Technical ReportPDF Available

Reflection of Classwise Attainable Competencies at primary Level: An Analysis of BRAC Bangla Textbooks

Authors:
Technical Report

Reflection of Classwise Attainable Competencies at primary Level: An Analysis of BRAC Bangla Textbooks

Abstract

The study analyzed the textbooks, storybooks and teachers guide series for primary level education named ‘Eso Pori’ through document reviews process. Based on content, direction and examples found in the books, the classwise attainable competencies are classified on three groups- ‘totally reflected’, ‘partly reflected’ and ‘not reflected’. It was found that around one-fourth of the competencies were totally reflected on class 1 materials. More than one-third of the competencies were totally reflected on class 2 materials. Around half of the competencies were partly reflected on class 3 materials. Study findings suggested more attention needed to reform and rearrange the content of the textbooks according to the terminal and classwise attainable competencies.
BRAC Research Report
August 2008
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BRAC Centre, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
Tel: 9881265, 8824180-7 (PABX), Fax: 88-02-8823542
Email: research@brac.net
Web: www.bracresearch.org
EDUCATION
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For more details about the report please contact: goutam.r@brac.net
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ABSTRACT
This study is in tended to assess the reflection of each classwise attainable competencies in Bangla
textbooks published by BRAC for grade one to grade three. The study analyzed the textbooks,
storybooks and teachers guide series for primary level education named ‘Eso Pori’ through document
reviews process. Based on content, direction and examples found in the books, the classwise
attainable competencies are classified on three groups- ‘totally reflected’, ‘partly reflected’ and ‘not
reflected’. It was found that around one-fourth of the competencies were totally reflected on class 1
materials. More than one-third of the competencies were totally reflected on class 2 materials. Around
half of the competencies were partly reflected on class 3 materials. Study findings suggested more
attention needed to reform and rearrange the content of the textbooks according to the terminal and
classwise attainable competencies.
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†hvM¨Zv wbw`©ó Kiv Av‡Q| welq¸‡jv n‡”QÑ evsjv, MwYZ, Bs‡iwR, cwi‡ek cwiwPwZ-mgvR, cwi‡ek cwiwPwZ-
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eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki cÖv_wgK wk¶v¯—i AvewZ©Z n‡”Q G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡K †K›`ª K‡iB| wk¶vµg I
wk¶vm¤úwK©Z DcKiY, wk¶K wb‡`©wkKv BZ¨vw` mewKQzB cÖYxZ n‡”Q cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡K mvg‡b †i‡L|
hw`I cÖv_wgK wk¶v¯—‡ii Rb¨ cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv cÖYxZ n‡q‡Q 1988 mv‡j, wKš‘ G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv Abymv‡i
iwPZ cvV¨cy¯—K miKvwi I †emiKvwi wk¶vcÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z Pvjy nq 1992 mvj †_‡K| A_©vr wk‡¶vcKiY
wn‡m‡e cvV¨cy¯—‡K cÖvwš—K I †kªYxwfwËK †hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi cÖwZdjb ïi“ nq ZLb †_‡K (ivq 2008)|
cÖv_wgK wk¶v, evsjv fvlv I †kªYxwfwËK †hvM¨Zv
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welqe¯‘i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡i, Ab¨ fvlvi gva¨‡g †mwU m¤¢e bq| GQvov wk¶vi cÖwZwU Kg©Kv‡Ê
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8
evsjv‡`‡ki msL¨vMwiô gvby‡li gvZ…fvlv evsjv| d‡j wk¶vi gva¨g wn‡m‡e wk¶vi wewfbœ ¯—‡i g~jZ evsjv
fvlv e¨eüZ n‡q Avm‡Q| cÖv_wgK wk¶v¯—‡i wk¶vi gva¨g wn‡m‡e evsjv fvlv we‡klfv‡e ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| KviY
GB mgqwU‡Z wkïi gvbwmK weKvk N‡U Lye `ª“Z Ges Zvi mvgvwRKvq‡bi cÖwµqvwUI ZLb †_‡KB
†Rviv‡jvfv‡e ïi“ nq| gvZ…fvlv evsjvq wk¶vMÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g wkï †hgb wewfbœ welqe¯‘i m‡½ cwiwPZ nq,
†Zgwb G fvlvq Zvi cÖKvk`¶ZvI evo‡Z _v‡K| G Kvi‡Y evsjv GKwU Avjv`v welq wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nIqvi
cvkvcvwk GwU fvlvMZ `¶Zve„w×i KvRI K‡i _v‡K|
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PviwU fvlv`¶Zvi Ici ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| cÖv_wgK wk¶v¯—i †k‡l wk¶v_©xiv cÖv_wgK ¯—‡i evsjv fvlvi Rb¨
wba©vwiZ †hvM¨Zvmg~n AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq| wk¶v_©xiv Aš—Zc‡¶ A‡b¨i cÖwgZ PwjZ
fvlvixwZ‡Z ejv K_v ï‡b g‡bi fve eyS‡Z cvi‡e; ï×, ¯úó, cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e; gyw`ªZ
cÎcwÎKv eBcy¯—K, weÁvcb weÁwß, nv‡Zi †jLv wPwVcÎ, `wjj `¯—v‡eR c‡o eyS‡Z cvi‡e Ges ¯úó
