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STUDIES ON FAECAL OUTPUT IN MONG CAI PIGS FED DIETS RICH IN CRUDE FIBRE

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted with a total of eight Large White and Mong Cai castrate male pigs of approximately 20 kg allocated at random according to breed into a two-period change over design to study the effect of ground, full-fat rubber seeds (none and 20%) on faecal characteristics of these animals fed wheat bran based diets. There was any significant (P>0.05) interaction genotype x diet in the evaluated measurements. There were no significant (P>0.05) effect of genotype in any indices determined in pig faeces, although faecal output of fresh material, water dry matter, SCFA and ammonia appeared to be greater in Mong Cai pigs, in contrast to what occurred in Large White animals. Faecal pH was unaffected by examined treatments. The introduction of rubber seeds in the diet determined a significant increase in faecal DM concentration (P<0.01) and output (P<0.05). The excretion of water, SCFA and ammonia were significantly (P<0.05) increased too as a consequence of the presence of rubber seeds in the diet. There was no effect of treatment on faecal SCFA concentration and pH, but ammonia concentration was greater (P<0.05) in faces from pigs fed rubber seeds as compared to those which had no seeds in the feed. It is suggested that more degrees of freedom are necessary for obtaining the adequate response when genotypes are compared from the nutritional point of view. fue mayor (P<0.05) en las excretas de los cerdos alimentados con las semillas de caucho en comparación con los que no las comieron. Se sugiere que se necesitan más grados de libertad para obtener la respuesta adecuada cuando los genotipos se comparan desde el punto de vista nutricional.
Revista Computadorizada de Producción Porcina Volumen 15 (número 2) 2008
Faecal output in Mong Cai pigs/Salida fecal en cerdos Mong Cai
139
STUDIES ON FAECAL OUTPUT IN MONG CAI PIGS FED DIETS RICH IN CRUDE FIBRE
J. Ly1 and Pok Samkol2
1 Swine Research Institute, PO Box No.1, Punta Brava. Havana City, Cuba
email: julioly@utafoundation.org
2 Centre for Livestock and Agriculture Development (CelAgrid). PO Box 2423, Phnom Penh 3, Cambodia
email: psamkol@celagrid.org
SUMMARY
An experiment was conducted with a total of eight Large White and Mong Cai castrate male pigs of approximately 20 kg allocated at
random according to breed into a two-period change over design to study the effect of ground, full-fat rubber seeds (none and 20%) on
faecal characteristics of these animals fed wheat bran based diets.
There was any significant (P>0.05) interaction genotype x diet in the evaluated measurements. There were no significant (P>0.05) effect
of genotype in any indices determined in pig faeces, although faecal output of fresh material, water dry matter, SCFA and ammonia
appeared to be greater in Mong Cai pigs, in contrast to what occurred in Large White animals. Faecal pH was unaffected by examined
treatments. The introduction of rubber seeds in the diet determined a significant increase in faecal DM concentration (P<0.01) and output
(P<0.05). The excretion of water, SCFA and ammonia were significantly (P<0.05) increased too as a consequence of the presence of
rubber seeds in the diet. There was no effect of treatment on faecal SCFA concentration and pH, but ammonia concentration was
greater (P<0.05) in faces from pigs fed rubber seeds as compared to those which had no seeds in the feed.
It is suggested that more degrees of freedom are necessary for obtaining the adequate response when genotypes are compared from
the nutritional point of view.
Key words: pigs, Mong Cai, genotype, faecal output, fibre
Short title: Faecal output in Mong Cai pigs
ESTUDIOS SOBRE SOBRE LA SALIDA FECAL EN CERDOS MONG CAI ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS RICAS EN FIBRA CRUDA
RESUMEN
Se hizo un experimento con un total de ocho cerdos Large White y Mon Cai, machos castrados de aproximadamente 20 kg y ubicados
al azar de acuerdo con el genotipo en un diseño de cambio con dos períodos para estudiar el efecto de semillas de caucho sin
extracción de grasa, molidas (0 y 20%), en las caracteristicas fecales de los animales alimentados con una dieta de afrecho de trigo.
