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Antidepressant Effects of Noni Fruit and its Active Principals

  • Tahitian Noni international

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The antidepressant effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit extracts were investigated in vitro with the Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) A and B bioassays. The ethyl acetate extract of freeze-dried noni fruit powder inhibited MAO-A and B enzymes 78 and 49%, respectively. A phytochemical study of the most active extract led to the isolation of nine compounds. Among these, three principles including two flavonoids, kaempferol and quercetin, as well as one lignan, (+)-3,4,3',4'-tetrahydro-9,7'"-epoxylignan-7",9'-lactone, were found to be potent MAO-A and B inhibitors. These findings indicate that noni fruit is a natural MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitor, involving a synergistic effect from multiple active components.
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Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 3(2): 79-83, 2011
ISSN: 2040-8773
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2011
Received: February 24, 2011 Accepted: March 26, 2011 Published: April 20, 2011
Corresponding Author: Shixin Deng, Research and Development Department, Tahitian Noni International, 737 East, 1180 South,
American Fork, Utah 84003
Antidepressant Effects of Noni Fruit and its Active Principals
Shixin Deng and Brett J. West
Research and Development Department, Tahitian Noni International,
737 East, 1180 South, American Fork, Utah 84003
Abstract: The antidepressant effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit extracts were investigated in vitro with
the Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) A and B bioassays. The ethyl acetate extract of freeze-dried noni fruit powder
inhibited MAO-A and B enzymes 78 and 49%, respectively. A phytochemical study of the most active extract
led to the isolation of nine compounds. Among these, three principles including two flavonoids, kaempferol
and quercetin, as well as one lignan, (+)-3,4,3',4'-tetrahydro-9,7'
"-epoxylignan-7",9'-lactone, were found to
be potent MAO-A and B inhibitors. These findings indicate that noni fruit is a natural MAO-A and MAO-B
inhibitor, involving a synergistic effect from multiple active components.
Key words: Active compounds, antidepressant, MAO-A & B, Morinda citrifolia, noni
Major depressive disorder, also known as clinical
depression, remains a problem among developed and
developing nations. Lifetime prevalence estimates range
from about 3% of the population (Japan) to 17%
(USA), with most nations between 8 and 12%
(Andrade et al., 2003). Within the United States, the 12-
month prevalence has been estimated to be 6.6% (Kessler
et al., 2003). Clearly, depression remains an important
public health issue. Treatment of depression involves
many modalities, the majority of which are psychotherapy
and pharmacological interventions. Among the
antidepressant drugs are Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
inhibitors. Monoamine oxidase enzymes break down the
monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine,
serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine
(Spencer, 1977). The utility of MAO inhibitors lies in
their ability to prevent the catalysis of the amine based
neurotransmitters. MAO inhibitors have been found to be
useful in the treatment of a wide variety of mental health
disorders, but they also have a number of serious
toxicities associate with their use, such as hypertensive
reaction and other more common undesirable side effects,
including weight gain and daytime sedation (Remick and
Froese, 1990).
The scientific investigation of anti-depression and
anti-anxiety botanicals is driven by the desire to find
useful treatments which might be potentially safer and
have more mild activities. Examples of antidepressive
plants include Hypericum perforatum, Ginkgo biloba,
Apocynum venetum, Valeriana officinalis and Melissa
officinalis (Shirai et al., 2005; Weeks, 2009). Morinda
citrifolia, commonly known as noni in indigenous tropical
areas, has a long traditional history of use for the
prevention and treatment of many diseases including
cancer, colds, diabetes, flu, anxiety, hypertension, pain,
and other health disorders (Wang et al., 2002;
McClatchey, 2002). Noni fruit may also be a useful
natural remedy for the treatment of anxiety and
depression. Noni fruit juice has been demonstrated to be
well tolerated, even at high doses (West et al., 2009).
Among rural populations of the South Pacific, noni is
thought to be useful for the treatment of anxiety and
depression (Pande et al., 2005). Consumption of noni
juice was also associated with improvements in mood
scores of postmenopausal women (Langford et al., 2004).
Therefore, the current investigation was conducted to
examine the potential mechanisms responsible for the
antidepressive activity of noni juice. As of today, the
following classes of compounds have been isolated and
identified from noni fruits: amino acids, anthraquinones,
coumarins, fatty acids, flavonoids, iridoids, lignans,
polysaccharides, sterols, sugars, sulfur-containing
compounds, and terpenoids (Deng et al., 2007; Pawlus
and Kinghorn, 2007). In this study, noni fruit and its
compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on
monoamine oxidase A and B in vitro.