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covi PviwU I †jLvi cuvPwU welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q (cwiwkó 4)| GB cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡K Avevi †kªYx Abyhvqx AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvq wbw`©ó Kiv n‡q‡Q| G‡Z †`Lv hvq, cÖ_g †kªYxi
Rb¨ †gvU 39wU, wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ 42wU, Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ 41wU, PZz_© I cÂg †kªYxi Rb¨ h_vµ‡g 35wU I
37wU †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q (ivq 2008)|
M‡elYvi cUf~wg
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†hvM¨Zv‡K †K›`ª K‡i †Kv‡bv g~j¨vqb e¨e¯’vi D‡`¨vM †bIqv nq wb A‡bKw`b ch©š—| eª¨vK-cwiPvwjZ
we`¨vjq¸‡jv‡ZI GKB KvwiKzjvg AbymiY Kiv n‡jI †mLv‡bI 2000 mv‡ji c~e© ch©š— G ai‡bi †Kv‡bv
g~j¨vqb e¨e¯’v cÖPwjZ wQ‡jv bv|
me©cÖ_g 2000 mv‡j GWy‡Kkb IqvP M‡elYv †_‡K cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv‡K †K›`ª K‡i g~j¨vq‡bi †h D‡`¨vM MÖnY
Kiv nq, Zvi Afx¶v-DcKiY e¨envi K‡i eª¨vK M‡elYv I g~j¨vqb wefvM cÖwZ eQi eª¨vK cÖv_wgK we`¨vjq
†_‡K cÂg †kªYx DËxY© nIqv wk¶v_©x‡`i cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi AR©b hvPvB K‡i| GB hvPvB‡qi djvd‡ji gva¨‡g
eª¨vK we`¨vjq †_‡K cÖv_wgK wk¶v m¤úbœKvix wk¶v_©x‡`i AwR©Z Ávb m¤ú‡K© GKwU aviYv jvf Kiv hvq|
†`Lv †M‡Q, Lye Kg wk¶v_©xB Afx¶vi Rb¨ wbe©vwPZ 27wU †hvM¨Zvi me¸‡jv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i|
cÂg †kªYxi wk¶v_©x‡`i m¤ú‡K© aviYv jvf Kiv †M‡jI g~j¨vq‡bi w`K w`‡q Ab¨ †kªYx¸‡jv ZvB
†hvM¨ZvwfwËK g~j¨vqb e¨e¯’vi evB‡iB †_‡K hvq| ZvQvov cÖwZwU †kªYxi Rb¨ †h AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
wbw`©ó Kiv Av‡Q, Zv G g~j¨vqb e¨e¯’v Øviv cwigvc Kiv m¤¢e bq| d‡j wk¶v_©x‡`i †kªYxwfwËK AR©b
Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi AR©b m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv aviYv cvIqv hvq bv|
Gi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv‡K †K›`ª K‡i bZzb GKwU g~j¨vq‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyf~Z
nq| Zv‡Z cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi cvkvcvwk †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMxi cÖwZwU‡K a‡i GKwU Afx¶v-DcKiY ˆZwi
Kiv nq Ges G mgqB eª¨vKcÖYxZ cvV¨avivi eB, Mí avivi eB Ges wk¶K mnvwqKv‡Z Av‡jvP¨ †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
Kxfv‡e Ges KZUzKz mwbœ‡ewkZ n‡q‡Q, Zv ch©v‡jvPbv Kivi wm×vš— †bIqv nq| hvi djkÖ“wZ‡Z G M‡elYvwU
m¤úbœ Kiv nq|
9
Z‡e cy‡iv KvRwU Kivi mgq eª¨vK eB‡qi cvkvcvwk RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW© ev GbwmwUwecÖYxZ
eB¸‡jvI ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv nq Ges †mLv‡bI †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb Kxfv‡e n‡q‡Q, Zv
we‡k−lY Kiv nq| G we‡k−l‡Yi djvdj‡K †K›`ª K‡i Avjv`v GKwU c~Y©v½ M‡elYv wi‡cvU©I cÖKvk Kiv
n‡q‡Q|
M‡elYvi D‡Ïk¨
G M‡elYvi g~j D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q, cÖv_wgK ¯—‡ii evsjv wel‡qi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvmg~n eª¨vKcÖYxZ cvV¨eB, avivi eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq KZUzKz I Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv
ch©‡e¶Y I ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv|
Z_¨ we‡k−l‡Yi c×wZ
eª¨vK-cwiPvwjZ we`¨vjq¸‡jv †h‡nZz GbwmwUwe wba©vwiZ AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv‡K †K›`ª K‡i wk¶Y-wkLb
c×wZ cwiPvjbv K‡i, ZvB eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB¸‡jvI GbwmwUwei KvwiKzjvg AbymiY K‡i iwPZ nIqvi K_v|
welqwfwËK I †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡K †K›`ª K‡i wk¶v_©x‡`i g~j¨vq‡bi †h D‡`¨vM MÖnY
Kiv nq, †mLv‡b Gi GKwU Ask wn‡m‡e Afx¶v-DcKiY ˆZwii mgq †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi Av‡jv‡K GbwmwUwe I eª¨v‡Ki cvV¨eB Ges wk¶K mnvwqKv¸‡jv we‡k−lY Kiv nq| cÖwZwU
†kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cvV¨eB wKsev wk¶K mnvwqKv¸‡jv‡Z K‡ZvUzKz I Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q‡Q, Zv cÖwZ‡e`b we‡k−lY ev WKz‡g›U A¨vbvjvBwmm c×wZi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v Kiv nq|
eª¨vKcwiPvwjZ we`¨vjq¸‡jv‡Z cÖ_g †_‡K Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ eª¨vKcÖYxZ ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eBwU cvV¨eB wn‡m‡e
¯^xK…Z| GQvov cvV¨eB‡qi cvkvcvwk wKQz avivi eBI eª¨vK we`¨vj‡qi wk¶v_©x‡`i cov‡bv n‡q _v‡K|
PZz_© I cÂg †kªYx‡Z †mLv‡b GbwmwUwecÖYxZ ÔAvgvi evsjv eBÕ cov‡bv n‡q _v‡K| †m Kvi‡Y GB M‡elYvq
eª¨vKcÖYxZ cÖ_g †_‡K Z…Zxq †kªYxi ÔG‡mv cwoÕ wmwi‡Ri eB¸‡jv we‡k−lY Kiv nq| cvkvcvwk GB ch©v‡jvPbvi
†¶‡Î cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYxi wk¶v_©x‡`i Rb¨ wba©vwiZ Míavivi eB¸‡jvI we‡ePbvq ivLv nq| Ab¨w`‡K cÖ_g
†_‡K Z…Zxq †kªYxi wk¶K‡`i wb‡`©kbvi Rb¨ iwPZ wkw¶Kv mnvwqKv¸‡jv‡KI Gi AvIZvfy³ Kiv nq|
D‡j−L¨, G M‡elYvq eª¨v‡Ki Ôwkw¶Kv mnvwqKvÕ¸‡jv‡K ïay Ôwk¶K mnvwqKvÕ wn‡m‡e D‡j−L Kiv n‡e| Z‡e