No hubo interacción significativa (P<0.05) genotipo x dieta en las mediciones hechas. No hubo efecto significativo (P>0.05) del genotipo
en ninguna de los índices determinados en las excretas, aunque la salida fecal de material fresco, agua, MS, AGCC y amoníaco
parecieron ser mayores en los cerdos Mong Cai, en contraste con lo que ocurrió en los Large White. El pH fecal no cambió por efecto
de tratamiento. La introducción de semillas de caucho en la dieta determinó un incremento significativo en la concentración de MS
(P<0.01) y en su salida (P<0.05). La excreción de agua, AGCC y amoníaco se elevaron significativamente (P<0.05) como consecuencia
de la presencia de semillas de caucho en la dieta. No hubo efecto de tratamiento en la concentración fecal de AGCC y el pH, pero la
concentración de amoníaco fue mayor (P<0.05) en las excretas de los cerdos alimentados con las semillas de caucho en comparación
con los que no las comieron.
Se sugiere que se necesitan más grados de libertad para obtener la respuesta adecuada cuando los genotipos se comparan desde el
punto de vista nutricional.
Palabras claves: cerdos, Mong Cai, genotipo, salida fecal, fibra
Título corto: Salida fecal en cerdos Mong Cai
Revista Computadorizada de Producción Porcina Volumen 15 (número 2) 2008
Faecal output in Mong Cai pigs/Salida fecal en cerdos Mong Cai
140
INTRODUCTION
The use of high fibrous, sources of protein for feeding pigs is a
reasonable strategy in the tropics. In the particular case of
Cambodia, several fibrous feedstuffs, such as wheat bran,
cassava foliage, water spinach and rubber seed, have been
assayed as possible contributors to meet protein requirements
in feed formulation for pigs (Ly 2005). In this connection, it is a
common practice in Cambodian areas to feed pigs with these
local products due to its relatively availability and not
commercial value, if any. However it is well known that cell wall
fraction determines changes in the pattern of digestion of
nutrient in the pig (Wenk 2001), and the overall effect is an
effective depression of availability of nutrients for pigs
(Fernández and Jorgensen 1986). Therefore, basic research is
needed to further know the alternatives to improve the
efficiency in digestion of such fibrous feeds in pigs.
On the other hand, there are several local breeds of pigs in
Indochina, which has been poorly study from the point of view
of physiology of digestion. In this connection, Mong Cai pigs
could be an illustration of the status quo of lack of information
concerning the nature of digestive process occurring in these
Vietnamese genotype. In fact up to now very few is know about
its digestive capacity, and particularly, the efficiency of these
breeds for using feedstuffs rich in cell wall. The present
communication aimed to report the effect of graded levels of
some Cambodian sources of fibre on faecal ouput of materials
in Mong Cai pigs, and is complementary of another study
concerning digestibility data (Pok Samkol and Ly 2008).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Two diets, mainly consisting of wheat bran and full-fat rubber
seed meal, were employed in this experiment, and the
composition of these diets is presented in table 1. Whereas
wheat bran was assessed in the local market, at Phom Penh
City, rubber seeds were collected from Chub rubber seed
plantations, Kampong Cham province, and were ground and
then mixed with the other components of the diet.
The diets were formulated to contain approximately 18% crude
protein, and wheat bran was substituted by 0 and 20% full fat
rubber seed. The cyanide content of a representative sample
of the batch of the rubber seeds revealed a content of 28
mg/kg DM. In this experiment, diet composition was equivalent
to that used by Bun Tean et al (2002). Details of the diets are
in table 1.
The experiment was conducted with a total of eight Large
White and Mong Cai castrate male pigs of approximately 20 kg
allocated at random according to breed into a two-period
change over design (Gill and MacGee 1976; Gill 1978) to study
the effect of full-fat rubber seeds on faecal characteristics of
these animals. Mong Cai animals were from a herd of the
Centre, and were originated from other Vietnamese herd which
was kept at the University of Agroforestry, Ho Chi Minh City.
