ArticlePDF Available

Biological Activities of Royal Jelly -Review

Authors:

Abstract

Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for its extraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findings and research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are taken into consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one of the most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity in future research for our health and life benefit.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Royal jelly (RJ) is one of the most noteworthy nutritious substance which is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular salivary glands of young nurse honey bees [11]. RJ due to having different bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, and mineral salt, has various biological and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, neurotrophic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antilipidemic, and antimicrobial [11,12]. ...
... Royal jelly (RJ) is one of the most noteworthy nutritious substance which is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular salivary glands of young nurse honey bees [11]. RJ due to having different bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, and mineral salt, has various biological and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, neurotrophic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antilipidemic, and antimicrobial [11,12]. Clinical trials, in vitro and in vivo studies, demonstrated that RJ displayed its anticancer effects through induction of apoptosis, thereby increasing the activities of antioxidant factors, inhibiting elevated serum markers and histological alterations, and regulating the inflammatory factors, etc [13]; therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the antitumor effects of royal jelly obtained from Apis mellifera compared with cyclophosphamide (CP), as an alkylating agent which widely used for the treatment of neoplastic cancers, against the Ehrlich solid tumors (EST) in mice. ...
... RJ, a viscous secretion of A. mellifera worker bees, is considered an important functional natural product with a wide range of commercial, cosmetic and medical applications [10]. Moreover, in modern medicine, RJ has been demonstrated various pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, nephroprotective, wound-healing, and antimicrobial effects [11][12][13][14]. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antitumor effects of royal jelly obtained from A. mellifera compared with cyclophosphamide (CP), as an alkylating agent which is widely used for the treatment of neoplastic cancers, against the Ehrlich solid tumors (EST) in mice. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the antitumor effects of royal jelly (RJ) obtained from Apis mellifera compared with cyclophosphamide against the Ehrlich solid tumors (EST) in mice. Methods: Tumor growth inhibition, body weight, the serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen tumor (CAE), liver and kidney enzymes, tumor lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase enzyme (CAT), and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (SOD)), tumor necrosis factor alpha level (TNF-α), and the apoptosis-regulatory genes expression were assessed in EST mice treated with RJ (200 and 400 mg/kg orally once a day for 2 weeks). Results: The results showed that treatment of EST-suffering mice with RJ at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg causes significant reduction in tumor volume and inhibition rate, body weight, tumor markers (AFP and CEA), serum level of liver and kidney, LPO and NO, TNF-α level, as well as the expression level of Bcl-2 in comparison with the EST mice receiving the normal saline; whereas RJ at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day significantly increased (p < 0.05) the level of antioxidant enzymes of GPx, CAT, and SOD and the expression level of caspase-3 and Bax genes. Conclusion: The findings revealed that oral administration of royal jelly especially at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited promising antitumor effects against EST in mice through induction of apoptosis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which suggest it as a novel anticancer agent against tumor; however, additional surveys especially in clinical setting are necessary to approve these findings.
... Royal jelly (RJ) is secreted from the hypopharyngeal glands of the honey bee workers and is the most critical beehive product (Takenaka, 1982). Royal jelly has many properties such as antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory activity (Kocot, Kiełczykowska, Luchowska-Kocot, Kurzepa, & Musik, 2018;Pavel et al., 2011). The RJ is a mixture of fatty acids, lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins and beneficial minerals (Lercker et al., 1986;Lucas, 1942;Mateescu, 1999;Nagai & Inoue, 2004;Pavel et al., 2011;Suzuki et al., 2008;Tamura, Kono, Harada, Yamaguchi, & Moriyama, 2009). ...