Z…Zxq †kªYxi wk¶K mnvwqKv M‡elYv PjvKvjxb cvIqv bv hvIqvq Ôwk¶K cÖwk¶Y mnvwqKvÕ‡K weKí wn‡m‡e
we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| †mwU‡KI G M‡elYvq Ôwk¶K mnvwqKvÕ wn‡m‡e Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡e| Dwj−wLZ eBmg~n
Ges wk¶K mnvwqKv¸‡jvi ch©v‡jvPbvi Ici wfwË K‡iB G M‡elYvi djvdj Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| mviYx 1-
G †Kvb †kªYxi Rb¨ †Kvb DcKiY we‡k−lY Kiv n‡q‡Q, Zv †`Iqv n‡jv|
mviYx 1. we‡k−lYK…Z eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvi ZvwjKv
†kªYx eª¨vK
cÖ_g G‡mv cwo - cÖ_g fvM, Mí avivi eB, wkw¶Kv mnvwqKv
wØZxq G‡mv cwo - wØZxq fvM, Mí avivi eB, wkw¶Kv mnvwqKv
Z…Zxq G‡mv cwo - Z…Zxq fvM, wk¶K cÖwk¶Y mnvwqKv
GbwmwUwecÖYxZ eB¸‡jv †hfv‡e we‡k−lY Kiv n‡q‡Q wVK †mfv‡eB G M‡elYvi Dcv`vb¸‡jvI we‡k−lY Kiv
n‡q‡Q| g~jZ `ywU av‡c Z_¨ we‡k−lY Kiv n‡q‡Q| wba©vwiZ †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cÖ_‡g
cvV¨eB‡qi welqe¯‘ I Abykxjbx‡Z Kxfv‡e G‡m‡Q †mwU ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Gici GKB †hvM¨Zv
cvV¨eB‡qi cvkvcvwk Míavivi eB Ges wk¶K mnvwqKv‡Z Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv
n‡q‡Q| GB `y‡Uv av‡c Z_¨ we‡k−l‡Yi ci GKwU †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv K‡ZvUzKz cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q‡Q Zv we‡ePbv K‡i †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡K wZbwU fv‡M fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv‡K cÖwZdwjZ K‡i Ggb b~¨bZg msL¨K welqe¯‘ I D`vniY _vK‡j Zv‡K Ôcy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡QÕ
e‡j †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q; ïay welqe¯‘ ev D`vniY ev Abykxjb ev PP©vi wb‡`©kbv- †h †Kv‡bv GKwU _vK‡j Ges
GKB AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi GKvwaK Ask _vK‡j †m¸‡jvi g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv GKwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡j ÔAvswkK
cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡QÕ Ges welqe¯‘ ev D`vniY ev wb‡`©kbv m¤úwK©Z wKQz bv _vK‡j ÔcÖwZdwjZ nq wbÕ e‡j
†`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| wKQz wKQz AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv mivmwi cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki gva¨‡g cÖwZdwjZ Kiv
KwVb| GB AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv we‡kl K‡i nv‡Z-Kj‡g ev mivmwi Kivi Dc‡hvMx| wKš‘ eB ev
wk¶K mnvwqKvq hw` GB KvR¸‡jv Kivi wb‡`©kbv _v‡K ev mnvqK †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ _v‡K hvi gva¨‡g
wk¶v_©xiv AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv Abykxjb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡e, Zvn‡j †m¸‡jv eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq
cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q e‡j GB M‡elYvq a‡i †bIqv n‡q‡Q (ivq, 2008)|
11
djvdj
fvlvi `¶Zv PviwU- †kvbv, ejv, cov I †jLv| G PviwU `¶Zvi g‡a¨ †kvbvi KvRwU nq cÖ_‡g| Zvici
ch©vqµ‡g evwK `¶Zv¸‡jv AwR©Z n‡Z _v‡K| cÖv_wgK ¯—‡ii evsjv wel‡qi cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡KI GB
Abyµ‡g mvRv‡bv n‡q‡Q|
evsjv wel‡q G PviwU `¶Zvi g‡a¨ †kvbvi †¶‡Î wZbwU, ejv I covi †¶‡Î PviwU Ges †jLvi †¶‡Î †gvU
cuvPwU A_©vr me©‡gvU 16wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| G 16wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZwU Aek¨ me †kªYxi Rb¨
wba©viY Kiv nq wb| cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †hgb †jLv 4 I 5 cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv ivLv nq wb| Z…Zxq
†kªYx‡Z m‡e©v”P 16wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨ZvB i‡q‡Q †hLv‡b PZz_© I cÂg †kªYx‡Z i‡q‡Q h_vµ‡g 15 I 14wU K‡i
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv| cÖwZwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi GK ev GKvwaK †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q|
A‡bK‡¶‡ÎB GKvwaK †kªYxi Rb¨ GKB AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv ivLv n‡q‡Q A_©vr wewfbœ †kªYx‡Z AR©b
Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cybive„wË n‡q‡Q| wKQy wKQy †hvM¨Zvi †¶‡Î cwimi evwo‡q cieZ©x †kªYx‡Z AwaK `¶Zv
AR©‡bi my‡hvM ivLv n‡q‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K wKQy wKQy †kªYx‡Z Ggb wKQz AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv
GKwU wbw`©ó †kªYx‡Z mgvß Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges †m¸‡jv cieZ©x †kªYx‡Z cvIqv hvq wb| G‡¶‡Î nq‡Zv wk¶v_©xi
c‡¶ GB AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv c~e©eZ©x †kªYx‡ZB †m¸‡jv AR©b Kiv m¤¢e e‡j g‡b Kiv n‡q‡Q| mviYx
2-G cÖvwš—K I AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi msL¨v †`Lv‡bv n‡jv|
mviYx 2. †kªYx Abyhvqx cÖvwš—K I AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi msL¨v
†kªYx cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
cÖ_g 14 39
wØZxq 14 42
Z…Zxq 16 42
PZz_© 15 35
cÂg 14 37