Every animal was housed in metabolism cages (Chiv Phiny
and Rodríguez 2001). The diets were offered to the pigs as a
meal at a rate of 35 g DM/kg body weight. Every experimental
period consisted of 10 days, divided into two aequal five-day
periods of adaptation and quantitative collection of feed
refusals, feeds and urine (Pok Samkol and Ly 2008). Details
concerning housing and daily work routine have been
described elsewhere (Ly and Pok Samkol 2003). In this
experiment, aliquots from faeces were collected at 12:00 m
and 4:00 pm, conveniently pooled and sent to the laboratory in
order to avoid a long stay of faeces under the metabolism
cage. This procedure was repeated during five successive
days, with independence of the daily quantitative collection of
faeces from every pig. Samples of food and faeces were
analyzed for DM by microwave radiation (Undersander et al
|933), ash, crude fibre and N according to the Association of
Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC 1990). The filtration
alternative of Tsaras et al (1998) as undertaken by Ly et al
(2003) was choose for the measurement of water holding
capacity (WHC) of the samples. Faecal pH and bacterial
metabolites were assayed as previously described (Ly and Pok
Samkol 2003); in summary, total short chain fatty acid (SCFA)
and ammonia in faeces were determined as decribed by
Phimmasam et al (2004) after distilling a faecal slurry
supernatant (fresh faeces to distilled water, 1:4 by weight) in a
Keltec distilling unit. All analyses were conducted by duplicate.
Table 1. Details of the diets (percentage in dry
basis)
Full-fat rubber seeds, %
Ingredients - 20
Wheat bran 94.0 74.0
Fresh water dry fish 5..0 5.0
Full-fat rubber seeds - 20.0
NaCl 0.5 0.5
Vitamins and minerals1 0.5 0.5
Analysis
DM 88.02 86.97
Ash 6.14 5.56
Organic matter 93.86 94.44
NDF 30.84 36.95
Crude fibre 9.70 18.62
Nx6.25 18.05 18.05
WHC, g H2O/g DM2 4.85 6.15
1 According to NRC (1998) requirements for vitamins
and trace elements
2 Water holding capacity (WHC) was determined
according to Tsaras et al (1998). See text
Analyses of variance and correlation were conducted
according to a standard technique (Steel et al 1997). The
Minitab software (Ryan et al 1992) was used in the biometrical
approach of data.
RESULTS
There was any symptom of cyanide intoxication in the pigs. All
animals appeared in good health and during the duration of the
trial (20 days), average daily gain of pigs was 340 g. there was
no significant (P>0.05) effect of period on any of the
parameters studied. Therefore the data were analyzed
according to a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 with four replications
per treatment. In this case, there was any significant (P>0.05)
interaction genotype x diet in the evaluated measurements.
The effect of genotype on faeces characteristics are in table 2.
There were no significant (P>0.05) of genotype in any
measurement determined in the faecal samples of pigs,
Revista Computadorizada de Producción Porcina Volumen 15 (número 2) 2008
Faecal output in Mong Cai pigs/Salida fecal en cerdos Mong Cai
141
although faecal output of fresh material, water and dry matter
appeared to be greater in Mong Cai pigs, in contrast to what
occurred in Large White animals. This same trend was
observed in faecal output of SCFA and ammonia. Faecal pH
was unaffected by examined treatments.
Table 2. Faecal characteristics of pigs fed
wheat bran and full-fat rubber seeds.
Effect of genotype
Genotype
Large
White Mong
Cai
SE ±
n 81 8 -
pH 6.82 6.83 0.05
DM, % 27.82 30.22 3.51
Metabolites, mmol/100 DM
SCFA 49.53 46.32 4.87
Ammonia 26.68 27.74 2.46
Output, per kg DM intake
Fresh material, g 878 929 73
Water, g 251 276 20
DM, g 627 653 72
SCFA, mmol 120.8 133.0 12.4
Ammonia, mmol 68.4 78.6 12.2
1 Two observations per animal
Results concerning the effect of rubber seeds in the diets are
presented in table 3. The introduction of rubber seeds in the
diet determined a significant increase in faecal DM
concentration (P<0.01) and output (P<0.05). The excretion of
water, SCFA and ammonia were significantly (P<0.05)
increased too as a consequence of the presence of rubber
seeds in the diet. There was no effect of treatment on faecal
SCFA concentration and pH, but ammonia concentration was
greater (P<0.05) in faeces from pigs fed rubber seeds as
compared to those which had no seeds in the feed.
Table 3. Faecal characteristics of pigs fed
wheat bran and full-fat rubber seeds.
