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Anti-aging and filling efficacy of six types hyaluronic acid based dermo-cosmetic treatment: Double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety

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Background Human skin aging is a multifactorial and complex biological process affecting the different skin constituents. Even if the skin aging mechanism is not yet fully unravelled is evident that epidermis loses the principal molecule responsible for binding and retaining water molecules, resulting in loss of skin moisture and accounting for some of the most striking alterations of the aged skin.Objectives This Study investigated the cosmetic filling efficacy of Fillerina® in decreasing the skin aging signs and in improving facial volume deficiencies.MethodsA placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 healthy female subjects showing mild to moderate clinical signs of skin aging. The effect of the treatment on skin surface and on face volumes was assessed both in the short-term (3 h after a single product application) and in the long-term (7, 14, and 30 days after continuative daily use).ResultsThree hours after a single application and after 7, 14, and 30 days of treatment the lips volume was increased by 8.5%, 11.3%, 12.8%, and 14.2%. After 7, 14, and 30 days: (1) skin sagging of the face contours was decreased by −0.443 ± 0.286, −1.124 ± 0.511, and −1.326 ± 0.649 mm, respectively; (2) skin sagging of the cheekbones contours was decreased by −0.989 ± 0.585, −2.500 ± 0.929, and −2.517 ± 0.927 mm, respectively; (3) cheekbones volume was increased by 0.875 ± 0.519, 2.186 ± 0.781, and 2.275 ± 0.725 mm, respectively; (4) wrinkle volume was decreased by −11.3%, −18.4%, and −26.3%, respectively; and (5) wrinkle depth was decreased by −8.4%, −14.5%, and −21.8% respectively.Conclusion This study demonstrated the positive filling effect of Fillerina® in decreasing the clinical signs of skin aging and in improving the face volumes.
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Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology,13, 277--287
Anti-aging and filling efficacy of six types hyaluronic acid based
dermo-cosmetic treatment: double blind, randomized clinical trial of
efficacy and safety
Vincenzo Nobile, PhD,
1
Daniela Buonocore, PhD,
2
Angela Michelotti, PhD,
1
& Fulvio Marzatico, PhD
2
1
Farcoderm Srl European Expertise Network for Wellness and Dermatology, San Martino Siccomario, Pavia, Italy
2
Laboratory of Pharmaco-Biochemistry, Nutrition and Nutraceutical of Wellness, Department of Biology and Biotechnology “L. Spallanzani”, University of
Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Summary Background Human skin aging is a multifactorial and complex biological process
affecting the different skin constituents. Even if the skin aging mechanism is not yet
fully unravelled is evident that epidermis loses the principal molecule responsible for
binding and retaining water molecules, resulting in loss of skin moisture and
accounting for some of the most striking alterations of the aged skin.
Objectives This Study investigated the cosmetic filling efficacy of Fillerina
â
in
decreasing the skin aging signs and in improving facial volume deficiencies.
Methods A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out
on 40 healthy female subjects showing mild to moderate clinical signs of skin aging.
The effect of the treatment on skin surface and on face volumes was assessed both in
the short-term (3 h after a single product application) and in the long-term (7, 14,
and 30 days after continuative daily use).
Results Three hours after a single application and after 7, 14, and 30 days of
treatment the lips volume was increased by 8.5%, 11.3%, 12.8%, and 14.2%. After
7, 14, and 30 days: (1) skin sagging of the face contours was decreased by
0.443 0.286, 1.124 0.511, and 1.326 0.649 mm, respectively; (2) skin
sagging of the cheekbones contours was decreased by 0.989 0.585,
2.500 0.929, and 2.517 0.927 mm, respectively; (3) cheekbones volume
was increased by 0.875 0.519, 2.186 0.781, and 2.275 0.725 mm,
respectively; (4) wrinkle volume was decreased by 11.3%, 18.4%, and 26.3%,
respectively; and (5) wrinkle depth was decreased by 8.4%, 14.5%, and 21.8%
respectively.
Conclusion This study demonstrated the positive filling effect of Fillerina
â
in
decreasing the clinical signs of skin aging and in improving the face volumes.