GLv‡b cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi g‡ZvB †kªYx Abyhvqx AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv web¨v‡mi †¶‡Î my¯úó †Kv‡bv
avivevwnKZv cvIqv hvq bv| cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z 14wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi wecix‡Z 39wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
_vK‡jI PZz_© †kªYx‡Z 15wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi wecix‡Z me©wbgœ 35wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv ivLv n‡q‡Q|
cÂg †kªYx‡Z cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv AviI GKwU Kg‡jI AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv evwo‡q 37wU Kiv nq| m‡e©v”P
42wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cvIqv hvq wØZxq I Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z| †kªYxwfwËK cÖvwš—K I AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvi c~Y© ZvwjKv cwiwk‡ó †`Iqv n‡jv|
12
cÖ_g †kªYx
cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ †gvU 14wU cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zvi g‡a¨ †kvbv As‡k wZbwU, ejv I
cov As‡k PviwU K‡i Ges †jLv As‡k
wZbwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| G cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi wecix‡Z me©‡gvU 39wU AR©b
Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| we‡k−lY †_‡K
†`Lv hv‡”Q, eª¨v‡Ki eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq
GK-Z…Zxqvs‡kiI Kg cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv
cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| 12wU †hvM¨Zv
AvswkK cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Ges evwK 16wU
†hvM¨Zv G‡Kev‡iB cÖwZdwjZ nq wb| wb‡P
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv Kxfv‡e KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv `¶ZvwfwËKfv‡e Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡jv|
†kvbv: cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ †kvbv As‡k wZbwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ †gvU AvUwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q|
Gi g‡a¨ cÖ_gwUi Rb¨ wZbwU, wØZxqwUi Rb¨ PviwU Ges me©‡kl cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 2-G AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jv KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv †`Lv‡bv
n‡q‡Q| G‡Z †`Lv hvq, AwaKvsk AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv AvswkK ev cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
†kvbv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I
wbqg k„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf Kiv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z †gvU
wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv
n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb ˆah© mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, cÖkœ I Aby‡iva ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
h_vh_ wb‡`©kbv Qvov evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb wk¶v_©x‡`i g‡bv‡hvM I ˆah© mnKv‡i †kvbvi welqwU cvV¨eB‡Z
mivmwi cÖwZdwjZ Kiv KwVb| wk¶‡Ki AvKl©Yxq Dc¯’vcb I h_vh_ Abykxjb m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv bv
_vK‡j G †hvM¨Zvm¤úwK©Z Kg©Kvʸ‡jvi Abykxjb bvI n‡Z cv‡i| eB‡Z eY©gvjv¸‡jv _vK‡jI wb‡`©kbv bv
_vK‡j †mwU cov I ejvi †hvM¨Zv c~i‡Y mnvqK n‡Z cv‡i, wKš‘ wk¶v_©x‡`i †kvbvi `¶Zv AR©‡b Zv mnvqK
n‡e bv, hZ¶b ch©š— wk¶K †m¸‡jv gy‡L gy‡L e‡jb, wk¶v_©x‡`i‡K w`‡q ejvb Ges wk¶v_©xiv †m¸‡jv kªeY
K‡i|
eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB‡q ejv n‡q‡Q, Ôk‡ãi gva¨‡g fvlv †kLv GKwU we‡kl c×wZ| ÔG‡mv cwoÕ wmwiRwUi ïi“ †mB
we‡kl c×wZi Ici wfK‡iÕ|
1
†mLv‡b eB‡qi ïi“‡Z wk¶K‡`i Rb¨ cÖYxZ wb‡`©kbvq ejv n‡q‡Q †h,
wk¶‡Ki covi mv‡_ mv‡_ wk¶v_©xI welqe¯‘ co‡e| hv Zv‡`i kªeY`¶Zv AR©‡b mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡e|
1
G‡mv cwo, cÖ_g fvM, eª¨vK wk¶v Kg©m~wP| AvM÷ 2005
4
22
0
2
4
6
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 2. cÖ_g †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb - †kvbv
11 12 16
0
6
12
18
24
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 1. cÖ_g †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb
13
G‡¶‡Î wk¶K Kx c×wZ‡Z cvV`vb Ki‡j wk¶v_©x evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i wKsev ˆah© mnKv‡i
ïb‡e, †m m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †bB| wk¶v_©x mnvwqKv‡Z †miKg mivmwi wb‡`©kbv bv _vK‡jI †mLv‡b eY©
†kLv‡bvi Rb¨ †h ai‡bi †kªYxK¶-Kvh©wewai K_v ejv n‡q‡Q †hgbÑ nvZZvwj w`‡q kã ejv I †kvbv, GKK
I `jMZfv‡e ejv, wk¶K ejvi ci †m¸‡jvi cybive„wË Kiv BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g G †hvM¨Zv AwR©Z n‡Z cv‡i| G
ai‡bi Kvh©vejxi d‡j wk¶v_©xiv g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM I ˆah© mnKv‡i ïb‡e e‡j
Avkv Kiv hvq| myZivs, cÖ_g `ywU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv wk¶K mnvwqKvi gva¨‡g cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q ejv
hvq|
Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, Aby‡iva I cÖkœ ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv m¤úwK©Z mywbw`©ó cvV †bB eB‡Z| Z‡e wk¶K mnvwqKv‡Z
wKQy mnvqK Mí wk¶v_©x‡`i †kvbv‡bv Ges †m¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q, †h¸‡jv G †hvM¨Zv AR©‡b
AvswkK mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †mLv‡b wk¶K KZ…©K mivmwi cÖkœ Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q, hv ÔcÖkœ
ï‡b eyS‡Z cviviÕ †hvM¨Zv AR©‡b AwaK mnvqK| Z‡e Av‡`k, Dc‡`k ev Aby‡iva m¤úwK©Z welqe¯‘ cvV ev
Abykxj‡bi my‡hvM †bB|
†kvbv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³„Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z
cviv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z †gvU PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv n‡jv:
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e I Avb›` jvf Ki‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b I Mí ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡q Qov, KweZv, K‡_vcK_b, Mí, mvZ w`‡bi bvg I Qq FZzi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv
m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ †bB| mvZ w`b I Qq FZzi bvg ÔG‡mv cwoÕ wmwi‡Ri cÖ_g fv‡M †bB, Z‡e wØZxq
fv‡M i‡q‡Q| A_©vr eª¨vK we`¨vj‡qi wk¶v_©xiv GB †hvM¨Zv`y‡Uv cÖ_g †kªYxi e`‡j wØZxq †kªYx‡Z AR©b Ki‡Z
cvi‡e| Mí avivi eB¸‡jv‡Z †hme Qov, KweZv I Mí i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv G As‡ki cÖ_g `ywU †hvM¨Zv A_©vr 2.1
I 2.2-‡K cÖwZdwjZ K‡i| Qov I KweZv ï‡b wk¶v_©x‡`i Avb›` jvf Kivi welqwU A‡bKUvB wbf©i K‡i
wk¶K Kxfv‡e †mwU wk¶v_©x‡`i mvg‡b Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Qb, Zvi Ici| Qov, KweZv I Mí ï‡b wk¶v_©xiv hv‡Z
Avb›` jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i, eª¨v‡Ki wk¶K mnvwqKvq †m e¨vcv‡i my¯úófv‡e wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv Av‡Q| d‡j ejv
hvq, cÖ_g `y‡Uv †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
†kvbv 3: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †mwU n‡”Q:
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
†kvbvi †¶‡Î msL¨v I msL¨vevPK k‡ãi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †Kv_vq, †m welqwU ¯úó bq| msL¨v I msL¨vevPK k‡ãi
cv_©K¨ wb‡qI †Kv‡bv wKQz eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKv‡Z ejv bB| D`vniY¯^iƒcÑ GKRb wk¶v_©xi mvg‡b 12
msL¨vwU D”PviY Ki‡j wk¶v_©x Kxfv‡e eyS‡e †h GLv‡b Ô12Õ ejv n‡”Q bvwK Ôev‡ivÕ ejv n‡”Q? †kªYxwfwËK
AR©b Dc‡hvMx G †hvM¨ZvwU Gw`K w`‡q AviI mywbw`©ó Kiv `iKvi|
eª¨vKcÖYxZ ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡q G m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv cvV †bB| Z‡e GK †_‡K wÎk ch©š— msL¨v¸‡jv gy‡L gy‡L
¸b‡Z †kLv‡bvi Rb¨ wk¶K mnvwqKvq wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q| wKš‘ msL¨vevPK kãm¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †mLv‡b
†bB| d‡j G †hvM¨ZvwU ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q ejv hv‡e bv|
ejv: cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ ejvi PviwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨
†gvU 12wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ cÖ_g
`y‡Uv cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi R PviwU K‡i, Z…ZxqwUi Rb¨
wZbwU Ges me©‡kl cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b
Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 3-G AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jv KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv †`Lv‡bv
n‡q‡Q| eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq Lye Kg
†hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| AwaKvsk †hvM¨ZvB
AvswkK cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
ejv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg
k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv ¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I e¨ÄbaŸwbmg~n ¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 †QvU †QvU cÖkœ Ki‡Z I cÖ‡kœi DËi ej‡Z cvi‡e|
evsjv eY©gvjv m¤úwK©Z cÖ‡qvRbxq cvV i‡q‡Q ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z| eBwU mvRv‡bv n‡q‡Q kãvbyµwgK c×wZ‡Z|
Z‡e kã ¯úó I ï×fv‡e cvV Kiv ev †kLvi welqwU A‡bKvs‡k wbf©i Ki‡Q wk¶‡Ki e¨w³MZ `¶Zvi Ici|
D`vniY¯^iƒc, AwaKvsk‡¶‡ÎB ÔBÕ-‡K n«¯^-B co‡Z †`Lv hvq, hw`I GB e‡Y©i ï× D”PviY n‡e ïay ÔBÕ ejv|
†Kbbv, Ôn«¯^Õ welqwU GLv‡b ÔBÕ-‡K Kg †Rvi w`‡q ev gyL †ewk bv Ly‡j ev Lv‡Uv ev †QvU K‡i D”PviY Kivi
cÖwZ Bw½Z †`q, hv wk¶v_©xiv wk¶‡Ki wVK wb‡`©kbv ev Abykxjb Kivi gva¨‡g wkL‡e, cy‡iv Ôn«¯^-BÕ ejvi
gva¨‡g bq| Avevi A‡bK †¶‡Î ÔPÕ, ÔQÕ, ÔmÕ ev ÔkÕ eY©¸‡jv Abyiƒc ¯úófv‡e D”PvwiZ nq bv| G e¨vcv‡i
cÖ‡qvRbxq wb‡`©kbv bv _vK‡j G `y‡Uv †hvM¨Zv AR©b Kiv KwVb| G wel‡q ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡q wb‡`©kbv bv
_vK‡jI wkw¶Kv mnvwqKvq ejv Av‡QÑ Ô...eY© cÖZxK wVKfv‡e wP‡b I evK¨ MVb ï× I mwVKfv‡e Ki‡Z
