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Compositional changes in banana (Musa ssp.) fruits during ripening

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Abstract

The compositional changes in banana (musa spp) fruits were investigated. Banana fruits were collected, dried, ground and ashed. The moisture content and mineral elements composition was determined as ripening proceeds. The mineral elements analyzed included magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and cobalt (Co). Their composition was found to be 0.68, 0.66 and 0.60% in unripe, ripe and overripe banana fruits, respectively. The moisture content and ash values for the selected mineral elements were 73.47 and 0.68%; 77.19 and 0.80%; 79.22 and 0.78% in unripe, ripe and overripe banana fruits, respectively. The results showed that the nutritional composition of banana pulp was diversely affected by ripening. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with the stages of ripeness. Bananas are considered a good source of Mg in the diet, and the data obtained herein support these assertions. Zn and Mn are other minerals of nutritional importance in bananas and this study has shown that their average values are adequate to support its nutritive value at the various ripening stages. The result obtained in this study showed that banana fruits at any ripening stage (unripe, ripe or overripe) can be a potential source of mineral elements supplement in the diet especially for Mg.

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... Freshly harvested bunches of plantain fruit (Plate 1) at stage one maturity using colour as basis of clarification [14][15][16] were obtained from Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Other materials such as white wheat flour (Dangote brand), iodized table salt (Dangote brand), potato starch, guar gum, potassium carbonate (food grade), sodium carbonate (food grade) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STTP, food grade) were bought from a local market in Ile-Ife, Osun State. ...
... The fruits were removed from the bowl and peeled with the aid of a stainless kitchen knife. The pulp was sliced into cylindrical discs with thickness of about 5 mm and dipped in citric acid (CIT) (1% w/v) for 1 min to prevent enzymatic browning reaction [16]. Accumulation of moisture on the sliced surface as a result of the pretreatment was drained with a cheese cloth before samples was transferred to dryer set at 70°C [17]. ...
... The citric acid treated sliced plantain fruits were dried in an air-oven set at 70°C (±1°C) using convective air flowing at a velocity of 2.2 m/s [16,17]. Prior to loading of the sliced fruits, the dryer was ran for 30 min to reach the set drying air temperature conditions. ...
... Moisture content of GBP, GBPE, RBP and RBPE was found to be 62.1%, 84.9 %, 73.3% and 92.4%, respectively, which is found to be within the range of results reported by Adeyemi and Oladiji, (2009). It was approved that moisture content in pulp increases with ripening due to respiratory break down of starches into sugars and migration of moisture from peel to pulp (Marriott et al, 1985). ...
... It was approved that moisture content in pulp increases with ripening due to respiratory break down of starches into sugars and migration of moisture from peel to pulp (Marriott et al, 1985). As shown in Table 1, RBPE posses the highest ash content which may be due to gradual incensement of ash content from green to ripe stage as revealed by Adeyemi and Oladiji, (2009).The results of protein shows that protein content increased during fruit ripening as it was confirmed earlier by Loeseck, (1950) and Lustre, (1976 The fiber content in Table 1, ranged from 0.14 to 0.84%. The results revealed that fiber value decreases through ripening phases. ...
Article
The need for improved health lead the consumers to seek out specific foods or physiologically active food components. The large amount and the low cost of cull bananas are a convincing reason to determine the nutritional and industrial value of banana flour as a functional food. This study aimed to determine the chemical and nutritional profile of fresh green and ripe banana pulps and their peels flour, in addition to the functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity at 40, 60 and 80 C) of banana flour, which were obtained by oven drying. Standard methods of AOAC were used to determine the approximate composition of the banana flour, while minerals and ascorbic acid were determined by flame photometer and colorimeter respectively. Samples of banana flour were also evaluated for physicochemical properties such as pH, total soluble solids and titrable acidity. These tests were carried out at the Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Gezira. The study proved the possibility of promoting the use of banana that could have been wasted as unnecessary and this was manifested in green banana pulp flour, which was found to be a good source of potassium and calcium with an average of 334mg/100g and 87mg/100g respectively. All types of banana flour are good source of fiber, especially green banana peel in which the average fiber content was found to be 6.4g/100g, this can be an important ingredient when the aim is to increase the nondigestible fraction in food and may have positive effects on health. The green and ripe banana pulps flour possessed the highest value of protein and vitamin C with an average of 0.7% and 0.1mg/100g, respectively. Concerning physicochemical and functional properties, the total Sugar content (8mg/100gm) and the total Soluble Solids (5 mg/100gm) for ripe banana pulp were found to be increased with ripening. Highest water holding capacity among all banana flour samples was recorded for ripe banana peel flour (9.2 g water/g dry sample). Good oil absorption capacity of the flour was measured in green banana peel flour (8.1 g oil/g dry sample(. This study suggested the use of banana flour in the preparation of food products for digestion disease patients, binding agent, and as a filling agent besides adding nutritional value to the food products. Future work should aim at studying stability, optimum storage conditions, and suitable packaging requirements.
... The importance of bananas as a food crop in tropical areas cannot be under-estimated. Banana is a climacteric fruit, when harvested at the preclimacteric matured 'green' stage, the fruit undergoes various physicochemical changes such as composition, colour, texture, aroma and taste, pertaining to changes in metabolic rates and biochemical reactions like respiration, ripening and senescence in the climacteric phase (Areas and Lajolo, 1981;Wills et al., 1984;Adisa and Okey, 1987;Garcia and Lajolo, 1988;Golding et al. 1999 andAdeyemi andOladiji, (2009) cited by Mohapatra et al., (2010). These changes in the physicochemical properties are due to various complex biochemical reactions. ...
... The importance of bananas as a food crop in tropical areas cannot be under-estimated. Banana is a climacteric fruit, when harvested at the preclimacteric matured 'green' stage, the fruit undergoes various physicochemical changes such as composition, colour, texture, aroma and taste, pertaining to changes in metabolic rates and biochemical reactions like respiration, ripening and senescence in the climacteric phase (Areas and Lajolo, 1981;Wills et al., 1984;Adisa and Okey, 1987;Garcia and Lajolo, 1988;Golding et al. 1999 andAdeyemi andOladiji, (2009) cited by Mohapatra et al., (2010). These changes in the physicochemical properties are due to various complex biochemical reactions. ...
... The importance of bananas as a food crop in tropical areas cannot be under-estimated. Banana is a climacteric fruit, when harvested at the preclimacteric matured 'green' stage, the fruit undergoes various physicochemical changes such as composition, colour, texture, aroma and taste, pertaining to changes in metabolic rates and biochemical reactions like respiration, ripening and senescence in the climacteric phase (Areas and Lajolo, 1981;Wills et al., 1984;Adisa and Okey, 1987;Garcia and Lajolo, 1988;Golding et al. 1999 andAdeyemi andOladiji, (2009) cited by Mohapatra et al., (2010). These changes in the physicochemical properties are due to various complex biochemical reactions. ...
... The importance of bananas as a food crop in tropical areas cannot be under-estimated. Banana is a climacteric fruit, when harvested at the preclimacteric matured 'green' stage, the fruit undergoes various physicochemical changes such as composition, colour, texture, aroma and taste, pertaining to changes in metabolic rates and biochemical reactions like respiration, ripening and senescence in the climacteric phase (Areas and Lajolo, 1981;Wills et al., 1984;Adisa and Okey, 1987;Garcia and Lajolo, 1988;Golding et al. 1999 andAdeyemi andOladiji, (2009) cited by Mohapatra et al., (2010). These changes in the physicochemical properties are due to various complex biochemical reactions. ...
Article
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Thermal properties such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of tropical fruits provide critical information and data for the design and manufacture of equipment and machines for their processing. Literature generally abounds in information on subtropical fruits but not on tropical fruits like banana. Banana was selected because currently it is not widely processed in the dried form in Ghana. The purpose of the study was thus to provide information on the thermal properties of locally grown banana to aid in the design and manufacture of equipment for processing, handling and transportation. The selected variety for the study was dried to moisture contents (MC) ranging from 18.5-50.0% wb. Specific heat was measured by the method of mixtures while the thermal conductivity was measured by the line heat source probe method. Thermal diffusivity was calculated from the experimental results obtained from specific heat, thermal conductivity and bulk density. Bulk density was measured by mass per unit change in volume of the sample. The bulk density was found to be in a range of 1376.2-1130.0 kg m-3. The bulk density decreased with increasing MC. The specific heat ranged from 1574.0-2506.8 Jkg-1 oC-1. The thermal conductivity of the banana varied from 0.249- 0.458Wm-1 oC-1 whiles the thermal diffusivity ranged from 1.15 х10-7-1.62 х10-7m2s-1. Specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were found to increase with increasing MC. The effects of MC on all parameters studied were highly significant at (p < 0.05). Regression equations were established which could be used to reasonably estimate thermal property values at other MC. Keywords: gros michel banana, thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, bulk density, moisture content, Ghana.