Keywords: anti-aging, face volumes, hyaluronic acid, skin aging, skin wrinkles
Introduction
Human skin aging is a multifactorial and complex bio-
logical process affecting the different constituents of the
skin that is not yet fully understood. Skin aging is the
result of two biologically independent processes. The
Correspondence: Dr. Vincenzo Nobile, Farcoderm Srl European Expertise
Network for Wellness and Dermatology, via Mons. Angelini 21, 27028 San
Martino Siccomario, Pavia, Italy. E-mail: vincenzo.nobile@farcoderm.com
Accepted for publication July 26, 2014
©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 277
Original Contribution
first is intrinsic or innate aging, an unpreventable pro-
cess, which affects the skin in the same way as it
affects all others organs. The second is extrinsic aging,
which is the result of exposure to environmental fac-
tors (i.e. ultraviolet irradiation, pollutants, etc.) and it
is commonly referred to as photoaging.
1
In elderly the skin turgor, resilience, and pliability
are decreased, presumably due to altered patterns and
levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially hyal-
uronic acid (HA) and dermatan sulfate, which are the
most common.
2
HA is a nonsulfated GAG with an
unique capacity to bind and retain water molecules.
3
Chemically, HA is composed of repeating polymeric
disaccharides of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl- D-glu-
cosamine linked by a glucuronidic b(1?3) bond.
4,5
Unlike other GAG, HA is not covalently linked to a
protein core, but it may form aggregates with proteo-
glycans.
6
HA polymers occur in a large number of
configurations and shapes, depending on their size, salt
concentration, pH, and associated cations.
7
HA is widely distributed, from prokaryotic
8,9
to
eukaryotic cells.
10
In humans, HA is most abundant
in the skin,
1115
accounting for the 50% of the total
body HA.
16
HA is produced primarily by mesenchymal
cells, even if other cell types are capable to produce
HA.
1721
The use of biotinylated HA-binding peptide
revealed that not only cells of mesenchymal origin are
capable of synthesizing HA and permitted the histolo-
calization of HA in the dermal compartment of skin
and the epidermis.
2224
This technique enabled the
visualization of HA in the epidermis, mainly in the
extracellular matrix molecules (ECM) of the upper spi-
nous and granular layers, whereas in the basal layer
HA is predominantly intracellular.
12
HA has a dynamic turnover rate with a half-life less
than a day in the skin and it is degraded into frag-
ments of varying size by hyaluronidases (HYAL) by
hydrolyzing the hexosaminidic b(14) linkages
between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid
residues in HA.
25
The most dramatic histochemical change observed
in senescent skin is the marked disappearance of epi-
dermal HA. With increasing aging, a steady decline
of HA occurs in the upper epidermal layer, with con-
comitant increases in the basal layer of the epidermis
and the upper portions of the papillary dermis, while
at senescence HA is entirely absent in the epidermis
and present in the upper dermis.
26
The reasons for
this change in HA homeostasis with aging is
unknown. Progressive reduction of the size of the HA
polymers in skin as a result of aging has also been
reported.
22
In the skin photoaging were also reported an abnor-
mal GAG content and distribution and a diminished
HA concentration.
27
Using photoexposed and photo-
protected human skin tissue specimens, obtained from
the same patient, a significant increase in the expres-
sion of HA of lower molecular mass in photoexposed
skin, as compared with photoprotected skin was
reported, suggesting that HA homeostasis exhibits a
distinct profile in intrinsic skin aging, which is totally
different from the characteristic profile in extrinsic skin
aging.
28
Even if the mechanism of skin aging is not yet fully
unravelled is evident that during aging the epidermis
loses the principal molecule responsible for binding and
retaining water molecules, resulting in loss of skin
moisture and accounting for some of the most striking
alterations of the aged skin, including decreased turgid-
ity, less support for microvessels, wrinkling, altered
elasticity and loss of face volumes especially as regards
to the cheekbones and lips.
2
Currently, HA fillers are an established intervention
for correcting facial volume deficiencies.
29
However,
they are costly, invasive, painful, and may have side
effects. Thus, a topical, non-invasive, effective cosmetic
treatment to replenish the skin with the lost HA could
be more acceptable. The aim of the present study was
to evaluate the filling efficacy of a commercially avail-
able HA based dermocosmetic treatment (Fillerina
â
)
claimed to be effective in improving the facial volume
deficiencies.