The experiments were conducted in 2007-2009 at the
Research lab of Tahitian Noni International, USA.
Asian J. Med. Sci., 3(2): 79-83, 2011
Fig. 1: Flow chart of the fractionation and isolation of MAO bioactive compounds from noni fruit using a series of chromatographic
techniques. 1-9 represent pure compounds 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-9,7'
"-epoxylignano-7",9'-lactone (1), 3,3'-
bisdemethyltanegool (2), (-)-pinoresinol (3), (-)-3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (4), quercetin (5), kaempferol (6), scopoletin
(7), isoscopoletin (8), and vanillin (9)
Plant material: Morinda citrifolia fruits were collected
from a farm in Mataiea, Tahiti during June 2004 and
identified by the quality control department of Tahitian
Noni International, Inc. (TNI). The fresh juice of
M. citrifolia was dried using a lyophilizer. A reference
sample of freeze-dried powder of fruits was deposited in
the TNI research and development laboratory (lot #
Experimental: UV absorption data were recorded on a
Varian Cary 1C UV/Vis spectrophotometer, and IR
spectra were taken on a Thermo Nicolet Avatar 360 FT-
IR spectrometer. All
H NMR and
C NMR data were
recorded on a Varian INOVA-500 spectrometer using
or CD
OD as solvents, and tetramethylsilane
(TMS) as an internal standard. High-resolution mass
spectra (HRMS) were obtained on an Agilent 1100 series
liquid chromatograph/mass selective detector (LC/MSD)
time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (Agilent
Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA), equipped with an
electrospray ion source (ESI). Preparative HPLC was
performed with a Waters Alliance
2690 separations
module coupled with a Waters 2996 photodiode array
(PDA) detector and utilizing a Waters XTerra
preparative MS C
OBD column (10 :m, 19×300 mm,
Wexford, Ireland).
Extraction, isolation and identification: Extraction and
isolation was performed as described previously
(Deng et al., 2007). Briefly, freeze-dried M. citrifolia fruit
powder (2 kg) was steeped in methanol for 24 h at room
temperature, then percolated with 20 L of methanol. The
methanol percolate was concentrated and diluted with
O, then partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), ethyl
acetate (EtOAc), and butanol (BuOH) sequentially to
yield corresponding partitions, as shown in Fig. 1. The
resulting PE, EtOAc and BuOH extracts were dried in
vacuo with a rotary evaporator. The aqueous mother
liquid was lyophilized to produce a dried aqueous extract.
Further, the EtOAc extract was subjected to flash column
chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase
preparative HPLC chromatography to yield compounds 1-
9. A flow chart of fractionation and isolation is
summarized in Fig. 1. The chemical structures of 1-9 were
elucidated by a series of spectroscopic techniques,
including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, as well as high
resolution mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-9 were
identified as 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-9,7'
Asian J. Med. Sci., 3(2): 79-83, 2011
7",9'-lactone (1), 3,3'-bisdemethyltanegool (2), (-)-
pinoresinol (3), (-)-3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (4),
quercetin (5), kaempferol (6), scopoletin (7), isoscopoletin
(8), and vanillin (9).
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) A and B inhibition
assays: Antidepressant effects of noni fruit extracts and
isolated compounds were studied in vitro with the
monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B inhibition
assays, according to a previously reported protocol
(Urban et al., 1991; Youdim and Finberg, 1991). Briefly,
human recombinant MAO-A and MAO-B expressed in
insect cells were used. Test extracts, compounds and/or
vehicle were preincubated with 4.2
:g MAO-A/mL or 13
:g MAO-B/mL enzymes in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for
15 min at 37ºC. The reaction was initiated by addition of
:M kynuramine for a 60 min incubation period and
terminated by addition of 6 N NaOH. The amount of 4-
hydroxyquinoline formed was determined
spectrofluorimetrically by absorbance at 325 nm/465 nm.
Extracts and compounds were screened at 100
and active compounds (inhibition >50%) were tested for
their 50% inhibition concentrations (IC
). Reference
standards were run as an integral part of each assay to
ensure the validity of the result obtained. Tetrindole was
used as a reference compound.