... La mayoría de estudios sobre la composición nutricional del plátano se han realizado sobre el fruto en estado de maduración óptimo (22)(23)(24). No obstante, se han publicado un mayor número de trabajos relacionados con el seguimiento de los nutrientes en diferentes estadios de maduración del fruto (16,(25)(26)(27)(28). Sin embargo, la composición final del plátano no solo depende del estado de maduración sino de otros factores, como las condiciones climáticas, el tipo de suelo y de cultivo, y las prácticas agrícolas utilizadas, entre otras (29). ...
... El propio cambio de coloración de la piel lleva implícita la modificación de la composición del fruto. La humedad del plátano aumenta en la pulpa desde los primeros estadios hasta que el fruto alcanza la madurez (4,23,24,26). El cambio entre la coloración verde y la amarilla se produce por el traspaso de agua desde la piel hacia la pulpa (25). ...
Article
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Objectives: Canary Islands bananas represent the only native cultivar of Musa spp. present in Spanish territory. Since 2013, it has the Protected Geographical Indication label, which confers an additional value to this fruit. Bananas from the Canary Islands have certain organoleptic properties that make them stand out from among other commonly consumed Musa spp. However, to date, no studies have been reported including an extended nutritional composition of this product. Methods: the present work shows the main nutritional components of bananas from the Canary Islands as determined by different analytical techniques (mainly liquid chromatography, spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, and polarimetry) when at their best in terms of ripeness (grade 6). Moreover, potential nutrition claims relating to their composition were proposed using the current legislation. Results: the fruit's remarkable content in vitamin B6 (0.52 g/100 g), dietary fiber (2.22 g/100 g), potassium (419.9 mg/100 g), and vitamin C (12.35 mg/100 g) should be highlighted. Additionally, these components could appear on nutritional labeling as claims, according to current European regulations. Conclusions: a daily consumption of one Canary Islands banana contributes to the recommended dietary intake of vitamin B6, vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. The high nutritional value of this fruit enhances its presence in the Mediterranean eating pattern, being remarkable as a local product with excellent nutritional properties.
... Khawas and Deka (2016) also reported that the increase in the actual concentration of protein can be occurred at the beginning of the ripening stage due to the breakdown and synthesis of protein as well as recycling of amino acids. Adeyemi and Oladiji (2009) described that higher ash content in the ripening state of bananas is due to the accumulation of mineral element composition during ripening. The reduction of carbohydrate content has been reported to be initiated by increasing the activity of a and b-amylases and conversion of the content to volatile aroma during the ripening of banana (Okezie et al., 2003). ...
... The change of mineral contents in banana peels during ripening is highly influenced by the conversion of its pigments. Magnesium is known as an essential element of chlorophyll (green stage; unripe), for that reason converting chlorophyll to carotenoids (yellow stage; ripe) resulting in the lessening of the content during the ripening process (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009 ...
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The impact of environmental issues is influenced by agricultural waste from agriculture. To prevent the long-term issue, the development of a value-added product from the agricultural by-product has been highlighted by the novel technology, scientific theory pathway, and food science application. Banana peel and banana blossom have been classified as a by-product that provides a potentiality for new food product creating. Besides, there are several scientific reports illustrated that the banana composition such as peel and blossom are abundant in the macro-and micro-nutrient together with health beneficial effects promoting via the anti-inflammatory effect, or anti-oxidative stress, etc. Due to its benefit, the scientist tries to develop the banana peel and blossom into novel food products like plant-based meat, confectionery products as well as snacks. The objective of this review is to accumulate information about banana compositions as well as demonstrate the strategic way for developing novel food products via the whole utilization of agricultural waste and by-product. Therefore, the data provided by this work is beneficial for intensifying the potential application of banana peel and blossom which could contribute to the significant reduction of agricultural waste and useful for fundamental product development as an alternative beneficial food source in the future.
... Proximate analysis of plants samples, gives valuable information about the nutritional composition of such sample and help to assess the quality of the sample. It provides information on moisture content, ash content, carbohydrate, Protein, Fiber etc. (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009) Ash is the in organic residue remaining after water and organic matter has been removed by heating, which provides a measure of total amount of minerals with in the food (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009) Studies have shown that fruits (seeds) and vegetables contain among other vital nutrients an appreciable quantity of Carbohydrate, Proteins, Fats, Fibers and phytochemicals (Egbebi and Bademosi,2012) Carbohydrate is the chief source of energy to the body; they are constituent of compound lipid, conjugated protein and mucopolysaccharides which form ground substance of mesenchymal tissues (Egbebi and Bademosi,2012). Protein provides amino-acids which are the substrates required for the support of body Protein synthesis and maintenances of cell and organ Protein content. ...
... Proximate analysis of plants samples, gives valuable information about the nutritional composition of such sample and help to assess the quality of the sample. It provides information on moisture content, ash content, carbohydrate, Protein, Fiber etc. (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009) Ash is the in organic residue remaining after water and organic matter has been removed by heating, which provides a measure of total amount of minerals with in the food (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009) Studies have shown that fruits (seeds) and vegetables contain among other vital nutrients an appreciable quantity of Carbohydrate, Proteins, Fats, Fibers and phytochemicals (Egbebi and Bademosi,2012) Carbohydrate is the chief source of energy to the body; they are constituent of compound lipid, conjugated protein and mucopolysaccharides which form ground substance of mesenchymal tissues (Egbebi and Bademosi,2012). Protein provides amino-acids which are the substrates required for the support of body Protein synthesis and maintenances of cell and organ Protein content. ...
Article
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Freshly harvested plantain bunch (Musa paradisiaca) was obtained from a farmer in Eziowelle, in Idemili North Local Government of Anambra State and were taken to Plant Pathology Laboratory of Department of Crop Science and Horticulture. The plantain fruits were then surface sterilized by dipping into 5% sodium hypochlorite for 5 mins and stored in three different storage media which include; polythene, jute bag, wood shavings and control and were replicated three times. The physical characteristics measured included; fruit colour, tenderness, fruit weight, and temperature of the storage media which was observed for 12days. Proximate analysis of the fruits before and after storage was also conducted as well as isolation and identification of the spoilage organisms from the infected plantain fruits during storage. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design. The data collected were subjected to analysis using Genstat (2008) model. Mean separation was done by using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5% probability level. The result showed that the Plantain fruits that were stored in different storage media had their shelf life extended up to 12 days, where the best shelf life qualities were obtained in plantain fruits stored in the polyethylene bags, followed by wood shavings while the least was the jute bag. Also, there was slight differences in the proximate composition of plantain fruits before and after storage, where the best proximate retention was obtained in polythene bags, followed by wood shavings and the least in Plantain fruits stored in jute bags. The result also revealed that the only pathogen isolated was Asperigillus niger. From the study, it is therefore recommended that the three storage materials could be used by farmers especially polythene bag for the storage of fresh plantain fruits. Also more research should be done on how to reduce disease infestation in Plantain fruits in the storage media used in this investigation.
... It was seen that ash and mineral elements contents revealed a downward trend, which was related to the mobility of mineral elements in phloem from pods to another parts of fruits such as seeds which are known by their highest ash content (2,27,28). Their participation in various metabolic pathways justify also this behavior (29). In our investigation, the changes that were produced during ripening conferred significant mineral yields at the end of maturity, but it remains lower than those record-ed by the wild and grafted pods harvested from Antalya (2). ...
Article
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The Ceratonia siliqua fruits contain several substances known to have high adaptability to environmental conditions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the changes in physicochemical properties of different Tunisian provenances of carob pulps harvested at three ripening stages. Furthermore, six provenances were investigated during the ripening process in terms of their moisture, ash, minerals, bioactive compounds, antiradical activity and sugar profile. The results demonstrated that all examined parameters are highly influenced by geographic origin. Concerning ripening impact, our data showed that water and ash content significantly decreased during the development of six provenances, as well as the bioactive and mineral contents. Thus, the total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and condensed tannins (CT) contents exhibited the highest levels in the unripe fruits. The antiradical activity trend was positively correlated to the behavior of the bioactive compounds content. Moreover, the sucrose, glucose and fructose were the main sugar qualified and quantified in carob pods at different ripening stages. At the maturity stage, the monosaccharide contents (glucose and fructose) were slightly reduced, while, the sucrose was rapidly accumulated. In conclusion, the ripening process diversely affected the nutritional composition and generally extended the exploitation of carob fruits. The study could provide valuable information about the suitability of carob pods at different maturity stages as potential biomaterials for nutraceutical applications.
... Furthermore, the content of magnesium (Mg) has decreased in ripe fruit and very mature fruit. This decreasing of magnesium is related to the degradation of chlorophyll and the formation of carotenoid pigments which are responsible for the characteristics of the yellow color of mature fruits (Adeyemi & Oladiji, 2009). ...