Materials
Participants and study design
In this monocentric randomized study, forty healthy
Caucasian female subjects were included by a certified
dermatologist. All the study procedures were carried
out according to World Medical Association’s (WMA)
Helsinki Declaration and its amendments (Ethical Prin-
ciples for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects,
adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly Helsinki,
Finland, June 1964 and amendments). To participate
in the study, each participant was fully informed on
study risks and benefits, aims, and procedures. An
informed consent form and a consent release for publi-
cation of photos were signed by each subject prior to
participating in the study.
Eligible participants were all adult female subjects
aged between 25 and 55 years old (mean age: active
group 47.7 5.7 years old, placebo group
46.3 6.8 years old; mean SD) and showing mild-
278 ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fillerina
â
antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
to-moderate clinical signs of skin aging on the face.
The subjects were of general good health, had no obvi-
ous skin disease, known history of atopic dermatitis
and/or skin elastosis on the face. Exclusion criteria
were pregnancy or intention to become pregnant, lac-
tation, allergy/sensitivity to cosmetics, participation in
another similar study (at least 30 days prior to enroll-
ing in the study), and unwillingness or unability to
comply with the requirements of the study protocol.
The study further excluded subjects using topical prod-
ucts containing moisturizing and/or anti-aging actives.
After the enrolment subjects were randomly assigned
to one of the two study arms, in 1:1 ratio, to receive
active or placebo products. For allocation a computer-
generated, using PASS 11 statistical software (version
11.0.8 for Windows; PASS, LLC, Kaysville, UT, USA)
restricted randomization list (biased coin using Efron’s
algorithm) was used. Subjects, investigator and her
collaborators were kept blind to products assignment.
Sequentially numbered, opaque, and sealed envelopes,
reporting the unblinded treatment allocation, where
prepared for each subject and stored in a safe place by
the in site study Director.
The study took place at Farcoderm s.r.l. dermatologi-
cal facilities in San Martino Siccomario (PV), Italy,
from September to October 2012. Farcoderm s.r.l. is an
independent testing laboratory, collaborating with the
University of Pavia, for in vitro and in vivo safety and
efficacy assessment of cosmetics, food supplements, and
medical devices.
Interventions
The tested product was a commercially available
dermocosmetic filling treatment named Fillerina
â
(Labo
Cosprophar AG, Basel, Switzerland) formed by five spe-
cific products (Gel Filler, Nourishing Film, Day Cream,
Night Cream and Eye/Lip Cream). Each product con-
Gel Filler
Nourishing Film
Day Cream
Night Cream
Eye/Lip Cream
Gel Filler. Apply 2 ml (two 1 ml doses) of Gel Filler on
cleansed skin using the applicator with truncated tip.
Delivery the product on visible wrinkles/lines (face and
neck), cheekbones, and lips. Leave the product in rest for
10 minutes. After 10 minutes gently pat the product onto
the skin using the palm of your hand (without carrying
circular movements) until completely absorbed.
Nourishing film. After the Gel Filler has absorbed, apply 1-2
ml of Nourishing film using the applicator with truncated
tip. Apply the product all over the face and neck. Massage
gently until completely absorbed.
To facilitate the action of the product, it is advisable to drink
two glasses of water before the application of Gel Filler and
Nourishing Film.
+
Once a day, in the
morning or at night
depending on subject
needs and habits
Day Cream. Apply the desired amount of cream on
cleansed skin (face and neck). Massage until completely
absorbed. Apply your make up, if necessary.
+
Night Cream. Apply the desired amount of cream on
cleansed skin (face and neck). Massage until completely
absorbed..
Eye/Lip Cream. Apply a small amount of cream on your lips.
Massage until completely absorbed.
+
Once a day, in the
morning.
Once a day, at night.
Once a day, in the
morning and at night.
0
14
30
15
Start
End
Study period Products Way of use Frequency
Figure 1 Way of use.
©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 279
Fillerina
â
antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
tained Sodium Hyaluronate crosspolymer and a mix-
ture of HA of different molecular weight (hyaluronic
acid 1 kDa, hydrolyzed sodium hyaluronate 5 kDa,
hydrolyzed hyaluronic acid 50 kDa, sodium hyaluro-
nate 200 kDa, and sodium hyaluronate 2000 kDa) as
cosmetic active ingredients. The placebo formulations
did not contain the above-mentioned actives. Active
and placebo products were in the same physical form
(gel or emulsion) and identical in appearance. Subjects
applied by themselves the tested products according to
the way of use reported in Figure 1. Subjects were
instructed to not share the test products with other
household members. Subjects were allowed to continue
the use of regular (without any claimed anti-aging
effect) make-up products.