Noni fruit was extracted with different solvents and
prepared into different extracts and examined for their in
vitro MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitory effects. The
experimental results demonstrated that among PE,
EtOAC, BuOH, and water extracts, the EtOAC extract
Table 1: The screening of MAO-A & B inhibitory activities of noni
fruit extracts
Extracts Inhibition (%)
Pet ether extract 33 36
Ethyl acetate extract 78 49
Butanol extract 23 26
Water extract 1 11
showed the most activity against MAO-A and MAO-B
enzymes, with 78 and 49% inhibition at a concentration of
:g/mL (Table 1 and Fig. 2). This finding suggests
that noni may contain antidepressant components. As
such, the active EtOAc extract was further subjected to
phytochemical investigation for identification of potential
active principle(s). The extensive screening led to
isolation and identification of nine pure compounds which
were further evaluated in in vitro assays.
The preliminary screening at a concentration of 100
:g/mL suggested that three compounds, 3,4,3',4'-
"-epoxylignano-7",9'-lactone (1),
quercetin (5), and kaempferol (6), inhibited more than
50% of enzyme activity. Their structures are summarized
in Fig. 3. The experimental results (Table 2) indicate that
exhibited similar inhibitory activities on MAO-A and
MAO-B enzymes, with IC
values of 47.6 and 36.6 :M,
respectively. Quercetin and kaempferol, with IC
of 3.15
:M and 0.72 :M for MAO-A, and 31.7 :M and
:M for MAO-B, respectively, displayed MAO-A
selectivity indices of 10 and 28. These results indicate that
both are more potent inhibitors of MAO-A than MAO-B
Fig. 2: MAO-A and B inhibitory activities of noni fruit extracts
Asian J. Med. Sci., 3(2): 79-83, 2011
Kaempferol R=H, Quercetin R=OH (+) 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydro-9,7'"-epoxylignan- 7",9'-lactone
Fig. 3: Structures of MAO bioactive compounds in noni fruit
Table 2: Determination of MAO-A & B inhibition of compounds
isolated from noni fruit
Isolates MAO-A MAO-B index
(+)-3,4,3',4'-Tetrahydro-9,7'"- 47.6 36.6 0.77
",9'-lactone (1)
3,3'-Bisdemethyltanegool (2) - - -
(-)-Pinoresinol (3) - - -
(-)-3,3'-Bisdemethylpinoresinol (4) - - -
Quercetin (5) 3.15 31.7 10.06
Kaempferol (6) 0.72 20.4 28.33
Scopoletin (7) - - -
Isoscopoletin (8) - - -
Vanillin (9) - - -
0.014 0.51 36.43
: concentrations of samples required to inhibit enzyme activities by
: Selectivity index = MAO-B IC
: Positive
control, Compounds 2-4 and 7-9 were inactive in the preliminary
screening (inhibition < 50% at a concentration of 100
In conclusion, the experiments investigated the
antidepressant effects of noni fruits and its bioactive
principles in terms of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) A
and B bioassays for the first time. The findings indicate
that noni fruit is a natural MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitor,
involving a synergistic effect from multiple active
components. The results of this investigation provide an
in vitro rationale for the traditional uses of noni fruits as
a natural remedy for anti-depression and anti-anxiety, as
well as improved sense of well-being. This study reports
the possible in vitro mechanism responsible for noni anti-
depressant and anti-anxiety effects. Further animal and/or
clinical investigation may be warranted.
The authors would like to thank the Department of
Chemistry at University of Utah and the Department of
Chemistry and Biochemistry at Brigham Young
University for facilitating the use of the NMR and mass
spectrometer instrumentation. We also gratefully
acknowledge financial support from Tahitian Noni
international (Utah, USA) to this project.
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... The IC 50 estimations for MAO-A by methanolic extract (19.3 ± 2.3) was found to be better than the aqueous extract (48.3 ± 5.7) [51]. The antidepressant action of Morinda citrifolia fruit extracts was evaluated by estimation of MAO inhibition studies [52]. The bioactivity-fractionation led two flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol. ...
... The IC50 estimations for MAO-A by methanolic extract (19.3 ± 2.3) was found to be better than the aqueous extract (48.3 ± 5.7) [51]. The antidepressant action of Morinda citrifolia fruit extracts was evaluated by estimation of MAO inhibition studies [52]. The bioactivity-fractionation led two flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol. ...