Article
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Banana has been known as one of fruits that has an important function in the rural areas. Bananas have been traditionally planted by rural farmers in the homegarden, garden and mixed-garden in West Java. However, study on bananas in Karangwangi village,Cianjur has not been carried out. Aim of study was to explore varieties (landraces) of bananas, source of local knowledge on bananas, utilization of ba-nanas and diseases of bananas. Method used in this study was quali-tative with ethnobotanical approach and some techniques, including observation and semi-structure interview were applied in this study. The result of study showed that, it was recorded 13 variations of ba-nana; main source of local knowledge on bananas from the parent and friends; utilization of bananas, including consumption of ripe fruit, made of “sale” and some banana organs, including leaves, “jantung” (male flower), pseudostem, ”bonggol” (base of pseudostem) and roots of bananas were usually used by people. Main diseases of banana was known by local people as “Pireus” (virus). We recommended more intensive study on bananas must be carried on for near future.
... The low ash contents of banana cultivars may indicate their low mineral concentrations (Dotto et al., 2019). Ash content increases with ripening, the average being 0.8% (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009;Anyasi et al., 2013). The ash content is highly important because the inorganic bulk is related to the composition of mineral elements (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009; Oyeyinka and Afolayan, 2019). ...
Article
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A study was conducted to evaluate four introduced and five local banana cultivars with a check variety for growth, yield and quality performances at four locations for two crop cycles. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed significant varietal differences in plant height, days to shooting, time from planting to harvest, bunch weight, finger diameter, length and weight, yield, peel thickness, pulp-to-peel ratio, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and ash contents. The cultivars had generally short and thick plants. Cultivars took from 243.8 to 316.8 days to flowering while from 374.4 to 446.7 days to first harvest. The yield ranged from 43.67 to 52.46 t ha-1. Five cultivars had comparable yields to the check. The sensory results indicated that all the cultivars were generally preferred. The candidate cultivars recorded higher soluble solids, phosphorus and potassium, but lower titratable acidity than the check. The moisture and ash contents ranged from 71.53 to 76.56% and 2.50 to Evaluation of banana (Musa spp.) cultivars for growth, yield and fruit quality [2] 3.36%, respectively. Considering the growth and yield performances as well as fruit physicochemical and sensory characteristics, 'Lady Finger' and 'Dinke-1' are recommended for production in the major banana growing areas of Ethiopia.
... The thickness of the slices was checked using a digital vernier caliper. The samples were then divided into four batches: three for pretreatments and the last as control (untreated).In other to reduce the rate of occurrence of enzymatic browning reaction, Petreatment by sulphiting was carried out using the method described by Adeyemi and Oladiji (2009) with slight modifications. The sliced cocoyam corms were dipped in 1% sodium metabisulphite (Na2S2O5) solution for ten minutes, drained and spread in thin layers. ...
Conference Paper
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Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) is a perishable tuber crop used as a staple food among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Processing cocoyam into flour is one of the ways to overcome the problem of high perishability thereby increasing its availability and uses. This study investigated the effect of pretreatment and temperature on the quality of cocoyam flour produced from dried cocoyam slices. Cocoyam slices were pretreated by soaking in 1 % sodium metabisulphite solution (SS) for 10 minutes; steam blanching (SBS) for 2 minutes and a combination of soaking in metabisulphite solution and steam blanching (S&BS) while a portion was left un-pretreated (US) to serve as control. The samples were dried in thin layers in a laboratory oven at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC and constant air velocity of 2 m/s. The samples were milled into flour, some physical and functional properties of the flour were determined using AOAC standard and the data obtained was then subjected to analysis of variance. Moisture content of cocoyam flour ranged from 5.43 to 11.5%.The loose and tapped bulk density ranged from 0.44 to 0.61 g/cm3 and 0.87 to 0.94 g/cm3 respectively. The particle size ranged from 1.53 to 1.7 μm while the angle of repose was between 26.38 and 43.13º. The method of pretreatment and temperature had significant effect (P <0.05) on the moisture content and water absorption capacity of cocoyam flour. However, the pretreatment method only but not temperature had significant (P <0.05) effect on fineness modulus, average grain size, bulk density, angle of repose and coefficient of static friction. In conclusion, this study showed that pretreated cocoyam flour samples were significantly different in terms of physical and functional properties from un-pretreated cocoyam flour.
... These highly reactive and metastable free radicals contain one or more unpaired electrons in their outermost shell which tend to trap electrons from the molecules in the immediate surroundings. Once they are formed, the chain reaction starts and if not scavenged effectively, these free radicals may damage crucial biomolecules like lipids, proteins including those present in all membranes, mitochondria 6 Traditionally, herbal medicines with antioxidant properties have been used for treatment of various ailments, and epidemiological data also point to widespread acceptance and use of these agents. ...
Thesis
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Polyphenols are responsible for antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables which provide life sustaining nutrients and a variety of phytochemicals endowed with health promoting effects primarily due to their antioxidant properties. Plant species under the genus Ficus can be one such source of natural antioxidant, however systematic study with regard to their phytochemical, biological and functional aspect is quite lacking. With this milieu, the doctoral research was aimed to evaluate polyphenolic composition in the fruits of F. auriculata (Timla) and F. palmata (Bedu) and to assess their multifunctional antioxidant activity so as to establish these yet less explored species as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The specific objectives of the project were assessment of antioxidant activity of Ficus auriculata (FA) and F. palmata (FP) fruits of different maturity status by different assay methods, antioxidant activity guided chemical analysis of the fruits for estimation of total polyphenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins content, comparative studies on antioxidant activity of various extracts and their fractions assayed by various methods and correlation between their polyphenols and antioxidant capacity and determination of phenolic composition in the active fraction(s). Both fully grown unripe and ripe fruits of FA and FP were analysed for their proximate nutritional values which revealed that these wild edible fruits may be good substitute to cultivated fruits for their high nutrient and mineral content. Extraction of FA and FP fruits with solvent of different polarity, showed highest extract yield with methanol: water (4:1) from ripe fruits of both the Ficus fruits. The concentration of total phenolics, flavonoid and anthocyanins were found at the highest level in the extracts of ripen fruits of both species obtained with methanol: water (4:1). Thus ripen stage of both fruits was found as the optimal phase and methanol: water (4:1) as better solvent for extracting the phenolic compounds from fruits of FA and FP. In view of the multifunctional facets of antioxidant capacity, the activity of FA and FP fruit was investigated by different assays taking into account the various mechanisms of antioxidant action. The antioxidant capacity of fruit extracts of FA and FP was determined following five different in-vitro protocols including DPPH-RS, ABTS+-RS, FRAP, NOS and HPS assays which varied considerably among their different extracts. Ripe fruits extract in general and particularly those obtained by extraction with methanol: water (4:1) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all the assays which may be due to their high TPC, TFC and TAC. The most active extracts FARF2 and FPRF2 of FA and FP respectively selected on the basis of TPC, TFC, TAC and antioxidant capacities were further fractionated to BuOH, EtOAc, MeOH and Aqueous fractions and further investigated for TPC, TFC, TAC and antioxidant activity by different protocols. Results of the study recorded highest TPC, TFC, and TAC as well as maximum DPPH-RS, ABTS+-RS, FRAP, NOS and HPS activities in methanol fractions of ripe fruit extracts of both FA and FP. Also a positive correlation between TPC, TFC & TAC and antioxidant activities were established. Methanol fractions also showed highest α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity followed by ethylacetate fraction thus revealing the potential of FA and FP fruits in diabetes related complications. Petroleum ether extracts of FA and FP fruits yielded 1.76 and of 2.19 % of fatty oil. GC-MS analysis of fatty oil indicated the presence of altogether 12 fatty acids; of which oleic acid, linoleic acid, -linolenic acid and vaccenic acid have remarkable pharmacological actions thus affirming their therapeutic significance. The phenolic constituents of EtOAc, MeOH and aqueous fractions of FARF2 and FPRF2 were detected and quantified by UPLC-MS analysis using standards of phenolic compounds. Altogether 9 compounds were identified and quantified in different fractions of FARF2 and FPRF2. The study concluded that due to their lofty phenolic composition and antioxidant activity as recorded in the study, fruits of FA and FP could be healthy source of additives to enhance antioxidant value to food and may be considered a source of important phytochemicals with bioactive functional properties that can be beneficially exploited in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.
... The ash content in the samples was shown that increased with ripening compared to unripened banana. There were varied changes in the mineral composition of bananas during ripening and the ash content increased with ripening [30] [31]. In Un, Up and Ur the ash content ranged from 1.55 to ...
... This difference was attributed to agricultural practices, geographical location and soil composition [42]. Mineral composition of banana samples according to degree of ripeness was reported for the fruits obtained from Nigeria: 73.47% ash, 0.68% Zn, 0.146% Mn for unripe samples; 77.19% ash, 0.80% Zn, 0.271% Mn for ripe samples and 79.22% ash, 0.78% Zn for overripe samples [43]. Similarly, the peel of banana cultivars obtained from Cameroon contained relatively high minerals: K (50.0 mg/g DW), P (22.2 mg/g DW), Mg (11 mg/g DW) and Ca (18 mg/g DW) [44]. ...