cviv Ges mwVK AvKv‡i ï× iƒ‡c wjL‡Z cviv G K¬v‡m mKj Kv‡R g~j j¶¨ _vK‡e|Õ d‡j Avkv Kiv hvq, eB
Ges wk¶K mnvwqKvi wb‡`©kbv Abymv‡i wk¶K ï× I mwVKfv‡e cvV`vb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡eb|
Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv cvV †bB| Z‡e wk¶K m‡PZb _vK‡j eª¨v‡Ki avivi eB¸‡jv †_‡K
wk¶v_©xiv c‡iv¶fv‡e G †hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨w`‡K †QvU †QvU cÖkœ Ki‡Z Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi ej‡Z
cvivi `¶ZvwU A‡bKUvB Abykxj‡bi Ici wbf©ikxj| eB‡Z cÖkœ Ki‡Z cviv Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi ejv m¤úwK©Z
†Kv‡bv mivmwi cvV †bB| Z‡e wk¶K mnvwqKvq ¯úófv‡e wk¶v_©x‡`i Mí, Qov ev cvVm¤úwK©Z wewfbœ cÖkœ
Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q, hvi gva¨‡g wk¶v_©xiv cÖkœ Ki‡Z cvivi `¶Zv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| wKš‘ wk¶v_©xiv †QvU
†QvU cÖkœ Ki‡Z cvi‡e wK-bv, †m m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †mLv‡b †bB| A_©vr †`Lv hv‡”Q, cÖkœ Ki‡Z cvivi
Ici †Kv‡bv ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv nq wb|
2
6
4
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 3. cÖ_g †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb - ejv
ejv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ey‡S ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 wb‡Ri cwiPq, evev-gvi cwiPq Ges mncvVx‡`i bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov, KweZv I Mí ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
Dc‡ii PviwU †hvM¨Zvi welqe¯‘ eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z †bB| wk¶K mnvwqKvq wb‡Ri I evev-gvi cwiPq
ejvi welqwU wk¶v_©x‡`i PP©v Kiv‡bvi wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv Av‡Q| Z‡e mncvVx‡`i bvg ejvi wel‡q †Kv‡bv
wb‡`©kbv †bB| Qov, KweZv I M‡íi †¶‡Î ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡q G ai‡bi †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ bv _vK‡jI Mí avivi
eB¸‡jv‡Z ch©vß Qov I i‡q‡Q, KweZvi cwigvY Kg| Z‡e mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I Qq FZzi bvg
m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv cvV †bB eª¨v‡Ki †Kv‡bv ai‡bi eB‡ZB| A_©vr Dchy©³ †hvM¨Zvm¤úwK©Z welqe¯‘ ÔAvgvi
evsjv eBÕ-‡Z _vK‡jI eª¨vK eB I wb‡`©kbvq cÖ_g `ywUi †ewkifvM Ask Av‡Q ejv hvq| Z‡e †kl `ywU
†hvM¨Zvi †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ †bB|
ejv 3: mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï×, cÖwgZ, PwjZ
evsjvq K_v ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
3.1 cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejv Abykxjb Ki‡e|
3.2 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cï-cvwL ev¯—‡e I Qwe †`‡L bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ is wP‡b i‡Oi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
Dchy©³ wZbwU †hvM¨Zvi cÖ_gwU cy‡ivcywi AbykxjbwfwËK| wØZxqwUi wKQy Ask AwR©Z n‡e ev¯—e Rxe‡b
Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g| G `ywU †hvM¨Zvi welqe¯‘¸‡jv ZvB eB‡q mivmwi cÖwZdwjZ Kiv KwVb| Z‡e cvV¨eB ev
wk¶K mnvwqKvq G m¤úwK©Z my¯úó wb‡`©kbv _vKv `iKvi| eª¨vK eB‡Z cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejv
Abykxjb Kiv Ges ev¯—‡e cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cï-cvwLi bvg ej‡Z cviv m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv
wb‡`©kbv †bB| Z‡e Qwe †`‡L Gme e¯‘i bvg ejvi ch©vß Abykxjb i‡q‡Q|
wewfbœ is †Pbv-m¤úwK©Z welqe¯‘ i‡q‡Q eB‡Z; Z‡e Zv Ach©vß| †h‡nZz eB¸‡jv iwOb, ZvB wk¶K mnvwqKvq
my¯úó wb‡`©kbv _vK‡j Avjv`v †Kv‡bv cvV ev welqe¯‘ QvovB wk¶v_©x‡`i wewfbœ is wP‡b †m¸‡jvi bvg ej‡Z
cvivi Abykxjb Kiv‡bv †h‡Zv|
ejv 4: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡”Q:
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ej‡Z cvi‡e|
16
c~‡e© we‡k−lYK…Z †kvbv 3 As‡ki gš—e¨ GLv‡bI cÖ‡hvR¨| †h †Kv‡bv AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi GKwU Ab¨Zg
ˆewkó¨ n‡”QÑ wk¶v_©xiv †mwU AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡Q wK-bv, Zv mn‡R cwigvc Kiv hv‡e| wKš‘ G †hvM¨ZvwU
cwigvc Kiv KwVb| KviY wk¶v_©x †Kv‡bv msL¨v ev msL¨vevPK D”PviY Ki‡j ev ej‡j cix¶‡Ki c‡¶
wbwðZ nIqv KwVb †h wk¶v_©x †KvbwU †f‡e DËi w`‡”Q| †m‡¶‡Î wk¶v_©x‡K cybivq wRÁvmv K‡i Rvb‡Z n‡e
†h †m †KvbwU †f‡e DËi Ki‡Q Ges †mwUI h_vh_ bv nIqvi m¤¢vebv cÖPzi| †mRb¨ AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
wn‡m‡e msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã †kvbv I ejvi PvB‡Z cov I †jLvi Rb¨ AwaK Dc‡hvMx|
cov: cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ cov As‡k PviwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi
Rb¨ †gvU 10wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨
cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ wZbwU K‡i, wØZxqwUi Rb¨
cuvPwU Ges kl `y‡Uv cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ GKwU K‡i
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 4 †_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q,