... Kaempferol dan quercetin merupakan dua senyawa yang termasuk kedalam golongan flavonoid dimana kedua senyawa tersebut merupakan penghambat MAO-A dan MAO-B yang kuat. Hal inilah yang menunjukkan bahwa buah mengkudu merupakan penghambat MAO-A dan MAO-B alami, hal tersebut mengakibatkan efek yang sinergis dari beberapa komponen aktif (Deng & West, 2011). Pemberian ekstrak metanol Morinda citrifolia Linn pada hewan uji dengan dosis 500 mg/kg yang diberikan secara oral mampu memberikan efek yang signifikan yaitu dengan menurunkan durasi imobilitas pada hewan yang diuji dengan menggunakan metode tail suspension test (TST) (Narasingam et al., 2017). ...
... Pemberian ekstrak metanol Morinda citrifolia Linn pada hewan uji dengan dosis 500 mg/kg yang diberikan secara oral mampu memberikan efek yang signifikan yaitu dengan menurunkan durasi imobilitas pada hewan yang diuji dengan menggunakan metode tail suspension test (TST) (Narasingam et al., 2017). Pada salah satu penelitian lain disebutkan bahwa pada ekstrak etil asetat buah mengkudu yang dilakukan pengujian secara in vitro memiliki aktivitas antidepresan dengan cara menghambat MAO-A (78%) dan MAO-B (49%) (Deng & West, 2011). Penghambatan tersebut mengakibatkan terjadinya peningkatan konsentrasi noerpinefrin, serotonin dan dopamin dalam neuron (Harvey & Champe, 2013). ...
... (Chimenti et al., 2006;Saaby et al., 2009;Xiang et al., 2007), ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. (Prasopthum et al., 2015), and ethyl acetate extract of Melastoma candidum D. Don. and Morinda citrifolia L. (Deng and West, 2011;M. H. Lee et al., 2001). ...
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is capable of catalysing the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters. MAO plays a pivotal role in maintaining neurotransmitters linked to neurological disorders viz. Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) etc. Therefore, inhibition of MAO can be implicated to the cure of such diseases. Synthetic MAO inhibitors are known to inhibit MAO activity. However, there are safety issues with synthetic MAO inhibitors and many of their effects are non-selective and irreversible. Contrasting synthetic drugs, plant-derived natural products have been popularized globally owing to their extensive acceptability and applicability, therapeutic potency and minimum side effects which potentiated the possibility of developing reversible, promising MAO inhibitors based on natural products. The present review comprehensively elucidates plant -derived natural reversible MAO inhibitors using the literature from the popular databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science. This literature review reports approximately 51 plants that have been evaluated for MAO inhibitory activity. In addition, 93 plant-derived natural compounds were retrieved as MAO inhibitors. Majority of these investigations predominantly utilized an in vitro approach to evaluate the MAO inhibitors in relation to the developing treatments of related neurological diseases. However, in vivo studies and clinical trials are still lacking in evaluating the botanical-based MAO inhibitors. The aim of this review is to retrieve the recent literature to explore the in vitro and in vivo studies of plant-based natural products as MAO inhibitors, their structure-activity relationship and relevant molecular docking analyses and their roles in the emerging therapy against disorders like AD, and PD. Further, the review also discusses the shortcomings in the existing research in order to generate more coordinated and focused research in future.
... Buah mengkudu memiliki kandungan flavonoid sebesar 5,69±0,21 mg, senyawa fenolik sebesar 14,44±0,82 mg dan aktivitas antioksidan sedang sebesar (IC50 101-250 μg/mL) (Anwar & Triyasmono, 2016). Buah mengkudu memiliki khasiat sebagai obat kemoterapi (Karamcheti et al., 2014), antimikroba (Sashidharan & Palaniswamy, 2010), antidepresan (Deng & West, 2011), dan antioksidan (Saminathan et al., 2014). ...
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... Many scientists have inspected the potential action of some plants i.e., Ginkgo biloba, Apocynumvenetum, Hypericumperforatum, Valeriana officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Morinda citrifolia for the treatment of anxiety and depression [62] . Recent studies showed that Morinda citrifolia act as an inhibitor of MAO-A and MAO-B [63] . ...
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... Buah mengkudu juga bisa menjadi obat alami yang bermanfaat untuk pengobatan kecemasan dan depresi. Jus mengkudu telah terbukti dapat ditoleransi dengan baik, bahkan pada dosis tinggi (Aldi, Amdani dan Bakhtiar, 2016; Deng and West, 2011;Fadillah, 2014). Selain itu ekstrak buah mengkudu juga telah terbukti memiliki potensi sebagai anti bakteri, anti jamur, dan penekan sel tumor (Senthilkumar et al. 2016;dan Barani et al. 2014). ...