... These trends were consistent with those described for other fruits such as açaí (Gordon et al., 2012), and mulberry (Sheng, Liu, & Shen, 2009). Magnesium is an important component of chlorophyll, thus, more immature fruits might have higher values of this element (Adeyemi & Oladiji, 2009). ...
Article
This study aimed to characterize jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora), guabiju (Myrcianthes pungens), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini) in relation to its individual phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), antioxidant capacity, total monomeric anthocyanin, sugars, and minerals during ripening (intermediate and ripe stages). In the three studied fruits, 22 phenolic compounds were quantified, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids, which presented a higher concentration in the intermediate ripening stage. In contrast, the total monomeric anthocyanin, fructose, glucose, Ca, Na values were higher in the ripe stage. In addition, all studied fruits showed expressive antioxidant capacity in both ripening stages: 2569.28 to 5066.35 mg AAE 100 g⁻¹ DW for DPPH; 13777.52 to 26667.45 µmol Fe⁺² 100 g⁻¹ DW for FRAP; and 957.72 to 2061.35 mg GAE 100 g⁻¹ DW for Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity. Therefore, our results revealed that these fruits represent a supply of high-value nutrient and bioactive components, especially in the ripe stage.
... The ash content is a measure of the total inorganic matter of the fruit. Ash content decreased (Table 3), as ripening occurs in this study, which is in contrast to previous reported work by Yomeni, Njoukam, and Tchango Tchango (2004) and Adeyemi and Oladiji (2009), where the ash content increased. ...
Article
The physical and chemical compositional changes of Cavendish bananas were investigated according to the ripening stages determined by peel colour as classified in the Banana Ripening Guide. There is a need for the utilization of second grade bananas that are deemed unsuitable for retail sale, but are still appropriate for human consumption, for the long term sustainability of the banana industry. The optimum stage of ripeness of banana for puree making for food product development was determined through comparisons of the physical, chemical and sensory qualities. Banana pulp samples were analysed for texture, total soluble solids, starch, sugar, total ash, and potassium and magnesium contents at different ripening stages. At stage 5 ripeness, banana pulp had potassium (584 mg/100 g), magnesium (58 mg/100 g), total sugar (5.2 g/100 g) and starch (1.8 g/100 g) contents. Stage 5 ripened bananas were found to be the most suitable for puree production. Sensory acceptability results showed that the puree produced with second grade test bananas was rated significantly better compared to a commercial puree.
... Banana is source of calorie and mineral, as well as most of the vitamins essential for human nutrition 16 . Bananas are not only rich in carbohydrate and vitamins 13 , including vitamin A 17,18,19,20,21,22 , vitamin C 18,23 , and B6 24,25,26 , but also rich in mineral such as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and calcium 18,27,28 . They are a good source of dietary fibre 17 and are fat-free. ...
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Banana is important commodity in Indonesia as source of food and energy. Naturally, banana grows in open areas. Planting dwarf banana cavendish under natural shade are is limited, because the growth of plant is inhibited due to the low light intensity. Developing dwarf banana cavendish that tolerant to shade is important. The tolerant cultivar can be planted on the stand either in the form agroforestry or plantation crops as interplanting. The dwarf banana cavendish were collected from various places in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The research was arranged in a split plot design with three replications. Two factors are considered (i) the existence of natural shade or without shade, and (ii) plant genotype. The parameters observed were the vegetative and the generative character. The results showed that there was different characteristic of the dwarf banana cavendish under shade condition base on the vegetative growth. On the generative character showed some variation but still below the threshold of acceptable tolerance. Therefore, it is recommended that dwarf banana accessions selected can be used as source to develop dwarf banana shaded tolerant.
... Ash content decreased as plant's maturity progresses and the highest content was recorded at the stage I (7.03 g/100 g) which decreased gradually at the fully matured stage (3.05 g/100 g). Adeyemi and Oladiji (2009) reported that ash content of ripening plantain is affected by developmental stage and unripe plantain contains higher ash compared to ripe ones. Another reason for variation in ash might be due to differential absorption capacity of minerals at different stages of development. ...
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Culinary banana (Musa ABB) is an important ingredient of several dishes and is yet to be scientifically studied its nutritional and other biochemical compositions at different stages of development. It is one of the important nutritionally riches Musa sp and is a part of a balanced diet in Northeast India. Variations in nutritional and biochemical compositions associated with growth were studied at 20 (stage I), 35 (stage II), 50 (stage III), 65 (stage IV) and 80 (stage V) days after emergence (DAE) of banana inflorescence. Ash (7.03 g/100 g), protein (10.56 g/100 g), fat (1.50 g/100 g), phenol content (307.99 mg/100 g), radical scavenging activity (59.12% SA), linoleic acid (2.081 mg/100 g) and linolenic acid (1.210 mg/100 g) gradually declined with maturity. A rise in starch content from 12.36 to 22.66 g/100 g was observed with the maturity of banana. Maximum total carbohydrate was observed at stage III (32.15 g/100 g) and declined gradually. Out of 8 minerals tested, magnesium (Mg) was recorded the highest followed by potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) irrespective of the developmental stages of banana. Essential amino acids were found to be present at all the stages of development. The carotenoids (0.130 - 0.159 mg/100 g), vitamin A (0.028 - 0.038 mg/100 g) and thiamine (0.002 – 0.032 mg/100 g) were recorded at various stages of development of culinary banana. Pulp to peel ratio and total soluble sugars suggest that 50 DAE is the optimum stage of harvesting for culinary banana. However, young stages are rich in antioxidants, amino acids and fatty acids.
... This caused by differences in mineral absorption capacity at various levels of maturity. Another cause, the ash content of bananas during the ripening process is influenced by the stage of development [24]. The young bananas contain higher ash than mature ones. ...
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This research was aimed to isolate and to characterize the chemical properties of F’ei banana ( Musa troglodytarum L.) starch at different maturity stages. Chemical properties observed including moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre, and total sugar contents. F’ei banana with different maturity stages, i.e. first, second, and third maturity stages were applied in this research and were collected from the farmers in Naku Village, South Leitimur District. A completely randomized experimental design with three replications was applied. Results showed that the stage of maturity of the banana affected all observed variables. Moisture, fibre, and total sugar contents increased with increasing degree of maturity, whereas other variables were found to be decreased.
... The ash content in the samples was shown a significant effect oncomparing the released cooking banana. There were varied changes in the mineral composition of bananas during ripening and the ash content increased with ripening [30]. Khawas et al. [25] reported that ash content of banana fruits shows variations, which may be due to the differential absorption capacity of minerals at different stages of fruit development. ...
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Banana (Musa spp.) is an important ingredient of several dishes and its nutritional and other biochemical composition of released and improved dessert and cooking types are yet to be scientifically studied fully. In the present study, the most popularly cultivated species of cooking and dessert type banana in Ethiopia selected. The objective of this study was to determine their physicochemical profiling and nutritional quality of desert and cooking banana varieties. The chemical composition and some physicochemical characteristics of the fresh fruit and flour obtained from seventeen different banana varieties are presented. A randomized complete design with three replications was used. Length, Width, Peel and pulp thickness, Pulp to peel ratio, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ash and moisture of desert banana (Fresh) and mineral contents are the most important parameters to evaluate the quality of banana including potassium. The different varieties affected the fruit physical characteristics significantly (P≤0.05). The Cardaba varieties fruit was found to be the heaviest and the longest. The Kitawira and Nijiru varieties had the smallest, shortest and thinnest fruit. The Cardaba, Nijiru, Matoke, and Kitawira contained more pulp weight than peel weight. Most fruit chemical quality parameters were significantly (P≤0.05) affected by the varieties. The chemical composition of the flour also varied according to the variety and types of banana. Among others, the Cardaba variety was found to have high fruit weight, juice volume, total soluble solids, dry matter, and low total titratable acidity. Banana flour is rich in potassium varied from 246.288 to 375.949 mg/100g according to the variety. The range obtained were 41.200-89.132 mg/100g phosphorus, 0.705-19.352 mg/100g sodium, 2.497-3.359% ash, and 71.529-76. 564% moisture. The sensory analysis of the dessert banana type was evaluated. Thus, there was no significant difference between varieties at P≤0.05 and sensorial acceptability in most varieties. The current study revealed the variations of biochemical compositions of the desert and cooking banana varieties. This will be useful for the exploitation of these crops to obtain and formulate the value-added products. These varieties are recommended for different food product development by food processors in Ethiopia.
... This can be attributed due to the heat evolved and lack of oxygen. According to ripening chemistry, vitamin C decreases with the increase of temperature(Adeyemi and Oladiji 2009); vitamin C is also sensitive to oxygen present in the system (Hakim, Huq et al. 2012).7 graphically represents the experimental results of total titrable acidity (TTA) of naturally and artificially ripened banana samples. The total titratable acid level was found to be highest in the kerosene treated samples, while the level was lowest in the fresh samples. ...