... Royal jelly has many properties such as antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory activity (Kocot, Kiełczykowska, Luchowska-Kocot, Kurzepa, & Musik, 2018;Pavel et al., 2011). The RJ is a mixture of fatty acids, lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins and beneficial minerals (Lercker et al., 1986;Lucas, 1942;Mateescu, 1999;Nagai & Inoue, 2004;Pavel et al., 2011;Suzuki et al., 2008;Tamura, Kono, Harada, Yamaguchi, & Moriyama, 2009). According to previous studies, feeding or the adding of RJ to semen diluent of bull (Shahzad et al., 2016), mice (Jalali, Najafi, Hosseinchi, & Sedighnia, 2015), goat (Alcay, Toker, Onder, & Gokce, 2017) and ram (Moradi, Malekinejad, Farrokhi-Ardabili, & Bernousi, 2013) improved the sperm fertility and viability during the chilled and frozen conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soybean meal (SBM) treated with acetic or citric acids on growth performance, microbial population, digestive enzyme activities, nutrient digestibility, and jejunal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed into 7 experimental groups with 5 replicates per each. Experimental treatments were diets containing untreated SBM (control) and SBM treated with two acid sources and their concentrations including 5, 10, and 15% acetic acid (A1, A2, and A3) or 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75% citric acid (C1, C2, and C3). Results showed that trypsin inhibitors and lectins as the main SBM anti-nutrients significantly reduced in acid-treated SBM compared with untreated SBM (P < 0.05). During 1–24 days, body weight gain increased in chicks fed the C2 diet (P < 0.05). Feeding of the C2 diet increased feed intake compared with A1, A2, and C3 groups (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio improved in chicks fed with C2, C3, and A2 diets compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The greatest villus length, villus length to crypt depth ratio, and villus surface area were observed in the C2 diet (P < 0.05). A significant increase in protease and lipase activity was found in broilers which received a C2 diet compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens fed with the C2 diet had a higher organic matter and crude protein digestibility than the chicks which received the control diet (P < 0.05) and dry matter digestibility was the lowest in broilers fed with the A3 diet (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the acid hydrolyzing process had a beneficial effect on the nutritional value of SBM. In addition, data showed that acid-hydrolyzed SBM had the potential to exert positive influences on growth performance, jejunal morphology, and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens. This is a preview of subscription content,
... Royal jelly is responsible for the longevity of the queen bee and royalactin is the main component (Kunugi and Mohammed Ali, 2019;Kamakura, 2011;Detienne et al., 2014). Royal jelly is widely used as a dietary supplement due to its antibacterial, antitumor, antiallergy, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effect (Viuda-Martos et al., 2008;Ramadan and Al-Ghamdi, 2012;Pavel et al., 2011;Khazaei et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Apiculture is the art of rearing honey bees in artificial hives and collecting various bee products especially honey, bee bread, bee venom, bee pollen, propolis and royal jelly. Honey is a very sweet, viscous syrup produced by the honey bees as well as stingless bees which is probably the first natural sweetener ever discovered, widely used as a nutritious food supplement and medicinal agent. The physical, chemical and nutritive properties of honey fluctuate based on the floral preferences, floral sources, climatic conditions and geographic features. Honey exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and cardioprotective properties. Due to these properties, it is used in the treatment of eye disorders, gastrointestinal tract diseases, neurological disorders, fertility disorders and wound healing activity. This review paper mainly focus on the biological and therapeutic effects of bee products and major contaminants in them. Bee products can be easily contaminated from different sources. The contamination can arise from beekeeping practices as well as from the environment. Environmental contaminants includes the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury, radioactive isotopes, organic pollutants, pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and bactericides), pathogenic bacteria and genetically modified organisms. The contaminants from beekeeping includes acaricides: lipophylic synthetic compounds and non-toxic substances such as organic acids and components of essential oils; and antibiotics used for the control of bee brood diseases. Other substances used in beekeeping play a minor role: para-dichlorobenzene, used for the control of wax moth and chemical repellents. The degree of contamination of honey, pollen, beeswax, propolis and royal jelly by the different contaminants is reviewed.
