable components is discussed in this report.
Article
Two samples of refined olive and husk oils have been analysed in order to evaluate the influence of storage time on their quality. The following parameters were determined: peroxide values, absorption coefficients K270 and K232, Rancimat induction time, sterols and fatty acid contents. Six months storage at 50 °C in the dark revealed a loss in oil stability. This finding was reflected by the greater increase in peroxide value and a decrease of Rancimat induction time and sterol content. The enrichment of refined olive and husk oils with olive leaves and its hydrolysate extract resulted in an appreciable resistance to oxidative deterioration due to its phenolic antioxidants content. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were the major compounds in Chemlali olive leaves extract and hydrolysate solution, respectively. The antiradical activity of leaves extract as well as its hydrolysate solution was evaluated and compared to that of the BHT. The antioxidant activity of the enriched refined olive and husk oils with leaves and hydrolysate extracts at 400 ppm showed that the latter had the highest protective effect against oil oxidation. Oils with added hydrolysate extract had the lower peroxide value and the higher stability measured with a Rancimat method. After six months of storage the induction time increased from 23.3 to 83.5 h for refined olive oil and from 16.6 to 49 h for husk oil. Furthermore, during oil storage, there was no significant variation in fatty acid composition. However, the total sterol concentration of the oils treated with hydrolysate extract increased. The results suggested that hydrolysate and leaves extracts are excellent antioxidants and can serve as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.
Article
Lipids are a major component of food and important structural and functional constituents of cells in biological systems. However, this diverse group of substances is prone to oxidation through various pathways. Their oxidative stability depends on a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including the unsaturation of their fatty acids, composition of minor components, environment conditions, delivery techniques and use of antioxidants, among others. Lipid oxidation has detrimental effects on both food quality and human health, and efforts must be made to minimize oxidation and improve oxidative stability of lipid products. Antioxidant strategy has been successfully employed in the food industry for quality preservation of the food products and in the medicinal industry for risk reduction of numerous oxidative stress-mediated diseases. This tutorial review will provide important knowledge about lipid oxidation, including the mechanism and factors involved in oxidation, as well as strategies for improving oxidative stability of lipids.
Article
The aqueous and organic extracts of Acacia visco Lor. Ap Griseb (Fabaceae) were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in experimental models in rat. Besides, the free-radical scavenging capacity of extracts from A. visco was determined. The extracts revealed anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced oedema, phospholipase A(2)-induced oedema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and they did not show acute toxic effect. Among the class of compounds characterized from A. visco leaves, the triterpenoid 20(29)-lupen-3β-ol (lupeol), 12-ursen-3β-ol (α-amyrin) and 12-oleanen-3β-ol (β-amyrin) may be mainly responsible for the pharmacological activities.
Article
The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.
Article
1 The seed of Butyrospermum parkii yields shea butter which according to local traditional healers relieves inflammation of the nostrils. 2 Since there is as yet no absolutely satisfactory nasal decongestant in clinical use, it was decided to investigate the effects of shea butter in nasal congestion. The substance was prepared in the laboratory. 3 The human subjects used were those suffering from rhinitis with moderate to severe nasal congestion. They were divided into the test group which received shea butter, the control group which was treated with xylometazoline and the 'placebo' group which received white petroleum jelly B.P. 4 The results showed that nasal congestion was relieved more satisfactorily in the test group than in the other two groups. 5 It is concluded that shea butter may prove more efficacious in nasal congestion than conventional nasal drops.
Article
The unsaponifiables from threeTheaceae (Camellia japonica L.,Camellia Sasanqua Thunb., andThea sinensis L.) oils and alfalfa, garden balsam, and spinach seed oils and shea fat were separated into four fractions: sterols, 4-methylsterols, triterpene alcohols, and less polar compounds by thin layer chromatography. While the sterol fraction was the major one for the unsaponifiables from alfalfa and spinach seed oils, the triterpene alcohol fraction was predominant for the unsaponifiables from all other oils. The sterol, 4-methylsterol, and triterpene alcohol fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography. All the sterol fractions were alike in their compositions, consisting exclusively of Δ7-sterols, such as α-spinasterol and Δ7-stigmastenol as predominant components together with Δ7-avenasterol and 24-methylcholest-7-enol. Obtusifoliol, gramisterol (occasionally accompanied with cycloeucalenol), and citrostadienol, together with several other unidentified components, were found in the 4-methylsterol fractions from all of the oils except shea fat. The 4-methylsterol fraction from shea fat showed a characteristic composition containing a large proportion of unidentified components which had relative retention time greater than that of citrostadienol, while no citrostadienol was detected. β-Amyrin, lupeol, and butyospermol were major components of the triterpene alcohol fractions from most of the oils, but the fraction from spinach seed oil contained cycloartenol and 24-methylene-cycloartanol as predominant components. There is a close similarity in the compositions of unsaponifiables (sterols, 4-methylsterols, and triterpene alcohols) of the threeTheaceae oils. Two sterols, α-spinasterol and Δ7-stigmastenol, and five triterpene alcohols were isolated from tea seed oil. Moreover, five unidentified components beside parkeol, butyrospermol, α-amyrin, and lupeol were isolated from the triterpene alcohol fraction of shea fat.