Outcomes
The primary endpoints with respect to efficacy in
decreasing the skin aging signs were the measurements
of skin sagging/loss of volume of face contours, cheek-
bones, and lips by means of a morphometric image
analysis technique (Fig. 2). Wrinkle volume and depth
were measured, in the periocular area (“crow’s feet
area”), as secondary endpoints by means of a 3D micro-
topography imaging system. All the measurement were
carried out before study start (basal value) and after 7,
14, and 30 days of treatment, except for lips volume
and wrinkles depth/volume, for which and additional
measurement time was foreseen 3 h after the first prod-
uct application at study start. The measurements were
carried out on cleansed skin (except for the lips volume
and the wrinkle depth/volume measurements 3 h after
product application) under temperature (22 2°C)
and relative humidity (50 10%) controlled condi-
tions. The treatment was stopped 812 h before any
skin assessment were made.
The lifting/reshaping effect for the face contours and
the cheekbones, and the volumizing effect for the
cheekbones and the lips were assessed using a morpho-
metric image analysis technique as described in Fig-
ure 2. Frontal images of the face were taken using a
professional digital reflex camera NIKON D300 digital
camera, Nikon Corporation Tokyo, Japan) equipped
with a macro-objective (AF-S Micro NIKKOR 60 mm f/
2.8G ED, Nikon Corporation Tokyo, Japan) and a flash
system (Kit R1C1, Nikon Corporation). Subjects’ posi-
tion was regulated using a stereotactic device (Canfield
Scientific, Inc., Fairfield, NJ, USA).
Wrinkles depth and volume were measured using a
three-dimensional (3-D) microtopography imaging sys-
tem (PRIMOS 3D lite, GFMesstechnik GmbH, Teltow,
Germany). The imaging system projects structured
light on a specific surface of the skin with a Digital
Micro-mirror Device (DMD, Texas Instruments, Irving,
TX, USA) and records the image with a CCD camera.
Skin surface microtopography is reconstructed using
temporal phase shift algorithms to generate 3-D
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 2 Morphometric evaluation of the face contours/volumes. (a) Face contour lifting effect is measured as the distance (red dotted
lines) between the upper (forehead) and the lower (mandible) part of the face. The measurement is taken in the following points: (1)
external side of the right eye, (2) internal side of the right eye, (3) nose apex, (4) internal side of the left eye, and (5) external side of the
left eye. (b) Cheekbones contour pumpling effect is measured as the distance between the line passing from the nose apex (1) and the cheek-
bones contour upper (2) and lower (3) part. The measurement is taken in 5 points (red arrows). Cheekbones contour lifting effect is mea-
sured as the distance between the line passing perpendicularly to the eyes (2) and the cheekbones contour. The measurement is taken
in 3 points (green arrows). (c) Lips volumizing effect is measured by means of mathematic interpolation of the following parameters: (1)
length of the lip line, (2) height of the upper lip, and (3) height of the lower lip. The applied formula is the cone equation.
280 ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fillerina
â
antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
images. The imaging system has an overlap feature
which enables precise matching of photos taken at dif-
ferent visits. Depth and volume of the crow’s feet area
wrinkles were measured.
Sample size
Sample size was calculated with a two-sided 5% signifi-
cance level and a power of 80% taking into account a
20% variation of the primary endpoints due to both
inter-individual human variability and error in the
measurement techniques. A sample size of 20 subjects
per group was necessary given an anticipated dropout
rate of 20%.
Statistical methods
Statistical analysis was carried out on the intention to
treat (ITT) population using NCSS 8 (version 8.0.4 for
Windows; NCCS, LLC) running on Windows Server
â
2008 R2 64 Edition. Data normality (both for raw data
and variations vs. the basal value) was verified using
ShapiroWilk W normality test and data shape. Since
data were normally distributed, the repeated measure
analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) followed by TukeyKra-
mer multiple comparison test was performed both for
intra- and inter-group comparisons. The statistical sig-
nificance probability value was set at P<0.05. Values
are reported as follows: (1) face contour lifting effect is
reported as the mean variation of the upper to lower
face contour measured in 5 point (Fig. 2a), (2) cheek-
bones contour pumpling effect is reported as the mean
variation of the nose to cheekbones contour measured
in 5 points (Fig. 2b), and (3) cheekbones contour lift-
ing effect is reported as the mean variation of the eye
to cheekbones contour measured in 3 points (Fig. 2c).