... Among the natural products, beehive derivatives and products including royal jelly, honey, and propolis are considered as one of the best healthpromoting products [17]. Royal jelly (RJ) is a gelatinous material secreted from the apical glands of young nurse honey bees with various pharmacological and biological benefits such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial [18][19][20]. Considering the compounds in RJ, previous studies have demonstrated that the main composition of RJ is water (50-60%), proteins (18%), carbohydrates (7-18%), and lipids (3-8%), respectively [21]. e lipid composition of RJ consists of 80-85% fatty acids, composed of proteins that are attributed to its biological properties [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural products and their derivatives as an inexpensive, accessible, and useful alternative medicine are broadly applied for the treatment of a wide range of diseases and infectious ones. The present study was designed to evaluate the insecticidal, antimalarial, antileishmanial, and cytotoxic effects of royal jelly and its three main fatty acids (trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA), 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA), sebacic acid (1,10-decanedioic acid)). Insecticidal activity of RJ and 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and sebacic acid was performed against healthy 4th instar larvae at 25 ± 2°C. Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial effects of RJ and 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and sebacic acid were also performed against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1-strain and Leishmania major amastigotes according to the Malstat method and macrophage model, respectively. In addition, the level of nitric oxide (NO) production in J774-A1 macrophages cells, plasma membrane permeability, and caspase-3-like activity and cytotoxicity effects of RJ and 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and sebacic acid against human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK239T cells) were evaluated. Considering the insecticidal activity, the results showed that the lethal concentration 50% value for RJ, 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and sebacic acid was 24.6, 31.4, 37.8, and 44.7 μg/mL μg/mL, respectively. RJ, 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and sebacic acid showed potent (P
Chapter
Bee products such as honey, propolis, bee pollen, royal jelly, beeswax, and bee venom constitute important pharmaceutical and cosmetic components. Each bee product is characterized by the content of the active substance, which differentiates one bee product from another, and causes that each of them is worth using for a different skin problem. In addition, flavonoids and phenolic acids play a crucial role in influencing those products on the skin. For example, honey, propolis, and pollen are used to heal burn wounds. Moreover, bee venom called apitoxin contains active peptides and amines used in the wound’s healing process. Therefore, findings connected with wound dressing containing honey, propolis, or bee venom can be applied during wound healing therapy. Furthermore, the advantages of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics based on bee products are high effectiveness with minimal side effects. Therefore, bee products may become a new strategy in skin therapy.
Article
Full-text available
Cancer, a major world public health problem, is associated with chemotherapy treatments whose administration leads to secondary concerns, such as oral mucositis (OM). The OM disorder is characterized by the presence of ulcers in the oral mucosa that cause pain, bleeding, and difficulty in ingesting fluids and solids, or speaking. Bioactive compounds from natural sources have arisen as an effective approach for OM. This review aims to summarize the new potential application of different natural products in the prevention and treatment of OM in comparison to conventional ones, also providing a deep insight into the most recent clinical studies. Natural products, such as Aloe vera, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Camellia sinensis, Calendula officinalis, or honeybee crops, constitute examples of sources of bioactive compounds with pharmacological interest due to their well-reported activities (e.g., antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or wound healing). These activities are associated with the bioactive compounds present in their matrix (such as flavonoids), which are associated with in vivo biological activities and minimal or absent toxicity. Finally, encapsulation has arisen as a future opportunity to preserve the chemical stability and the drug bioa vailability of bioactive compounds and, most importantly, to improve the buccal retention period and the therapeutic effects.
Chapter
Full-text available
Arı ürünleri hakkında bilgilendirme yapılmış olup biyolojik önemleri ile ilgili araştırmalara yer verilmiştir.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to develop a prototype skincare product with bee venom, propolis, honey, beeswax, and royal jelly. The prototype formulation contained 0.1 % bee venom, 0.3 % propolis extract, 0.45 % honey, and 1.0 % royal jelly. The prototype body cream was analyzed for stability, antioxidant activity, dermatological response, and cytotoxicity. In addition, a panel test evaluated the prototype for the claims such as skin smoothness, feelings of nourishment, moisturizing, skin tone, brightness, and visibility of wrinkles. According to the stability test, the prototype was stable for up to 90 days at room temperature and +40 °C. The formulation was found to have a high antioxidant capacity at 85.45%. Cell viability detected over 70% indicated that the prototype body cream was not cytotoxic. The dermatological analysis revealed no irritation or allergic reaction in non‐allergic individuals. Panel test showed that the prototype makes skin silky smooth, contributes to hydration, brightens and nourishes the skin, evens the skin tone, reduces the visibility of wrinkles, improves skin elasticity, and smoothes wrinkles. This prototype formulation requires further research to evaluate its effectiveness against skin aging on different skin types. Nevertheless, the side effects of such products need particular attention in developing a commercial product containing bee venom in susceptible individuals.