Article
Sterols, triterpene alcohols, and hydrocarbons present in the unsaponifiable fraction of some underutilized tropical seed oils have been examined. The seeds include Telfairia occidentalis (TLO), Andenopus breviflorus (ADB), Cucumeropsis edulis (CME), Antiaris africana (ATF), and Monodora tenuifolia (MNT). The oil content of the seeds was high (34.7-68.8%), whereas triacylglycerols comprised the dominant lipid group in the oils (65.4-73.9%). The percentage of unsaponifiables ranged from 1.1 to 7.9%. Ten sterols were identified in the fractions. In the Cucurbitaceae oils (TLO, CME, and ADB), Delta(7)-sterols constituted the dominant sterols. These include 24-ethylcholesta-7,22E,25-trienol (7), 24-ethylcholesta-7,25-dienol (9), 24Z-ethylidenecholes-7-enol (10), and 24-ethylcholesta-7, 24-dienol (11). However Delta(5)-sterols (1-5) occurred at the highest concentration in the other two samples (ATF and MNT). Fifteeen triterpene alcohols were detected in the fractions. Olean-12-enol (16), isomultiflorenol (8), and lupeol (23) were the dominant alcohols in the Cucurbitaceae family, whereas alpha-amyrin (urs-12-enol) (20) was the dominant triterpene alcohol in ATF and MNT. A mixture of C(18)-C(34) n-alkanes, squalene, and some monoterpenes was detected in the hydrocarbon fraction.
Article
Several triterpenes isolated from Leptadenia hastata latex were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity. Lupeol (1), its acetate (2) and palmitate (3) esters were found to be the main antiinflammatory constituents in the croton oil-induced ear oedema test. Furthermore, lupeol hemisuccinate (4), synthesized from lupeol, exhibited a higher activity than lupeol in the test. These results prove that the triterpenes play a pivotal role in the topical antiinflammatory effect of this latex. In addition, an in vitro model of human skin keratinocytes (epidermal explants) cultured at an air–liquid interface on a de-epidermized human dermis (DED) was used to investigate the effects of lupeol esters on skin repair in vitro. Compared with the control, compounds 2 and 3 improved keratinocyte proliferation at a concentration of 5 µM in the culture medium; however, they remained less active than compounds 1 and 4. In contrast to compound 1, all the lupeol esters (2–4), and particularly compound 4, induced a good differentiation of keratinocytes with a well-formed stratum corneum without parakeratosis. These results substantiate the topical use of Leptadenia hastata latex in traditional medicine and showed that both antiinflammatory activity and the effect on keratinocyte proliferation of compound 1 could be improved by its hemisuccinylation; on the contrary, esterification by acetylation or palmitoylation decreased these activities. Copyright
Article
Analysis of the phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels by LC-MS revealed eight catechin compounds-gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate-as well as quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid. The mean kernel content of the eight catechin compounds was 4000 ppm (0.4% of kernel dry weight), with a 2100-9500 ppm range. Comparison of the profiles of the six major catechins from 40 Vitellaria provenances from 10 African countries showed that the relative proportions of these compounds varied from region to region. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound, comprising an average of 27% of the measured total phenols and exceeding 70% in some populations. Colorimetric analysis (101 samples) of total polyphenols extracted from shea butter into hexane gave an average of 97 ppm, with the values for different provenances varying between 62 and 135 ppm of total polyphenols.
Article
The shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner, is the source of a commercial seed fat known as shea butter. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the tocopherol content of shea butters from different regions of Africa showed high variability between provenances and a significant effect of climate on alpha-tocopherol levels. The total tocopherol content (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) in 102 shea butter samples from 11 countries ranged from 29 to 805 microg/g of shea butter, with a mean of 220 microg/g. alpha-Tocopherol, the principal form detected, averaged 64% of the total tocopherol content. Shea butters from Vitellaria populations situated in hot, dry climates had the highest levels of alpha-tocopherol (for example, a mean of 414 microg/g in samples from N'Djamena, Chad). The lowest concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were found in samples from cool highland areas, especially in northern Uganda (a mean of 29 microg/g).
Article
Protium kleinii (Burseraceae), a native Brazilian medicinal plant is claimed to be useful to treat some inflammatory states. Now we reported that topical application of either the ether extract or the main active constituent from P. kleinii the pentacyclic triterpene alpha-amyrin, all caused a dose-related inhibition of both ear oedema (ID50 values are 0.55 and 0.31 mg/ear, respectively) and influx of polymorphonuclear cells (ID50 values are 0.72 and 0.45 mg/ear, respectively) in response to topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA) in the of mice ear. In terms of the efficacy, the maximal obtained inhibition for both ear oedema and neutrophil influx was very similar to that produced by the topical application of the steroidal antiinflammatory drug dexamethasone (DE; with inhibition of 70+/-5%, 66+/-3%, and 87+/-4% for oedema and 83+/-6%, 73+/-5%, and 91+/-3% for neutrophil influx, for the ether extract, alpha-amyrin, and dexamethasone, respectively). Likewise, both the ether extract and alpha-amyrin given topically dose-dependently prevented the increase of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta levels in response to topical application of TPA. The calculated mean ID50 values are 1.81 and 0.53 mg/ear, respectively. Again, the efficacy of the extract and alpha-amyrin was very similar to that produced by dexamethasone (63+/-6%, 61+/-5%, and 74+/-5%, respectively). In marked contrast to phenidone, a lipo and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, neither the ether extract nor the alpha-amyrin inhibited arachidonic acid-mediated ear oedema in mice. Collectively, these results indicate that the active constituents present in the ether extract of P. kleinii including the pentacyclic triterpene alpha-amyrin are good candidates to develop a skin permeable antiinflammatory drug.