Effect of rubber seeds
Rubber seed, %
- 20 SE ±
n 81 8 -
pH 6.82 6.84 0.04
DM, % 25.58 32.45 2.53**
Metabolites, mmol/100 DM
SCFA 50.71 46.21 4.30
Ammonia 24.88 29.53 2.14*
Output, per kg DM intake
Fresh material, g 946 862 71
Water, g 705 575 63*
DM, g 241 287 16*
SCFA, mmol 113.5 139.8 10.9*
Ammonia, mmol 60.3 86.8 10.4*
1 Two observations per animal
* P<0.05; ** P<0.01
DISCUSSION
The observed changes in the pattern of faecal excretion of
several compounds were more marked as influenced by the
introduction of full-fat rubber seeds in the diet, as compared to
the possible influence of genotype as those examined in the
current investigation. This same findings has been observed in
other previous studies from this laboratory when either rectal or
faecal characteristics were from Mong Cai to Large White
Animals (see for example, Chiv Phiny et al 2003; Ly et al
2003), and it appears that variability among individual
observations does have not the same magnitude so as to
detect significant levels of difference among treatments, if any,
in dependence of the type of response in search. Even in very
young piglets, Tranthi (2007) provided evidences in Vietnam
that Mong Cai animals had advantages in rectal digestibility
indices as compared to Landrace x Yorkshire pigs, but in this
experiment 32 animals from every genotype were employed.
It appears that even in a basal diet rich in cell wall so as the
herein evaluated, if partially substituted by full-fat rubber seeds,
a remarkable effect may be found in faecal characteristics. It is
probable that a decrease in overall DM digestibility caused by
the presence of these seeds in the feed (Pok Samkol and Ly
2008), should originate an increase in DM concentration and
output at the rectal site of pigs. On the other hand,
modifications in the pattern of fermentation in caecum and
colon of pigs must be expected, as determined by two different
sources of cell wall containing feedstuff, according to a
possible influence of different cell wall characteristics present
in wheat bran and rubber seed (Bach Knudsen and Jorgensen
2001). It is possible that differences in water holding capacity
of both feedstuffs should be the cause (Decuypere et al 1994).
Even so, it is not known to what extent the fat content of rubber
seeds could influence microbial digestion in the large intestine
of pigs. Overall, differences due to a different rate of passage
of digesta through the large intestine of pigs, either caused by
the cell wall per se, or by dissimilitude in its physico-chemical
properties (Pok Samkol et al 2004) could be responsible of
variations in the status of microbial metabolites in colon and
faeces, as it has been claimed by Bird et al (2000).
If it is considered that there were no changes in the rate of
absorption of microbial metabolites in that part of the
gastrointestinal tract, an increase in faecal ouput of SCFA and
ammonia would be an indication in modifications to enhance
microbial activity in caecum and colon. According to Varel
(1987) and Varel et al (1984), dietary fibre affects to great
extent microbial activity in pig large intestine. In this
connection, Williams et al (1998) suggested that bacterial
population of pig faces can be representative of that inhabiting
large intestine. Changes in microbial activity could be
interdependent with modifications in composition of colonic
populations of bacteria in pigs.
According to the herein discussed results, more degrees of
freedom are necessary for obtaining the adequate response
when genotypes are compared from the nutritional point of
view. From this it follows that more research is needed in this
direction.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Gratitude is expressed to authorities of the Royal University of
Agriculture, Phnom Penh City, for supporting the current
investigation by permiting the use of pig house at the Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine, and to the Chub Rubber Enterprise for
kindly supplying the rubber seeds. Thanks are given to the
Swedish SIDA-SAREC organizations, Stockholm, for partially
funds the current investigation.
Revista Computadorizada de Producción Porcina Volumen 15 (número 2) 2008
Faecal output in Mong Cai pigs/Salida fecal en cerdos Mong Cai
142
The assistance of librarians from the Swine Research Institute
is gratefully acknowledged too. The authors are grateful to Dr.
Claude Février, formerly from the Swine Research Station at
Rennes, for his support in literature search and comments. For
similar reasons, thanks are given to Dr. Brian Ogle, from the
Swedish University of Agricultural Science at Uppsala.
The technical assistance of Mr. Hen Pheap is gratefully
acknowledged.
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... In fact, a high ileal digestibility of nitrogen composes is an important advantage in the digestive strategy in pigs, since disappeared N in the blind and colon of this species has no nutritional value (Zebrowska, 1973). Fecal materials leakage pattern that was found corresponded to the one described for pigs fed with fiber levels in the diet (Hansen, 2007) which has also been observed as true in Mong Cai pigs (Ly and Samkol, 2008; Samkol and Ly, 2008). Vale la pena mencionar que, aunque hubo diferencias numéricas entre tratamientos para el consumo diario de N, el análisis de varianza no reveló diferencias significativas entre tratamientos , por lo que los datos no fueron ajustados por análisis de covarianza, con el consumo de N como covariable. ...