Article
Full-text available
Al-Mufarrej, S.I. and El-Sarag, M.S.A. 1997. Effects of royal jelly on the humoral antibody response and blood chemistry of chickens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 12: 41–47.The effects of royal jelly (RJ) on primary and secondary antibody responses against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and on blood chemistry were studied in 40 chickens of either sex. The birds were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D, each consisting of 5 male and 5 female birds. At 8 weeks of age, the birds of groups B and C were treated each with 200 mg RJ, given orally or subcutaneously, respectively. Simultaneously, both groups, as well as group A were immunized each with 0.2 ml of 10% SRBC suspension in PBS and re- immunized 10 days later with a second similar dose. Group D served as non-immunized control. Treatment witu RJ increased antibody production against SRBC in groups B and C, as compared to group A, while non-significant changes in concentrations of electrolytes and other blood constituents were recorded in the RJ-treated birds, apart from a decrease in K and cholesterol concentrations. Further studies on these lines have been recommended.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects of water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP), caffeic acid, honey, royal jelly and bee venom on tumour development and metastasis in murine tumour models. Transplantable murine tumours were used: a spontaneous mammary carcinoma (MCa) and a methylcholanthrene–induced fibrosarcoma (FS) of CBA mouse. Metastases in the lung were generated by injecting 105 or 2 × 105 viable tumour cells intravenously. Tumours in the hind leg were generated by subcutaneous injection of 104 or 105 mammary carcinoma cells. Oral application of WSDP or caffeic acid significantly reduced subcutaneous tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice. Honey also exerted a pronounced antimetastatic effect (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001) when applied before tumour cell inoculation (2 g kg−1 orally once a day for 10 consecutive days). Royal jelly did not affect the formation of metastases when given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. However, synchronous application of tumour cells and royal jelly intravenously significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited the formation of metastases. When bee venom was injected intratumourally, tumours decreased in size. These findings demonstrated that honey-bee products given orally or systemically may have an important role controlling tumour growth and metastasis. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Full-text available
Royal jelly was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and a protein (DIII protein) that had growth stimulating activity to the U-937 human myeloid cell line was obtained. The molecular weight of the DIII protein was 58 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The growth stimulating activity of the DIII protein was shown to be relatively heat and pH stable.
Article
Full-text available
Exposure of male rabbits to heat stress during summer adversely affects their fertility leading to major production losses. A total number of 24 male rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups exposed to temperatures ranging from a high of 32 degrees C to a low of 23 degrees C. Animals of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th group were individually orally given 200, 400, or 800 mg royal jelly (RJ)/kg body weight once a week to evaluate the ability of RJ feeding to counteract "summer infertility" in bucks and enhance their physiological status. Royal jelly treatments significantly boosted testosterone level to 133, 143 and 124% of basal, increased ejaculated volume by 36, 31 and 18%, increased seminal plasma fructose to 122, 124, and 111%, improved sperm motility by 15, 18 and 5%, increase sperm total output by 65, 63 and 35%, reduced abnormal sperm by 24, 24 and 15% and dead sperm by 27, 25 and 17% compared to the heat stressed control animals. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin increased while serum total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides decreased with RJ treatments. Creatinine was reduced by 5, 13 and 8% and uric acid by 4, 7 and 4%, respectively for the three doses of RJ compared to control. Alkaline phosphatase has significantly increased to reach 114, 118, and 108% of heat stressed level with the three doses of RJ, indicating the occurrence of active bone deposition. Glucose level increased significantly to reach 105, 112, and 116% of heat stressed control and both calcium and phosphorus increased significantly with RJ treatments. It was concluded that royal jelly administration to heat stressed male rabbits can counteract their "summer infertility" and improve their physiological status.