Conference Paper
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Fruit ripening is a natural process in which the fruit goes through various chemical changes and gradually becomes sweet, colored, soft and palatable. The fruit ripening process can be stimulated using various chemicals on fruits. A wide number of artificial fruit ripening agents are applied on fruits in order to accelerate the process of ripening. The available scientific information often reports the health and safety issues of direct or indirect consumption of the ripening agents. However, the effects of artificial ripening agents on the nutrition value of artificially ripened fruits, and their consequent effect on human health are less understood. The purpose of this study is to measure, analyze and compare the nutritional value of naturally and artificially ripened fruits. Bari-1 hybrid banana (Musa Spp.; local name: Sagar Kola) was chosen to carry out the experimental study. Natural and artificially ripened banana samples were collected from banana orchard and local market. Unripe green banana samples were also artificially ripened in the laboratory using artificial ripening agents, ethephon and kerosene. Different nutrition parameters, such as moisture content, total energy, vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B12 complex were assessed for the four kinds of banana samples. The assessed parameters of natural and chemically ripened fruits were compared and analyzed to identify any change in nutrition value and to determine the potential health hazards associated with them.
... Nutrient elements are important to allow harmonious maturity of seeds and Ca-deficiency can be related to low lipid content in seeds [23]. Maturityassociated increase in element content has also been observed outside the seeds, for fruits like banana [24] or melon [25]. However, such phenomenon is not general and, in medlar, maturity leads to a decrease in metal content [26]. ...
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Argan oil is prepared by cold pressing argan kernels collected from fully ripe fruit. Argan oil market price is particularly elevated. Consequently, efficient methods to ascertain its authenticity and quality are looked for by industrials as well as individual consumers. Argan oil element profile has already been shown to be sufficiently singular to be used to certify its authenticity. Quantification of eleven elements (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, K, Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Sn) indicated a 55 to 60% increase in global metal content in argan oil prepared from fully ripe fruit, compared to argan oil prepared from unripe fruit. Individual variations are herein reported and our study demonstrates that argan oil element profile allows to certify the degree of maturity of the argan fruit at its harvest time and hence to guarantee the respect of one essential parameter necessary to get an argan oil of high nutritional quality.
... Fruit addition. Banana was selected as the fruit to be used in this study because of its availability and consumption rate (Adeyemi 2009). When the standard sample was removed from the stovetop, ripe mashed banana (Del Monte, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.A.) was added to the porridge at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of FBF flour weight. ...
Article
Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor.
... [6] Table 1 shows moisture content of banana at different stages of maturity. [9] Fiber content in banana ...
Article
Products from natural sources are being used from thousands of years. Banana is famous for its traditional, medicinal, and nutritional uses. It is rich in carbohydrates (22.84 g/100 g), provides energy about 370 kJ/100 g and it is considered to be one of the best sources of potassium (358 mg/100 g) that fulfils 8% of the daily recommended value. Along with the unique nutritional profile, banana possesses excellent medicinal properties. Banana is one of those fruits whose all parts could be processed, including its flesh and peel like banana chips, banana powder, banana biscuits, and most commonly banana juice.
... The thickness of the slices was checked using a digital vernier caliper. The samples were then divided into four batches: three for pretreatments and the last as control (untreated).In other to reduce the rate of occurrence of enzymatic browning reaction, Petreatment by sulphiting was carried out using the method described by Adeyemi and Oladiji (2009) with slight modifications. The sliced cocoyam corms were dipped in 1% sodium metabisulphite (Na2S2O5) solution for ten minutes, drained and spread in thin layers. ...
Conference Paper
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Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) is a perishable tuber crop used as a staple food among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Processing cocoyam into flour is one of the ways to overcome the problem of high perishability thereby increasing its availability and uses. This study investigated the effect of pretreatment and temperature on the quality of cocoyam flour produced from dried cocoyam slices. Cocoyam slices were pretreated by soaking in 1 % sodium metabisulphite solution (SS) for 10 minutes; steam blanching (SBS) for 2 minutes and a combination of soaking in metabisulphite solution and steam blanching (S&BS) while a portion was left un-pretreated (US) to serve as control. The samples were dried in thin layers in a laboratory oven at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 o C and constant air velocity of 2 m/s. The samples were milled into flour, some physical and functional properties of the flour were determined using AOAC standard and the data obtained was then subjected to analysis of variance. Moisture content of cocoyam flour ranged from 5.43 to 11.5%.The loose and tapped bulk density ranged from 0.44 to 0.61 g/cm 3 and 0.87 to 0.94 g/cm 3 respectively. The particle size raged from 1.53 to 1.7 µm while the angle of repose was between 26.38 and 43.13 o. The method of pretreatment and temperature had significant effect (P<0.05) on the moisture content and water absorption capacity of cocoyam flour. However, the pretreatment method only but not temperature had significant (P<0.05) effect on fineness modulus, average grain size, bulk density, angle of repose and coefficient of static friction. In conclusion, this study showed that pretreated cocoyam flour samples were significantly different in terms of physical and functional properties from un-pretreated cocoyam flour.
... When not yet ripe, it contains lots of starch, its skin remains green and it has a neutral taste. Plantain may be consumed unripe (green), yellow green or fully ripe (yellow) after cooking [5]. ...
Article
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The effect of stage of ripening and cooking methods (boiling, roasting and frying) on the nutritional compositions of plantain (Musa spp.) were studied. Plantain fruits (Musa spp.) at the unripe (deep green), semi-ripe (yellow green) and fully ripe (deep yellow) stages of ripeness were analyzed for proximate, total sugar and mineral compositions, after boiling, roasting and frying alongside the uncooked (raw) fruits as control. Proximate and mineral compositions of the plantain flours were determined by standard AOAC methods. Total sugar contents of the plantain flours were determined using the volumetric method (Lane-Eynon method) described by Pearson's compositions and analysis of foods. Result showed that ash, protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrate and total sugar contents ranged from 6.04% to 22.70%, 1.54% to 4.52%, 3.25% to 4.83%, 0.07% to 16.02%, 1.26% to 5.57% and 57.12% to 86.27%, 4.06% to 14.14% respectively. The mineral contents were 17.07 to 28.44 mg/100g, 4.92 to 9.36 mg/100g, 364.80 to 487.55 mg/100g, 0.10% to 0.39% and 0.16% to 0.42% for iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium and calcium respectively. On the whole, the result showed that roasting and boiling of semi-ripened and unripened plantain best conserved its nutrients.
... The moisture content of fresh tomato (FT), shade dried tomato (SDT) and oven dried tomato (ODT) in Galela variety was 92.47%, 4.13% and oven dried 4.16%, respectively, whereas in Asela variety the moisture content was 92.10%, 5.16% and 4.61% in FT, SDT and ODT, respectively. These values were within the range of results reported by Adeyemi et al. [12]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conventional and oven drying on the quality characteristics of two local tomato varieties, Aseela and Galeela. Most of the studied chemical parameters of tomato powder were significantly affected by different drying processes, with minimal effect on pH. However, the moisture content of fresh tomato (FT), shade dried tomato (SDT) and oven dried tomato (ODT) in Galela variety was 92.47%, 4.13% and oven dried 4.16%, respectively, whereas in Asela variety the moisture content was 92.10%, 5.16% and 4.61% in FT, SDT and ODT, respectively. Oven dried tomato (ODT) gave the highest protein content, total sugar and reducing sugar content, while mineral contents decreased as a result of drying with the highest decrease in oven dried samples. The microbiological analyses indicate non- significant difference in total viable bacteria count of (ODT) and (SDT), whereas the yeast and moulds of (ODT) shows significant difference which was (0.00).The coliform account was significantly different, while salmonella and staphylococci spp. were not detected in all samples. According to the obtained results, processing tomatoes into dehydrated products improves their nutritional quality mainly by concentration effect.
... Special breeding practices have generated many D. Mohapatra carotenoid-rich banana cultivars that aim to be included in the dietary regime of targeted populations with specific nutritional requirement (Adeniji et al. 2006(Adeniji et al. , 2007. Being a climacteric fruit, when harvested at the preclimacteric matured 'green' stage, the fruit undergoes various physicochemical changes such as composition, colour, texture, aroma and taste, pertaining to changes in metabolic rates and biochemical reactions like respiration, ripening and senescence in the climacteric phase (Areas and Lajolo 1981;Wills et al. 1984;Adisa and Okey 1987;Garcia and Lajolo 1988;Kajuna et al. 1998a, b;Golding et al. 1999;Kiyoshi and Wahachiro 2003;Siriboon and Banlusilp 2004;Prasanna et al. 2007;Adeyemi and Oladiji 2009). In fact, the changes in the physicochemical properties are the manifestation of various complex biochemical reactions. ...