Values are expressed as arithmetic mean SD.
Results
Eligible subjects were recruited from August to Septem-
ber 2012. Only subjects who had not sun exposure dur-
ing the summer period were enrolled. Subjects attended
clinic visits at the time of randomization (baseline) and
after 7, 14, 30 days of product use. During the baseline
visit, subjects remained at the facility housing the trial
for 3 h under temperature (22 2°C) and relative
humidity (50 10%) controlled conditions. All the
randomized subjects (n=20 per group) completed
the trial (Fig. 3). Subject’s baseline demographics and
clinical characteristic are reported in Table 1. Before
and after images are reported in Figure 4.
The results of the face contours lifting effect evalua-
tion are reported in Table 2 and Figure 5 The baseline
(Table 1) mean upper to lower distance of face con-
tours (measured in 5 points, see Fig. 1a) was similar
between active (19.305 0.875 cm) and placebo
(19.395 1.044 cm) groups and not statistically
significant (P>0.05). At the 7, 14, and 30 days
follow-up visit this distance is decreased in the active
Assessed for eligibility (n = 45)
Excluded (n = 5)
Not meeting inclusion criteria (n = 5)
Randomized (n = 40)
Allocated to intervention (n = 20)
Received allocated intervention (n = 20)
Did no receive allocated intervention (n = 0)
Allocated to intervention (n = 20)
Received allocated intervention (n = 20)
Did no receive allocated intervention (n = 0)
Lost to follow-up (n = 0)
Discontinued intervention
(
n = 0
)
Lost to follow-up (n = 0)
Discontinued intervention
(
n = 0
)
Analyzed (n = 20)
Excluded from analysis (n
=
0)
Analyzed (n = 20)
Excluded from analysis (n
=
0)
Active Placebo
EnrollmentAllocationFollow-up
Analysis
Figure 3 Flow diagram.
©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 281
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antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
group by 0.443 0.286, 1.124 0.511, and
1.326 0.649 mm, respectively. A slight worsening
was seen in the placebo group by 0.151 0.125,
0.157 0.153, and 0.112 0.145 mm at the 7, 14,
and 30 days follow up visit, respectively. The decrease
of the upper to lower distance of face contours is indic-
ative of a decrease of the skin sagging.
The results of the cheekbones volumizing/plumping
effect evaluation are reported in Table 3 and Figure 6.
The baseline (Table 1) mean nose to cheekbones con-
tours distance (measured in 5 points, see Fig. 1b) was
similar between active (5.907 0.366 cm) and pla-
cebo (6.094 0.433 cm) groups and not statistically
significant (P>0.05). At the 7, 14, and 30 days
follow up visit this distance is increased in the active
group by 0.875 0.519, 2.186 0.781, and
2.275 0.725 mm, respectively. A slight worsening
was seen in the placebo group by 0.221 0.190,
0.217 0.227, and 0.230 0.268 mm at the 7,
14, and 30 days follow-up visit, respectively. The
increase of the nose to cheekbones contours distance is
indicative of more protruding cheekbones contours and
increased volume.
The results of the cheekbones contour lifting evalua-
tion are reported in Table 4 and Figure 7. The baseline
eye to cheekbones contours distance (measured in 3
points, see Fig. 1b) was similar between active
(3.361 0.325 cm) and placebo (3.108 0.226 cm)
groups and not statistically significant (P>0.05). At
the 7, 14, and 30 days follow-up visit this distance is
decreased in the active group by 0.989 0.585,
2.500 0.929, and 2.517 0.927 mm, respec-
tively. A slight worsening was seen in the placebo
group by 0.199 0.122 0.241 0.153, and
0.265 0.169 mm at the 7, 14, and 30 days
follow-up visit, respectively. The decrease of the eye to
cheekbones contours distance is indicative of a
decrease of the skin sagging and an increase of cheek-
bones volume.
The results of the treatment effect on lips volume are
reported in Table 5 and Figure 8. The baseline mean
value was similar between active (2.697
0.307 cm
3
) and placebo (2.620 0.250 cm
3
) groups
and not statistically significant (P>0.05). At the 3 h
(2.917 0.331 cm
3
) and 7 (2.886 0.297 cm
3
), 14
(2.950 0.314 cm
3
) and 30 (3.019 0.339 cm
3
)
days follow-up visit this distance was increased in the
active group corresponding to a 8.5%, 11.3%, 12.8%,
and 14.2% variation vs. the basal value, respectively.