Article
In order to study a possible immunomodulatory effect of the royal jelly (RJ) secreted by mandibular and hypopharingeal glands of the worker honeybee (Apis mellifera Linne.) we have used a well established rodent model. The CBA mice were given s.c. 0.1 ml of RJ, 7 days before, or immediately after, the immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The Y59 rats received i.m. 0.4 ml or i.v. 0.025 ml of RJ once or twice at 7 day intervals. Serum levels of total proteins and immunoglobulins in the rats that received RJ once or twice within a 2-week-period were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) as compared with the nontreated animals. In mice which were immunized with 4 x 108 of SRBC 7 days after the application of RJ the number of plaque forming splenocytes was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that in the controls. Both the weight of inguinal lymph node and the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes were increased (P ≤ 0.05) in RJ-treated mice 3 or 5 days after the immunization, respectively. Neutrophils were decreased (P ≤ 0.05) in the mice that were killed 5 or 10 days after the RJ treatment. Overall these results indicate that RJ exhibited immunomodulatory properties by stimulating antibody production and immunocompetent cell proliferation in mice or depressing humoral immune functions in rats. Both phenomena, though species-related in this model, could probably be reversed by changing the dose or the route of RJ application.
Article
The growth stimulating effects of a royal jelly protein (DIII protein) were studied. The DIII protein stimulated the growth of five human lymphocytic cell lines in serum-free conditions. Cell cycle analysis showed that U-937 cells cultured with the DIII protein did not arrest to the G1 phase. Furthermore, a binding assay using europium-labeled DIII protein showed U-937 cells had a large number of low affinity receptors on the cell surface.
Article
Water extract (WSR) and an alkaline extract (ASR) were prepared from fresh royal jelly from Chinese bees. The yields were about 8.3 and 6.3% on a dry weight basis, respectively. On SDS–PAGE analysis, the protein patterns of the two extracts were very similar, but not identical. Antioxidant activities, in both extracts, increased, depending on the concentration of the sample. The scavenging activities, against superoxide radical of WSR and ASR were high, and the activities at 100 mg/ml were the same as that of 5 mM ascorbic acid. Although the activities of WSR and ASR, at 50 and 100 mg/ml, did not match that of 1 mM tocopherol, the samples scavenged hydroxyl radical to about 50–60%. This shows that the protein fractions in royal jelly have high antioxidative activity and scavenging ability against active oxygen species. Royal jelly seems applicable in both health food and medicine.
Article
The influence of natural royal jelly (RJ) paste and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on reproductive responses of Awassi ewes was evaluated. In May 1998, 20 Awassi ewes (aged 2–5 years and weighing 52 kg) were treated with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) impregnated intravaginal sponges for a period of 12 days. Half of the ewes were administered orally a total of 3 g RJ paste in 12 equal doses of 250 mg per day starting at FGA sponge insertion while the remaining half received no RJ paste. Ewes were exposed to two fertile Awassi rams from the time of FGA sponge removal (0 h, 0 day). Blood samples were drawn on alternate days from days 0 to 19. Five ewes per group (RJ and control) were randomly selected to receive a 50 μg GnRH injection 28 h post-sponge removal. No interactions were detected between RJ and GnRH. Incidence of estrus was greater (8/10 versus 4/10) in RJ-treated than in control ewes and intervals from 0 h to detected estrus were similar (45±4.1 h versus 55±6.7 h, respectively). Progesterone concentration increased on days 5–7 in all ewes and remained elevated through day 19 in 60% of the RJ-treated and 20% of the control ewes. These ewes lambed on average 149 days later and the number of lambs born was similar between the two groups of ewes. Regardless of RJ treatment, GnRH administration decreased (P<0.05) the interval from cessation of treatment to estrus. The first rise in plasma progesterone occurred on day 5 in GnRH-treated compared with day 7 for non-GnRH-treated ewes (P<0.05). The results demonstrate that RJ treatment in conjunction with a source of exogenous progesterone can be used to induce estrus and increase first service conception rate in sheep. Administration of GnRH reduced the interval to estrus and advanced plasma progesterone elevation.
1.1. Partially purified extracts from bees (Apis mellifera) and their separated heads cross-reacted in a porcine insulin radioimmunoassay whereas the decapitated bodies were devoid of activity.2.2. The active extracts displaced porcine insulin from rat liver insulin receptors and showed insulin-like activity with rat adipocytes which could be abolished with bovine insulin antiserum.3.3. The presence of insulin in bee royal jelly was demonstrated.4.4. Thus an insulin of close similarity to mammalian is present in the head of the bee, indicating high evolutionary conservation of the molecule.