Article
Banana has a special place in the daily diet of millions of people around the world for sustenance and nutrient enrichment. Some of the popular food uses of banana are chips, raw ripened fruit, cooked green banana, fermented and unfermented beverages, juice, puree, dried flour for bakery and infant formula food. Banana is also used as a starch source for various chemicals and packaging materials. The storability and functional properties of these products can be altered by the application of various innovative food processing technologies. This review article focuses on different banana products, their potential for non-conventional uses and associated prospective novel processing techniques for value addition and preservation.
... Plantain being a climacteric fruit, when harvested at the pre-climacteric matured 'green' stage, the fruit undergoes various physicochemical changes such as composition, colour, texture, aroma and taste, pertaining to changes in metabolic rates and biochemical reactions like respiration, ripening and senescence in the climacteric phase (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009) . After harvest, fully mature plantains tend to ripen quite rapidly with an accelerated rate of change of starch into sugars (Simmonds, 2006). ...
Article
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There are increasing reports of food poisoning due to methods used for processing certain food items in most parts of Africa especially in Nigeria. Also, very scanty information is available on the nutritional status and microbial counts of over-ripe fried plantain (Dodo-ikire) locally produced among the indigenes of Ikire Town and sold in some parts of Western States of Nigeria. This experiment reports the proximate, minerals and microbial counts of over-ripe fried plantain as affected by vendors in three different markets in Ikire Town, Osun State, Nigeria. Samples were obtained from four vendors each in three different markets namely: Total Station Market (TSM1
... The low ash contents of banana cultivars may indicate their low mineral concentrations (Dotto et al., 2019). Ash content increases with ripening, the average being 0.8% (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009;Anyasi et al., 2013). The ash content is highly important because the inorganic bulk is related to the composition of mineral elements (Adeyemi and Oladiji, 2009; Oyeyinka and Afolayan, 2019). ...
Article
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A study was conducted to evaluate four introduced and five local banana cultivars with a check variety for growth, yield and quality performances at four locations for two crop cycles. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed significant varietal differences in plant height, days to shooting, time from planting to harvest, bunch weight, finger diameter, length and weight, yield, peel thickness, pulp-to-peel ratio, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and ash contents. The cultivars had generally short and thick plants. Cultivars took from 243.8 to 316.8 days to flowering while from 374.4 to 446.7 days to first harvest. The yield ranged from 43.67 to 52.46 t ha-1. Five cultivars had comparable yields to the check. The sensory results indicated that all the cultivars were generally preferred. The candidate cultivars recorded higher soluble solids, phosphorus, and potassium, but lower titratable acidity than the check. The moisture and ash contents ranged from 71.53 to 76.56% and 2.50 to Evaluation of banana (Musa spp.) cultivars for growth, yield, and fruit quality [2] 3.36%, respectively. Considering the growth and yield performances as well as fruit physicochemical and sensory characteristics, 'Lady Finger' and 'Dinke-1' are recommended for production in the major banana growing areas of Ethiopia.
... This crop is also a valuable source of vitamin B6, vitamin C, and potassium (Singh et al., 2016;Ashokkumar et al., 2018). Adeyemi and Oladiji (2009) reported that the crop could contain 0.271, 0.886, and 326.70 % of Zn, Mn, and Mg, respectively. Like paragis, banana also contains several bioactive antioxidant compounds, namely phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines, and phytosterols (Singh et al., 2016). ...
Article
Paragis is a common grass which is abundant and can be seen everywhere but is regarded as having no economic value. To add value to this grass, the study generally aimed to formulate cookies with powdered paragis leaves and mashed bananas; and specifically, it aimed to evaluate the sensory quality of the product. A 3 x 3 factorial design was used, with three levels for both powdered paragis leaves (0, 5, 10 % w/w) and mashed bananas (0, 15, 20 % w/w). Sensory evaluation was done to determine the product’s acceptability in terms of color, taste, aroma, texture, and flavor using a sensory panel. Acceptability ratings were subjected to response surface regression analysis using STATISTICA software. Results revealed that the combination of powdered paragis leaves and mashed bananas showed a significant effect on the color, aroma, texture, taste, flavor, and general acceptability of the product. The optimum combination was 8.8 % and 1.3 to 1.8% of mashed bananas and powdered paragis leaves, respectively, based on the volume of flour. It can be concluded that paragis leaves could be utilized in cookie production, providing potential value to this unwanted commodity using the optimum combination.
... A significant decline was observed in the mineral content during ripening, with stage 1 showing higher values than stage 3. A previous study reported that a loss of mineral composition is a crucial physical event for softening of fruit [51]. These findings have demonstrated that brebas can be considered a rich source of K, Ca, and Fe [8,45,49,52]. ...
Article
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The quality characteristics of brebas for fresh consumption from nine fig varieties at different commercial ripening stages were determined. Physicochemical and nutritional parameters were analyzed for both skin and flesh, and the findings were compared among varieties and ripening stages. The results revealed that the major nutrient components in brebas are sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and mineral elements, including K, Ca, P, and Mg. Most nutrients evaluated are important elements that contribute to the commercial quality of brebas. “Brown Turkey” and “Banane” varieties showed the highest weight and width. The concentrations of the monomer sugars studied were higher in flesh than skin, and the “Cuello Dama Blanco” and “Colar Elche” varieties showed the highest content of these sugars. The early ripening stage, coinciding with a fast increase in fruit size, was also associated with a higher fiber and protein contents, TA, and firmness for “Banane,” “Brown Turkey,” and “Blanca Bétera” varieties. Conversely, the later ripening stage was related to a significant increase of TSS, MI, and color intensity. Finally, no clear changes in the concentrations of organic acids were observed between different varieties and commercial ripening stages.
Article
This study focused on the effects of maturity, ripening, and fermentation time of the Prunus mume fruit (maesil in Korean) on the physicochemical, functional, and microbial properties of maesil sugar syrup during a 1-year fermentation period. All syrup samples exhibited pH values of 2.28–2.89 throughout the study. Soluble solid, moisture, and ash contents were 48.37–57.67 °Brix, 3.87–8.22%, and 0.25–2.22%, respectively. The pH values and moisture content did not fluctuate widely. The soluble solid content was nearly constant; in contrast, ash content, color values, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant potential increased with fermentation time. Results of microbial profiling revealed the absence of Escherichia coli and other bacteria in all sugar syrups. In contrast, yeast was detected in all samples, and the yeast count increased as fermentation proceeded. The most prominent change in yeast count, from 3.66 log CFU/mL to 5.41 log CFU/mL, was detected in unripe whole-maesil syrup. Aged whole-maesil syrup from unripe fruits also exhibited the highest antioxidant potential and total phenol (416.12 ± 8.04 μg GAE/mL) and flavonoid (140.49 ± 1.45 μg QE/mL) contents. These findings indicate that aged whole-maesil syrup from unripe fruits had desirable functional properties, which improved with fermentation time.
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Mango (Mangifera indica) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into products such as dried mango slices (chips). These products have longer shelflife and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. The stage of ripening of mango fruits influences consumer acceptability. This is because it affects the physico-chemical characteristics of the mango fruit. In order to produce mango chips of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for chip production should be known. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the effect of stage of ripening of Keitt mango fruits on eating quality of its derivative chips. Some physico- chemical changes occurring in fruits were monitored during ripening. The results showed that there were significant increases (P<0.05) in total soluble solids and pH while titratable acidity and vitamin C content declined with ripening. No significant differences were observed between the different stages of ripening in any of the proximate parameters with the exception of the ash content. Chips showed increased levels of ash with ripening. Magnesium levels in chips increased with ripening whereas the levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sodium declined. Sensory evaluation of the chips revealed that chips produced from fully ripe Keitt mango fruits were more acceptable than half ripe and unripe mango fruits. The chips from the fully ripened had the best scores for appearance (1.37), taste (1.27), flavour (1.38) as well as mouthfeel (1.45). The texture of chips produced using the fully ripened Keittt mango fruits were adjudged to be satisfactory (2.64). The study showed that fully ripened mango fruits were better in producing chips of acceptable sensory quality than both unripe and full- ripe mango fruits. The taste which was mainly due to the sugar content of the mango chips contributed significantly to overall acceptability and therefore could be used as a quality indicator of Keitt mango chips.
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Bio fertilizer was applied to “Grand Naine” plantain, and its effect on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the plantain was studied. Two treatments were established: I) Bio fertilization (BIOF); and II) Conventional fertilization (CONV) practiced by farmers. When BIOF was exclusively applied as a fertilization strategy, similar values (p > 0.05) were obtained, like the ones in CONV, in all physical characteristics assessed in the fruits. In the fruits' chemical composition, difference in sugar and vitamin C (p < 0.05) contents was found; the contents in fruits coming from BIOF were higher. The difference in sugar content, also detected and verified by trained judges, scored BIOF fruits with a 2.62 value versus 1.36 for CONV ones in relation to sweetness descriptor. These results demonstrate that biofertilization can replace synthetic fertilizers action on plant nutrition, and consequently can lead to the obtaining of fruits with similar quality, higher sugar and ascorbic acid contents.