In the placebo group, no changes were observed at the
3 h (2.563 0.235 cm
3
) and 7 (2.597 0.250
cm
3
), 14 (2.581 0.246 cm
3
), and 30 (2.556
0.243 cm
3
) days follow-up visit, respectively.
The results of the treatment effect on wrinkle volume
are reported in Table 6 and Figure 9. The baseline
mean value was similar between active
(5.72 0.44 mm
3
) and placebo (5.64 0.44 mm
3
)
groups and not statistically significant (P>0.05). At 7
(5.13 0.44 mm
3
), 14 (4.75 0.43 mm
3
), and 30
(4.30 0.41 mm
3
) days follow-up visit wrinkle
volume was decreased in the active group correspond-
ing to a 11.3%, 18.4%, and 26.3% variation vs.
the basal value, respectively. In the placebo group no
changes were observed at 7 (5.59 0.45 mm
3
), 14
(5.61 0.45 mm
3
), and 30 (5.77 0.48 mm
3
) days
follow-up visit, respectively.
The results of the treatment effect on wrinkle depth
are reported in Table 7 and Figure 10. The baseline
mean value was similar between active
(338.7 15.7 lm) and placebo (311.2 12.4 lm)
groups and not statistically significant (P>0.05). At 7
(311.5 18.2 lm), 14 (290.2 16.5 lm), and 30
(265.1 16.6 lm) days follow-up wrinkle depth was
decreased in the active group corresponding to a
8.4%, 14.5%, and 21.8% variation vs. the basal
value, respectively. In the placebo group no changes
were observed at 7 (310.2 12.0 lm), 14
(312.0 12.3 lm), and 30 (315.6 13.4 lm) days
follow-up visit respectively.
Table 1 Subjects baseline demographics and clinical characteris-
tic
Active treatment Placebo treatment
Age (years) 47.7 5.7 46.3 6.8
Sex (female) 20 20
Ethnic origin
Caucasian 20 20
Face countour distances (cm)
Point 1 16.888 0.991 16.967 1.099
Point 2 20.475 0.898 20.415 1.169
Point 3 21,879 1.106 22.071 0.910
Point 4 20.465 0.876 20.629 1.202
Point 5 16.187 0.889 16.894 1.141
Nose to cheekbones contour distances (cm)
Point 1 5.686 0.358 5.857 0.416
Point 2 5.808 0.354 5.993 0.426
Point 3 5.909 0.370 6.094 0.442
Point 4 6.015 0.380 6.215 0.444
Point 5 6.116 0.387 6.309 0.450
Eye to cheekbones contour distances (cm)
Point 1 2.718 0.473 2.374 0.284
Point 2 3.381 0.324 3.119 0.221
Point 3 3.985 0.244 3.831 0.242
Lip volume (cm
3
) 2.697 1.375 2.620 1.118
Wrinkle depth (lm) 338.7 70.2 311.2 55.3
Wrinkle volume (mm
3
) 5.73 1.97 5.64 1.99
*
Data are means SD or numbers.
282 ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fillerina
â
antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
T0 T3h T7
T14 T30
T0 T3 T7
T14 T30
T3h
(a)
(b)
Figure 4 (a) Before and after digital pictures. (b) Before and after digital pictures. T0, basal picture, T3, 3 h after product application,
T7/14/30, 7, 14, and 30 days after products use.
©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 283
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antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
Discussion
To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating
the filling effect of a cosmetic treatment based on six
types hyaluronic at different molecular weight in
improving facial contours and volumes. Compared to
the placebo group, and to the baseline, the active treat-
Table 2 Results of face contour lifting effect evaluation
Active treatment Placebo treatment
NMean (SD) nMean (SD)
T=7 days 20 0.443 0.286 20 0.151 0.125
T=14 days 20 1.124 0.511 20 0.157 0.153
T=30 days 20 1.326 0.649 20 0.112 0.145
The table report the mean (n=5) variation of the upper to lower
face contour distance measured as described in the Figure 1a.