... In vitro inhiboval extrakt z Morinda citrifolia monoaminoxidázu A i B. Za úèinek zodpovídá více látek, zejména flavonoidy (kvercetin, kempferol) a lignany, které pùsobí synergicky (Deng a West, 2011). ...
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... Standard drug used was Imipramine-10mg/kg dose per orally. 10,11 Animals were divided into 4 groups consisting of six animals each. Group I is control animals which were administered with distilled water per orally. ...
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective antidepressant agents. They are increasingly and effectively used in a number of other psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical syndromes. Their potential for serious toxicity (i.e., hypertensive reaction) is far less than original reports suggest, and newer reversible substrate-specific MAOIs may offer even less toxicity. The author reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical indications, and dosing strategies of MAOIs. The common MAOI side-effects (hypotension, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, daytime sedation, myoclonus, and hypertensive episodes) are described and management techniques suggested. Recent clinical developments involving MAOIs are outlined.
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A safety study of TAHITIAN NONI Juice from Tahiti was conducted with ninety-six healthy volunteers. For 28 days, participants consumed one of four daily quantities of noni juice: 0 mL (placebo), 30 mL, 300 mL, or 750 mL. All daily dose formulations were standardized to 750 mL by making up any volume differences with the placebo. Hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, vital signs, and adverse events measurements were made at 0 (baseline), 2, and 4 weeks, as well as during a two-week follow up (week 6). Electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements were also made for each volunteer during the pre-study screen and at week 6. During the trial, those in the noni groups experienced 20 to 50% fewer total adverse events than those in the placebo group. A marginally significant (P<0.1) reduction in the number of constant adverse events experienced by the volunteers was also found in the 300 mL noni juice group. A similar trend was observed in the other noni juice groups, as well. No other clinically significant differences between any of the groups were noted in the parameters and measurements of this study, nor was there evidence suggesting any adverse dose-related effects. The results of this study indicate that drinking up to 750 mL TAHITIAN NONI Juice per day is safe.
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Dietary supplements are widely used for desired effects on memory, insomnia, mood and anxiety. This review focuses on supplements which have anxiolytic or mild relaxation properties and enhance mood. For example, Kava (Piper methysticum) is reported to have anaxiolytic actions and to reduce tension through skeletal muscle relaxation. Dried passion flower (genus Passiflora) is reported to reduce insomnia and hysteria. Skullcap (genus Scutellaria), hops (Humulus lupulus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root are all herbs reported as anaxiolytic calming agents. Further, extracts of Magnolia and Phellondendron bark are mild sedatives. Supplements such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), theanine, tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are reported to promote relaxation. In general, these supplements appear to act as GABA receptor agonists or to boost GABA levels, although Kava inhibits both norephinephrine uptake and sodium and potassium channels and 5-HTP may act through elevation of serotonin. While questions remain in the literature regarding the medicinal value of these supplements in treating mood and anxiety disorders, based on cellular and animal studies as well as human clinical trials the literature supports a role for these preparations as useful alternatives in the management of the stress and anxiety of everyday life.
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Morinda citrifolia L (Noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2000 years, and is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, antihelmin, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. In order to reveal the nutritional and medicinal value of the Noni plant, and to summarize scientific evidence that supports the Polynesians' claim, a literature review and recent advances in Noni research is given below.
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Uncertainties exist about prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD). To present nationally representative data on prevalence and correlates of MDD by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria, and on study patterns and correlates of treatment and treatment adequacy from the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Face-to-face household survey conducted from February 2001 to December 2002. The 48 contiguous United States. Household residents ages 18 years or older (N = 9090) who responded to the NCS-R survey. Prevalence and correlates of MDD using the World Health Organization's (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 12-month severity with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the WHO disability assessment scale (WHO-DAS). Clinical reinterviews used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The prevalence of CIDI MDD for lifetime was 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.1-17.3) (32.6-35.1 million US adults) and for 12-month was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.9-7.3) (13.1-14.2 million US adults). Virtually all CIDI 12-month cases were independently classified as clinically significant using the QIDS-SR, with 10.4% mild, 38.6% moderate, 38.0% severe, and 12.9% very severe. Mean episode duration was 16 weeks (95% CI, 15.1-17.3). Role impairment as measured by SDS was substantial as indicated by 59.3% of 12-month cases with severe or very severe role impairment. Most lifetime (72.1%) and 12-month (78.5%) cases had comorbid CIDI/DSM-IV disorders, with MDD only rarely primary. Although 51.6% (95% CI, 46.1-57.2) of 12-month cases received health care treatment for MDD, treatment was adequate in only 41.9% (95% CI, 35.9-47.9) of these cases, resulting in 21.7% (95% CI, 18.1-25.2) of 12-month MDD being adequately treated. Sociodemographic correlates of treatment were far less numerous than those of prevalence. Major depressive disorder is a common disorder, widely distributed in the population, and usually associated with substantial symptom severity and role impairment. While the recent increase in treatment is encouraging, inadequate treatment is a serious concern. Emphasis on screening and expansion of treatment needs to be accompanied by a parallel emphasis on treatment quality improvement.