eª¨v‡Ki eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq A‡a©K cÖvwš—K †hvM¨ZvB
cÖwZdwjZ nq wb|
cov 1: evsjv fvlvi MVb cÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg
k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨
wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý e‡Y©i mv‡_ hy³ K‡i co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ co‡Z cvi‡e|
ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z cÖ_g I Z…Zxq †hvM¨Zvi welqe¯‘ _vK‡jI Kvi wPý e‡Y©i mv‡_ hy³ K‡i co‡Z cvivi
†Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ †bB| wk¶K mnvwqKvq G wel‡q †jLvi wb‡`©kbv Avm‡jI covi welqwU Av‡m wb| d‡j
eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z wØZxq †hvM¨ZvwU cÖwZdjwZ nq wb ejv hvq|
cov 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i c‡o g~jfve eyS‡Z
cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ cuvPwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 Qov, KweZv I Mí co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv eB †`‡L Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg eB †`‡L co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg eB †`‡L co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.5 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cïcvwL I Ab¨vb¨ wRwbmc‡Îi bvg co‡Z cvi‡e|
eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z cÂg †hvM¨ZvwU Qvov Ab¨¸‡jvi †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ †bB| G eB‡q h‡_ó cwigv‡Y
wewfbœ dyj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cvwL I Ab¨vb¨ wRwbmc‡Îi bvg †`Iqv _vK‡jI mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi
bvg I Qq FZzi bvg ÔG‡mv cwoÕ ev Míavivi eB¸‡jv †Kv‡bvwU‡ZB †bB| d‡j G `y‡Uv †hvM¨Zv cÖwZdwjZ nq
Ggb †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ ev wb‡`©kbv eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKv‡ZI †bB| Míavivi eB¸‡jv‡Z ch©vß Qov, KweZv I
4
1
5
0
2
4
6
8
10
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 4. cÖ_g †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb - cov
i‡q‡Q| Z‡e †mLv‡b Qov, KweZv I cov‡bvi Abykxjb h‡_ó _vK‡jI Ave„wË Kivi Abykxjb ch©vß
bq| wk¶K mnvwqKv‡Z evievi covi wb‡`©kbv _vK‡jI Ave„wË Kivi wb‡`©kbv h_vh_fv‡e Av‡m wb, hw`I
wk¶v_©x‡`i G †hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Ki‡Z n‡j wk¶‡Ki h_vh_ wb‡`©kbv cÖ‡qvRb |
cov 3: evsjv fvlvi gy`ªv¶i I —v¶i ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z
mg_© nIqv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡”Q:
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv eY© I kã co‡Z cvi‡e|
¯^vfvweKfv‡eB GKRb wk¶v_©xi wb‡Ri †jLv eY© I kã co‡Z cvivi K_v| mvaviYfv‡e a‡i †bIqv nq †h,
wk¶v_©x †h welq¸‡jv wjL‡e, cieZ©x mg‡q †m¸‡jv †m co‡ZI m¶g n‡e| KviY fvlvi PviwU †gŠwjK
`¶Zv‡K µgvbymv‡i mvRv‡j †kvbv, ejv, cov I †jLv A_©vr †jLvi welqwU mevi †k‡l Av‡m| †m wn‡m‡e
†jLvi Av‡MB wk¶v_©x co‡Z wk‡L hvIqvi K_v| Avi wjL‡Z cvi‡j cieZx© mg‡q †mwU co‡Z cviviI K_v|
†m‡¶‡Î G †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨ZvwU cÖvmw½KZv nvivq| eª¨v‡Ki I cvV¨ Dfq avivi †Kv‡bv
eB‡ZB wk¶v_©x‡`i wb‡Ri †jLv eY© I co‡Z cvivi †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó Abykxjb †bB| wk¶K mnvwqKvqI G
m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv †bB| wk¶K m‡PZbfv‡e wk¶v_©x‡`i †jLv‡bvi ci Zv cov‡bvi Abykxjb bv
Ki‡j G †hvM¨Zvm¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv Kg©KvÊ bvI n‡Z cv‡i| myZivs, †hvM¨ZvwU eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB ev wk¶K
mnvwqKvq cÖwZdwjZ nq wb|
cov 4: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡jv:
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã co‡Z cvi‡e|
GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v covi welqe¯‘ _vK‡jI msL¨vevPK covi †Kv‡bv cvV eª¨v‡Ki eB‡Z †bB|
wk¶K mnvwqKvq †Kej wÎk ch©š— ¸Yvi wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv n‡q‡Q, hv AvswkK cÖwZdjb‡KB wb‡`©k K‡i|
†jLv: cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ †jLv As‡k wZbwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi
Rb¨ †gvU bqwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨
cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ cuvPwU K‡i, wØZxqwUi Rb¨ wZb
Ges †kl cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 5 Abymv‡i, gvÎ GKwU †hvM¨Zv eª¨v‡Ki
eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Ges QqwU
†hvM¨Zv †gv‡UI cÖwZdwjZ nq wb|
†jLv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv
cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨
cuvPwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv n‡jv:
1
3
6
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 5. cÖ_g †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb - †jLv
18