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A digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of diets composed of either Cambodian full-fat rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seeds or soya beans using 16 Mong Cai*Large White pigs. Rubber seeds of unknown falling day and storing period, and extruded soy beans were used in this study. Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) was given ad libitum as a complementary protein-rich foliage supplement. The design was a 2*2*2 factorial arrangement to compare the effect of protein source (full-fat rubber seeds or soya beans), DL-methionine supplementation (0 or 0.3%) and animal live weight (40 or 60 kg). Average crude protein content of the diets was 13.1 ± 1.05% in dry basis and voluntary intake of water spinach was 22.3 ± 2.6 and 16.2 ± 1.4% of the consumed dry matter, for animals of 40 and 60 kg live weight, respectively. There was no significant interaction (P>0.05) amongst any of the studied factors. There was no significant influence of animal live weight on digestibility coefficients. Full-fat rubber seeds were associated with a highly significant decrease in DM and organic matter digestibility, compared with soya beans, but there was no effect on N digestibility, which was always low. Digestibility indices appeared to be higher in diets supplemented with DL-methionine, and this effect tended to be significant for organic matter digestibility. The high crude fibre content in the diets had a highly significant, negative influence on digestibility of DM and organic matter (R2 0.73 and 0.75,
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A total of 16 castrate male pigs [Mong Cai (MC) or Large White (LW)] with an average weight of 20 kg were used in a random two-block design to study N utilization from a high fibre diet consisting of wheat bran as the major dietary component (68% in dry basis). Daily feed consumption was 40 g DM/kg body weight and crude protein (Nx6.25) of the diet was 18% in DM. There was no effect of genotype on total tract digestibility for DM, organic matter, crude fibre and NDF but MC pigs digested less N than LW animals. Faecal pH values were lower and short chain fatty acids and ammonia tended toward a higher output in MC pigs than in LW. N retention was lower in MC than in LW pigs when expressed as a proportion of live weight or of N intake. This trend was not apparent for N retention as proportion of N digested. The results from the present experiment suggest that the N requirement of Mong Cai pigs may be lower than what is recommended for "improved" genotypes selected for lean meat production.
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Ileal and total tract digestibility of low and high-fibre diets (100 and 200 g/kg neutral detergent fibre), with or without enzyme supplementation (mixture of cellulase, β-glucanase, α-amylase and protease) was determined in piglets of two breeds weaned at 30 days of age. The breeds were local (pure-breed Mong Cai, MC) and exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire, LY). The experimental diets were based on maize meal, soybean meal, fish meal, cassava residue meal, and rice bran. Cassava residue meal and rice bran were the main fibrous feeds in the high-fibre diet. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×2×2 factorial, completely randomized design with 4 replications, and lasted for 30 days. The coefficient of ileal apparent digestibility (CIAD) was measured by analyzing ileal digesta collected from piglets killed at 60 days of age. The coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) was measured by analyzing faecal samples collected for 5 consecutive days immediately before the experiment finished. The CIAD and CTTAD of organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and amino acids in the high-fibre diet were lower than in the low-fibre diet (P0.05) between MC and LY, while the CTTAD of nutrients was higher for the MC than for LY (P
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Dietary fibre (DF) is usually defined as the sum of plant polysaccharides and lignin that are not hydrolysed by endogenous enzymes of the mammalian digestive system (non-starch polysaccharides and lignin). The amount and composition of DF varies over a wide range between and within feedstuffs. Furthermore, a precise distinction between dietary fibre and starch is far from easy. Therefore, the analysis as well as the physiological function of DF in the digestive tract of the pig can vary considerably. The age or body mass of the pig also interacts with the digestive processes and there is an adaptation developing in the animal over the time of exposure to fibrous diets.DF is generally considered as a fraction with a low energy content. This diluting effect of the diet is used to increase the feed intake during low performance of animals. DF influences transit time with a reduction in the upper and increase in the lower digestive tract and, therefore, decreases the digestibility of almost all nutrients and energy. On the other hand, it increases the microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract. This can lead to an increased excretion of nutrients in faeces. Finally, DF beneficially influences well-being and health. Fibrous feedstuffs give pigs the opportunity to chew the feed over a longer time. More short chain fatty acids are produced and eventually undesired micro-organisms are excluded. A regular peristaltic action avoids the possibility of constipation.