Article
Cardaba banana (Musa ABB) pulp and flours were evaluated for changes in some physicochemical properties during ripening. Compositional changes in the pulp showed that ripening significantly (P < 0.05) increased the crude protein (2.48–9.88%), fat (1.33–4.67%), crude fibre (0.80–0.93%), ash (1.66–2.32%) and Vitamin C (12.60–24.28%), while carbohydrate and tannin reduced. Mineral composition varied, following this trend: K > Mg > P > Na > Zn. pH and ‘whiteness’ reduced, while yield, softness index and pulp/peel ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05). Pasting and functional properties of the flours were lowered, however, ripening enhanced better pasting properties. Flours from stages 1–7 could be used as binders, emulsifiers and thickeners, while flours from stages 5–7 may be useful as aerating agents and in preparation of baby formulas and flours from stages 1–2 may be used in bakery products. This investigation proposes the utilisation of the Cardaba banana flour as an industrial raw material and a good substitute to potato, corn or tapioca starches.
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Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics.
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The essential oils have been evaluated as protective edible coatings. The fruits Guava (Psidiumguajava) and Amla (Amblica officinalis) were coated by dipping in essential oils of Tulsi, Neem and Eucalyptus and packed in CFB, Brown paper and LDPE. The fruits were stored at room temperature and loss of weight (%), ash content (%), moisture content (%), TSS (°B), Ascorbic acid content (mg/ml), total plate count (CFU/ml) and total yeast and mold count were assessed. The coatings resulted in a reduction of weight loss, moisture content and Ascorbic acid content. Guava and Amla coated with Neem oil and Packed in LDPE showed reduction in microbial counts, TSS and Ash content compared with the control. The efficiency was better than that of Tulsi and Eucalyptus treatment which were packed in CFB and brown paper. This study suggests that by using Neem oil as an edible coating packed in LDPE, the decaying of Guava and Amla can be delayed and can be preserved for up to 12 days during storage at room temperature without any negative effects on postharvest quality.
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Banana and plantain (Musa spp.) form an important part of the diet of communities in Uganda. Despite preliminary indications that some cultivars could be good sources of provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs), vitamin A deficiency remains a health problem in banana-dependent regions of Uganda. The most popular Musa cultivars in southwestern Uganda include two East African highland bananas (AAAEA) 'Entaragaza' and 'Mbwazirume', and one plantain (AAB) 'Manjaya-Gonja'. The AAA-EAs are mostly eaten steamed, while the plantain is generally roasted. Retention levels of pVACs during fruit ripening and processing of these popular cultivars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Highest levels were found for ripe 'Entaragaza' (7319 μg/100 g dw), fully ripe 'Mbwazirume' (6493 μg/100 g dw) and fully ripe 'Manjaya-Gonja' (13,377 μg/100 g dw). Steamed 'Entaragaza' and 'Mbwazirume' retained more than 90% of total pVACs. Roasting, deep-frying and steaming of 'Manjaya-Gonja' resulted in substantial loss of pVACs, with the highest loss (58.5%) observed after deep-frying in fully refined vegetable oil. All-trans β-and all-trans α-carotene constituted over 87% of the total carotenoids. The plantain 'Manjaya-Gonja' had a significantly higher proportion of β-carotene, while the AAA-EAs had significantly higher proportions of α-carotene. Although no cis α-carotenes and only negligible levels of cis β-carotene were observed during ripening, after processing the proportion of cis-carotenoids increased to about 10%. Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) in the processed products ranged from 97.91 to 138.16 μg/100 g edible portion. Therefore, consumption of 100 g of the tested products theoretically meets 24-35 and 16-20% of the vitamin A RDAs of a preschooler and a woman of reproductive age. Although steaming retains the highest levels pVACs, the tested Musa cultivars can make substantial contribution to vitamin A requirements of vulnerable groups whether roasted, boiled or fried.
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Banana is the most important tropical fruit of the world. Bananas and plantains are the fourth most important food crop in the world after rice, wheat, and maize. There are as many as 200-300 cultivars existing in countries that grow them. However, only a few of them are cultivated on large scale. Bananas are staple food in some of the African countries. Therefore, it is essential to know the nutritional composition and other phytochemicals of different banana cultivars. There are wide variations reported in different banana cultivars for carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, α-carotene, minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, B, Cu, and Mn), and vitamin C. Breeding has been done for evolving α-carotene-rich cultivars such as Fe'I group and FHIA hybrids. Volatile composition and variation between cultivars have also been studied extensively. This chapter reviews the information on botanical aspects, world cultivars, and nutritional and biochemical composition, along with volatiles of various banana cultivars from different parts of the world.
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The awareness of the importance of plants in the human diet has developed into detailed scientific study. The role of plants in medicine seems to have always been known and even today searches are being constantly made to find chemicals in plants that can be used to prevent or cure disease in modern medicine. A vast range of plant species have been eaten throughout the history of mankind. Presumably, initially human beings started using plants and their products from gathering them in the wild and eventually finding ways of cultivating them. This is the history of the development of agriculture. Even now people are still collecting plants for food from the wild in tandem with the development of breeding new cultivars of these crops and improvedways of cultivating them. Keller and Tukuitonga (2007) stated that 'Low fruit and vegetable intake was identified as an important risk factor for chronic diseases in the WHO World Health Report 2002. Overall, it is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fruit and vegetable consumption was sufficiently increased.'The nutritional properties of vegetables and fruit have been known for centuries. In the 18th century a French pharmacist Antoine-Augustin Parmentier demonstrated, for several years by his own diet, that all the nutrients required to sustain a healthy life were found in potatoes (Block 2008). The quality of the plantmaterial in terms of nutrition and the maintenance of that quality and reducing their physical losses from harvest to reaching the consumer have been the subject of a vast number of research projects. Changes that can occur may be due to infections by microorganisms or by the physiological processes that continue in vegetables and fruit since they are still living organismswith life processes that are severed from their sources of renewal and sustenance.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Folk herbal medicine knowledge and its utilization by aboriginal cultures are not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity, but also useful for community healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future. Aim of the study: Using a semi-structured questionnaire, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea in the West Bank/ Palestine was investigated. Results: Information about fifty medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea, including the names of plants, parts used, mode and methods of preparation was obtained from 100 traditional healers and herbalists. This research is the first scientific work in the Middle East to collect data about plants used by traditional healers for treatments of diarrhea and their evidence based effects against this disease. The fidelity levels were 97% for Salvia fruticosa, Teucrium polium and Musa paradisiaca, 95% for Camellia sinensis and Aegle marmelos, 79% for Oryza sativa and Solanum tuberosum, 77% for Quercus boissieri, 66% for Psidium guajava, 56% for Anthemis palestina, 54% for Solanum nigrum and 52% for Juglans regia while the highest use and choice values were for Salvia fruticosa, Teucrium polium and Musa paradisiaca as well as the factor of informant's consensus for medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea was 0.505.The leaves were the most commonly used parts, followed by fruits, roots and rhizomes, while decoctions and infusions are the preferred methods of preparation. Conclusions: The Palestinian traditional medicine is rich with herbal remedies for treatment of diarrhea in comparison with other countries, but most of these herbal remedies lack standard in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations to establish their antidiarrheal effects. Therefore, the information obtained can serve as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies to determine their efficacy and safety which might contribute to a better integration of Palestinian traditional medicine into the national health system in the future.
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Bananas are climacteric fruit and are harvested at the pre-climacteric phase and ripened postharvest. Ripening begins when the endogenous concentration of ethylene reaches a critical level. There are many changes that occur to the fruit during the ripening process including colour, texture, aroma and taste. These physical and chemical changes and the way in which fruit are ripened can affect these characteristics which in turn can affect their quality, acceptability and nutritional status.
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Nutritional quality and the well-being of the body system are directly linked aspects of human survival. From the unborn foetus to adulthood, the need for sustainable access to micronutrient-rich foods is pertinent and the global consumption of banana and plantain fruits, in effect, contributes to the alleviation of the scourge of malnutrition. This review is particularly aimed at evaluating the pharmacological dimensions through the biological mechanisms of Musa fruits in the body, which represent correlations with their constituent micronutrient factors and dietary polyphenolic constituents such as minerals, vitamin members, anthocyanins, lutein, α-,β-carotenes, neoxanthins and cryptoxanthins, epi-and gallo catechins, catecholamines, 3-carboxycoumarin, β-sitosterol, monoterpenoids, with series of analytical approaches for the various identified compounds being highlighted therein. Derivative value-products from the compartments (flesh and peel) of Musa fruits are equally highlighted, bringing forth the biomedicinal and nutritional relevance, including the potentials of Musa species in dietary diversification approaches.