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Morinda citrifolia L (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. Remedies from isolated Polynesian cultures, such as that of Rotuma, illustrate traditional indications that focus upon leaves, roots, bark, and green fruit, primarily for topical ailments. Anecdotally collected Hawaiian remedies that employ noni fruit illustrate changing usage patterns with shifts in recent times to preparation of juice made of ripe or decaying fruit. Ralph M. Heinicke promoted a wide range of claims about noni, and these seem to have fueled much of the current commercial interest in the plant. Recent studies of the proliferation of commercial products have shown that noni product manufacturers are promoting a range of therapeutic claims. These claims are based upon traditional Polynesian uses, Heinicke's ideas, and fragments of recent scientific studies including the activity of noni in the treatment of cancer. A review is provided of recent studies of potential anticancer activity of noni fruit. While noni's anticancer potential is still being explored, it continues to be widely used by Polynesians and non-Polynesians alike for both traditional and newly hypothesized indications.
The purpose of this paper is to present a general review of those agents currently available to treat depression, to discus their pharmacological properties and the methods available for the detection and evaluation of new antidepressant agents.
Human monoamine oxidases A and B were expressed under the control of a galactose inducible promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two MAO isoenzymes were found located in the yeast mitochondrial outer membrane, probably in different orientations as suggested by controlled proteolysis experiments. A high level of both human MAO-A or -B activities is measured in intact mitochondria without the need for any detergent solubilisation step. The substrate and inhibitor selectivities of the membrane-bound MAOs are highly similar to those of purified human enzymes. The level of MAO-B activity, however, is selectively lowered when bound to the membrane.
Identification, cellular localization, and cDNA cloning of MAO subtypes A and B have increased the insight into the pharmacology of these enzymes, whose primary functions are intra- and extraneuronal inactivation of neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin) and other biogenic amines. In addition, MAO oxidizes the inert uncharacteristic tertiary amine, MPTP, to the parkinson inducing dopaminergic neurotoxin, MPP+, and the novel secondary amine anticonvulsant milacemide to the inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, glycine. These recent developments have provided new therapeutic perspectives for the management of Parkinson's disease and seizure disorders via the use of selective inhibitors and amino acid amine prodrug substrates of MAO-B.
Absence of a common diagnostic interview has hampered cross-national syntheses of epidemiological evidence on major depressive episodes (MDE). Community epidemiological surveys using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered face-to-face were carried out in 10 countries in North America (Canada and the US), Latin America (Brazil, Chile, and Mexico), Europe (Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands, and Turkey), and Asia (Japan). The total sample size was more than 37,000. Lifetime prevalence estimates of hierarchy-free DSM-III-R/DSM-IV MDE varied widely, from 3% in Japan to 16.9% in the US, with the majority in the range of 8% to 12%. The 12-month/lifetime prevalence ratio was in the range 40% to 55%, the 30-day/12-month prevalence ratio in the range 45% to 65%, and median age of onset in the range 20 to 25 in most countries. Consistent socio-demographic correlates included being female and unmarried. Respondents in recent cohorts reported higher lifetime prevalence, but lower persistence than those in earlier cohorts. Major depressive episodes were found to be strongly co-morbid with, and temporally secondary to, anxiety disorders in all countries, with primary panic and generalized anxiety disorders the most powerful predictors of the first onset of secondary MDE. Major depressive episodes are a commonly occurring disorder that usually has a chronic-intermittent course. Effectiveness trials are needed to evaluate the impact of early detection and treatment on the course of MDE as well as to evaluate whether timely treatment of primary anxiety disorders would reduce the subsequent onset, persistence, and severity of secondary MDE. Copyright