Upper to lower distance variation (mm)
Active Placebo
-3,0
-2,5
-2,0
-1,5
-1,0
-0,5
0,0
0,5
T7 T14 T30 T7 T14 T30
***, ¥ ***, ¥ ***, ¥
*** *** **
Figure 5 Upper to lower distance (face contour lifting effect) var-
iation during the treatment. ***P<0.001 vs. T0, **P<0.01 vs.
T0, ¥P<0.001 active treatment vs. placebo. T0, baseline; T7,
7 days; T14, 14 days; T30, 30 days.
Table 3 Results of cheekbones volumizing/pumpling effect evalu-
ation
Active treatment Placebo treatment
NMean (SD) nMean (SD)
T=7 days 20 0.875 0.519 20 0.221 0.190
T=14 days 20 2.186 0.781 20 0.217 0.227
T=30 days 20 2.275 0.725 20 0.230 0.268
The table report the mean (n=5) variation of the nose to cheek-
bones contour distance measured as described in the Figure 1b.
-0,5
0,1
0,6
1,2
1,8
2,4
2,9
3,5
T7 T14 T30 T7 T14 T30
Active
Placebo
Nose to cheekbones contour variation (mm)
***, ¥
***, ¥
***, ¥
*** *** **
Figure 6 Nose to cheekbones contour distance (cheekbones pum-
pling effect) variation during the treatment. ***P<0.001 vs. T0,
**P<0.01 vs. T0, ¥P<0.001 active treatment vs. placebo. T0,
baseline; T7, 7 days; T14, 14 days; T30, 30 days.
Table 4 Results of cheekbones contour lifting effect evaluation
Active treatment Placebo treatment
NMean (SD) nMean (SD)
T=7 days 20 0.989 0.585 20 0.199 0.122
T=14 days 20 2.500 0.929 20 0.241 0.153
T=30 days 20 2.517 0.927 20 0.265 0.169
The table report the mean (n=3) variation of the eye cheek-
bones contour distance measured as described in the Figure 1b.
-3,5
-2,9
-2,4
-1,8
-1,2
-0,6
-0,1
0,5
T7 T14 T30 T7 T14 T30
***, ¥ ***, ¥ ***, ¥
*** *** ***
Active Placebo
Eye to cheekbones contour distance
variation (mm)
Figure 7 Eye to cheekbones contours distance (cheekbones con-
tour lifting effect) variation during the treatment. ***P<0.001
vs. T0, ¥P<0.001 active treatment vs. placebo. T0, baseline; T7,
7 days; T14, 14 days; T30, 30 days.
284 ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fillerina
â
antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
ment improved the skin sagging of both the face and
the cheekbones contours, the lips volume, and
decreased the wrinkle depth and volume. The efficacy
of the product appeared to be greater in diminishing
the cheekbones skin sagging compared to face contour
skin sagging. This relative responsiveness on different
site could be related to the skin sagging severity, and
to the extent of the two skin sites.
A slight worsening of the skin sagging was seen in
the placebo group. This slight variation could be due
to normal variation of skin sagging.
Chronoaged skin contains significantly fewer levels
of hyaluronic acid
26
and hormone replacement treat-
ment has demonstrated to increase HA concentra-
tion.
30
The stratum corneum (SC) dryness has been
proposed to play an important role in wrinkle forma-
tion.
31
Fine wrinkle appearance has been linked to the
dryness of the SC and increased appearance of fine
wrinkles are observed in low humidity compared to
Table 5 Results of the lips volumizing effect evaluation
Active treatment Placebo treatment
NMean (SD) nMean (SD)
T=0 h 20 2.697 0.307 20 2.620 0.250
T=3 h 20 2.917 0.331 20 2.563 0.235
T=7 days 20 2.886 0.297 20 2.597 0.250
T=14 days 20 2.950 0.314 20 2.581 0.246
T=30 days 20 3.019 0.339 20 2.556 0.243
The table report the mean lips volume measured as described in
the Figure 1c.
2,1
2,5
2,9
3,3
T0 T3h T7 T14 T30
Time (hours/days)
Lips volu me (cm3)
Active Placebo
*, ʄ **, § ***, ¥ ***, ¥
Figure 8 Lips volume variation during the treatment. *P<0.05
vs. T0, **P<0.01 vs. T0, ***P<0.001 vs. T0, ʄP<0.05 active
treatment vs. placebo, §P<0.01 active treatment vs. placebo,
¥P<0.001 active treatment vs. placebo. T0, baseline; T3h,
3 hours; T7, 7 days; T14, 14 days; T30, 30 days.