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This research aims to examine the physicochemical changes in five Indonesian cultivars of plantain during the normal ripening and determine the optimal ripeness stage for flour. Cultivars 'Kapas', 'Tanduk', 'Raja Bulu', 'Siam', and 'Kepok Kuning' were selected for the research. The cultivars were stored at room temperature of 24.8–31.7 °C and relative humidity of 59.5%–99.9%. Peel colour, weight loss, pulp to peel ratio, firmness, pH, TSS, moisture content, starch, reducing sugars, and titratable acidity were evaluated. The results showed that the best unripe flour based on the starch content for 'Kapas', 'Raja Bulu', 'Tanduk', and 'Siam' cultivars was at stages 1–3 and 'Kepok Kuning' cultivar at ripening stages 1–2. On the other hand, in ripe banana flour, the best stage for 'Kepok Kuning', 'Tanduk', and 'Siam' cultivars was stage 4, for 'Raja Bulu' cultivar stages 4–5 and for 'Kapas' cultivar stages 4–7.
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BACKGROUND The utilization of taro has been restricted by its perishability and drying is one of the methods commonly used its preservation. There is however the need to understand the drying process in order to have an efficient operation. This study focused on the thin-layer drying kinetics of taro slices to provide information towards optimisation of the process. Fresh taro corms were washed; sliced, and pre-treated by steam (B), dipped in sodium meta-bisulphite solution (S), and a combination of both pre-treatments (SB) while a portion was left untreated (C). Drying was done in a laboratory oven at 2 m/s air velocity and varying temperatures (50, 60, and 70 °C). The drying responses were determined and subjected to both multiple and non-linear regression analyses using standard procedures. RESULTS Results showed that taro slices were dried from initial moisture content between 369 and 406 kg H20/kg d.m to final moisture content between 5.29 and 12.4% db. The drying took place predominately in the falling rate period with higher drying rates recorded for pre-treated samples. Third-order polynomial equation modelled the drying responses effectively. Based on responses such as the average, maximum and minimum drying rates, the drying process of taro slices had its sweet point at 2.03 min, 1.61% w/w, and 59.27 °C of blanching time, sulphiting concentration and drying temperatures respectively. Midilli and Logarithmic models were the best fit for predicting the drying behaviour of treated and untreated samples, respectively. CONCLUSION The study was a step in providing information for thin-layer drying of taro which could form a basis for the development of drying system and methods for taro and other similar produce.
Article
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of banana fragments during ripening show an increase on the water transverse relaxation time (T2) and a decrease in water self-diffusion coefficient (D). As T(2) and D are normally directly correlated, we studied these two properties in intact bananas during ripening, in an attempt to rule out the effect of injury on the apparent discrepancies in the behavior of T(2) and D. The results show that injury in bananas causes a decrease in T2 of the water in vacuoles (T(2vac)). They also show that T(2vac) increased and D decreased during ripening, ruling out the injury effect. To explain the apparent discrepancies, we propose a new hypothesis for the increase in T2 values, based on the reduction of Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ by galacturonic acid, produced by the hydrolysis of pectin and a decrease in internal oxygen concentration during ripening. As injury alters T2 values it is necessary to use intact bananas to study relaxation times during ripening. The novel interpretation for the increase in T(2vac) based on reduction of Fe+3 and O2 concentration is an alternative mechanism to that based on the hydrolysis of starch in amyloplasts.
Article
Recent epidemiological studies have directed the attention from the synthetic all-trans β-carotene to natural carotenoids predominant in fruits and vegetables as possible active ingredients for prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Seventeen fruits and 17 vegetables commonly consumed in Israel and the β-car-otene-rich alga, Dunaliella bardawil, were analysed for their content of carotenoids with emphasis on 9-cis β-carotene by reversed-phase, 3D photodiode array HPLC. Fourteen carotenoids were eluted in order of decreasing polarity, from polar oxycarotenoids to lipophilic hydrocarbons, and quantified in μg carotenoid per gram freeze-dried plant sample. The richest sources of total carotenoids (>100μg/g dry weight) in Israeli fruits were pittango, mango and papaya while, in vegetables, the predominant types were carrot, dill, parsley, tomato, lettuce, sweet potato and red pepper. Red fruits and vegetables contained mainly lycopene. Yellow and orange fruits and vegetables had high contents of hydrocarbon carotenes with substantial levels of cryptoxanthins and xanthophylls. The green vegetables had high contents of both xanthophylls and hydrocarbon carotenes. Relatively high ratios (9-cis to all-trans β-carotene) of above 0.2 g/g were noted in sweet potato, papaya, parsley, lettuce, dill, apricot, pepper, prune and pumpkin, compared to the high ratio of 9-cis to all-trans β-carotene in the alga Dunaliella (~ 1.0 g/g). The high content of 9-cis β-carotene in certain fruits and vegetables and the wide variety of carotenoids and stereoisomers of carotenoids in all plants should shift nutritional and medical attention from the synthetic all-trans β-carotene toward natural carotenoids as potential candidates for chemoprevention.
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Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A (β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian (“apple”) bananas had almost three times more vitamin C (12.7 mg/100 g fresh weight) than Williams fruit (4.5 mg/100 g). Also, Dwarf Brazilian bananas had 96.9 μg β-carotene and 104.9 μg α-carotene/100 g, whereas Williams fruit averaged 55.7 μg β-carotene and 84.0 μg α-carotene/100 g. Bananas contained higher concentrations of lutein than of the provitamin A pigments, α- and β-carotene. Papaya vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100 g, with no differences among cultivars. Papaya provitamin A carotenoids averaged 232.3 μg β-carotene and 594.3 μg β-cryptoxanthin/100 g, and vitamin A ranged from 18.7 to 74.0 μg RAE/100 g. Lycopene was not detected in the yellow-fleshed cultivars, Kapoho, Laie Gold, and Rainbow, but the red-fleshed Sunrise and SunUp fruit contained 1350–3674 μg lycopene/100 g. Dwarf Brazilian bananas had higher P, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn contents than Williams fruit. The average K content for Hawaii's bananas was 330.6 mg/100 g. Papayas (100 g) contained 9% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for Cu, 6–8% of the DRI for Mg, but less than 3% of the DRI for other minerals.
Article
The β-carotene contents of forty vegetables and fourteen fruits were determined using the AOAC open-column (magnesia and Hyflo Super Cel mixture) chromatographic method and compared with a newly developed reverse-phase HPLC method, in which carotenoids were separated isocratically on an octadecylsilane (C18) column using a ternary mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and ethyl acetate. Results obtained showed that the AOAC method gave falsely elevated results for samples containing α-carotene, as well as those with very low β-carotene concentrations. On the other hand, the HPLC method successfully separated and quantitated the major carotenoids present; namely, lutein, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, γ- and α-carotenes in addition to β-carotene. The carotenoid composition of most of the green vegetables was rather consistent, comprising only lutein and β-carotene. In contrast, there was no clear pattern of carotenoids present in the other vegetables and fruits, where several other carotenoids were detected in varying proportions. The vitamin A activity, expressed as μg of retinol equivalent (RE), was calculated on the basis of all pro-vitamin A carotenoids (cryptoxanthin, γ-, α- and β-carotenes) detected. Most of the green leafy vegetables, including several local vegetables, had high RE. Several green non-leafy and other vegetables were found to have low and medium RE. None of the fruits studied may be said to have high vitamin A activity. RE calculated on the basis of results from the AOAC method was found to be erroneously low for samples with significant proportions of pro-vitamin A carotenoids other than β-carotene, and falsely elevated for those with α-carotene. Total carotenoid concentrations can be estimated by taking absorbance readings of sample extracts directly in a spectrophotometer or by the HPLC method.
Article
False horn Apantu pa Plantains (Musa spp.) at the green, greenish yellow, yellow and brown colour stages of ripeness and their boiled/fried products were analysed for nutritional composition. The results showed that the nutritional composition of plantain pulp was diversely affected by natural ripening and processing. Significant changes (P<0.05) due to ripening occurred in the water, carbohydrate, sugar and starch contents. The degree of colouration is indicative of the composition of these components in plantain. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with most stages of ripeness. The processing methods employed significantly (P<0.05) reduced the protein, sugar, iron and copper contents of raw plantain pulp. The nature of the processing medium influenced the levels of fat and moisture in the products.
Article
The proximate chemical composition, the carbohydrate constituents and the amino acid make-up of green and ripe plantain were determined. The quantity of total sugars considerably increased during ripening from 3.0 to 31.6% in the peel and from 1.3 to 17.3% in the pulp while starch concentration decreased from 50 to 35% and from 83 to 66% in the skin and the pulp, respectively. The skin was richer in cellulose (10%) and hemicellulose (13%) than the pulp which had 1.4% cellulose and 1.3% hemicellulose. The pulp protein was abundantly rich in arginine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Methionine was present in the lowest amount with tryptophan and cystine conspicuously being absent.
Chemical and physical changes in plantains (Musa paradisiaca) during ripening
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