Table 6 Results of the wrinkle volume evaluation
Active treatment Placebo treatment
NMean (SD) nMean (SD)
T=0 h 20 5.72 0.44 20 5.64 0.44
T=7 days 20 5.13 0.44 20 5.59 0.45
T=14 days 20 4.75 0.43 20 5.61 0.45
T=30 days 20 4.30 0.41 20 5.77 0.48
3,4
4,0
4,6
5,2
5,8
6,4
T0 T7 T14 T3 0
Time (hours/days)
Wrinkle volume (mm
3
)
Active Placebo
***, §
***, ¥
***, ¥
Figure 9 Wrinkle volume variation during the treatment.
***P<0.001 vs. T0, §P<0.01 active treatment vs. placebo,
¥P<0.001 active treatment vs. placebo. T0, baseline; T3h,
3 hours; T7, 7 days; T14, 14 days; T30, 30 days.
Table 7 Results of the wrinkle depth evaluation
Active treatment Placebo treatment
NMean (SD) nMean (SD)
T=0 h 20 338.7 15.7 20 311.2 12.4
T=7 days 20 311.5 18.2 20 310.2 12.0
T=14 days 20 290.2 16.5 20 312.0 12.3
T=30 days 20 265.1 16.6 20 315.6 13.4
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
T0 T7 T14 T3 0
Time (hours/days)
Wrinkle depth (µm)
Active Placebo
**, §
***, ¥
***, ¥
Figure 10 Wrinkle depth variation during the treatment.
***P<0.001 vs. T0, **P<0.01 vs. T0, §P<0.01 active treat-
ment vs. placebo, ¥P<0.001 active treatment vs. placebo. T0,
baseline; T3h, 3 hours; T7, 7 days; T14, 14 days; T30, 30 days.
©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 285
Fillerina
â
antiaging and filling efficacy .V Nobile et al.
high humidity environments.
32
Moreover, SC water
holding capacity and elasticity decrease during chrono-
logical aging.
33
Simple moisturization by occlusion,
due to the higher molecular weight HAs contained in
the treatment used in this study, is likely to dampen
these responses. Occlusion could have also a beneficial
effect in decreasing the profibrotic signaling within the
dermis.
34
Nevertheless, improvements in skin aging biology are
also expected by the low molecular weight HAs con-
tained in the treatment used in the study. Topical appli-
cation of low molecular weight HA was demonstrated
to improve skin moisturization and elasticity associated
with significant reduction of wrinkle depth.
35
Irrespective of the potential mechanism of action, this
study provide the first evidence that the use of six types
hyaluronic acid at different molecular weight
(Fillerina
â
) is able to provide an improvement in the
appearance of chronoaged skin in subjects showing
mild-to-moderate clinical signs of skin aging on the face.
Acknowledgments
This study was founded by Labo Cosprophar AG, Basel,
Switzerland. The sponsor had no influence in the
performance, analysis, and interpretation of the study.
The authors thank the staff of Farcoderm for their
professionalism and support during study development.
Dr. Fulvio Marzatico is the guarantor for this article,
and takes responsibility for the integrity of the work as
a whole.
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a fatal disease characterised by elevated blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation. Initial vasoconstriction, proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) contribute to pathological remodelling of pulmonary arterioles in IPAH. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), components of the ECM, control cellular proliferation and differentiation, but their expression in IPAH remains elusive. In the present study, GAG expression was investigated in the lungs of patients with IPAH or control transplant donors, and expression and localisation of GAG-metabolising enzymes were analysed in vivo and in vitro. A significant increase in the expression of hyaluronic acid (HA) was detected in IPAH lungs, associated with increased hyaluronan synthase (Has)1 and decreased hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 gene expression, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. HAS1 protein localised to PASMC in vivo and increased HA deposition was observed in remodelled pulmonary arteries in IPAH. Transforming growth factor-beta1, a profibrotic growth factor, led to increased HA secretion and HAS1 expression in primary PASMC. The results demonstrate an increased hyaluronic acid content in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension lungs, associated with increased hyaluronan synthase 1 and decreased hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 gene expression. Synergistic regulation of glycosaminoglycan-metabolising enzymes in favour of accumulation may, thus, regulate pathological vascular remodelling in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension lungs.