1.1 ¯úó I mwVK AvK…wZ‡Z evsjv eY©gvjv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý w`‡q e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ †`‡L †`‡L wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 eY© w`‡q kã ˆZwi K‡i wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 hwZ wPý wP‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡q evsjv eY©gvjv ¯úó I mwVK AvK…wZ‡Z †jLv I cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki †`‡L †`‡L †jLvi
welqe¯‘ _vK‡jI evwK welq¸‡jvi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv cvV †bB| Z‡e wk¶K mnvwqKvq Míavivi eB¸‡jvi Ici wfwË
K‡i †hme Abykxjb I Kg©KvÊ †hgb- m„Rbkxj †jLv ev Mí †jLv BZ¨vw` i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv h_vh_fv‡e
Abykxjb Kiv n‡j wk¶v_©xiv G †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq| wk¶K mnvwqKvq Kvi
wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i †jLv, eY© w`‡q kã ˆZwi Kiv wKsev hwZ wPý wP‡b †jLvi Rb¨ mivmwi I my¯úó
wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv _vK‡j Mí avivi Kg©Kv‡Êi ga¨ w`‡q wk¶v_©xiv mn‡RB G †hvM¨Zv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 wb‡Ri bvg I evev-gvi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 Qq FZzi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
eª¨v‡Ki eB¸‡jv‡Z Dchy©³ wZbwU †hvM¨Zvi †Kv‡bvwUiB cvV ev welqe¯‘ †bB| †Kej wk¶K mnvwqKvi cÖ¯‘wZ
c‡e© wb‡Ri bvg I evev-gvi bvg gy‡L ejv‡bvi wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q, wKš‘ †m¸‡jv †jLvi †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †bB|
mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I Qq FZzi bvgm¤úwK©Z cvV i‡q‡Q wØZxq †kªYxi eB‡q| d‡j ejv hvq, eª¨vKcÖYxZ
eB I wkw¶Kv mnvwqKvq G †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv cÖwZdwjZ nq wb|
†jLv 3: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡jv:
3.1 evsjvfvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kãm¤úwK©Z †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv eª¨vK eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q‡Q wK-bv, †m m¤ú‡K© cov 4 As‡k †h gš—e¨ Kiv n‡q‡Q, †mwU G As‡ki Rb¨I cÖ‡hvR¨|
†jLv 4: ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv I g‡bvfve ï× I ¯úó fvlvq wj‡L cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv †bB|
†jLv 5: mvaviY wPwV Ges `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cviv Ges wewfbœ dig c~iY Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡bI cÖ_g †kªYxi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv †bB|
19
wØZxq †kªYx
wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †gvU 14wU cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q| G 14wU cÖvwš—
K †hvM¨Zvi g‡a¨ †kvbv As‡k wZbwU, ejv
I cov As‡k PviwU K‡i Ges †jLv As‡k
wZbwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| G 14wU
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi wecix‡Z me©‡gvU 42wU
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 6
†_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q, AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU weivUmsL¨K
†hvM¨Zv G‡Kev‡iB cÖwZdwjZ nq wb, hw`I
m‡e©v”P 17wU †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q‡Q| wb‡P AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv Kxfv‡e KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv `¶ZvwfwËKfv‡e Dc¯’vcb
Kiv n‡jv|
†kvbv: wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †kvbv As‡k wZbwU cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ †gvU AvUwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ wZbwU K‡i,
wØZxqwUi Rb¨ PviwU Ges †kl cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨
GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 7 Abymv‡i,
eª¨vK eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq AwaKvsk †hvM¨ZvB cy‡ivcywi
ev AvswkKfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
†kvbv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg
k„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf Kiv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYx‡Z †gvU wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.2 evsjv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb ˆah© mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, cÖkœ, wb‡`©k I Aby‡iva ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi m‡½ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z 1.1 I 1.2 As‡k evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM I ˆah© mnKv‡i
†kvbvi welqwU _vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z eY©gvjvi e`‡j hy³e‡Y©i welqwU G‡m‡Q| A_©vr wk¶v_©xiv cÖ_g
†kªYx‡Z eY©gvjv †kvbvi `¶Zv AR©b Kivi ci wØZxq †kªYx‡Z hy³eY© †kvbvi `¶Zv AR©b Ki‡e| 1.3
†hvM¨ZvwU‡Z Ôwb‡`©kÕ AskwU AwZwi³ †hvM n‡q‡Q|
G wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi welqe¯‘ ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z _vK‡jI Kx Ki‡j ev †Kvb ai‡bi Kg©Kv‡Êi
ga¨ w`‡q wk¶v_©xiv evsjv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM I ˆah© mnKv‡i ïb‡e, †m m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †bB|
d‡j wk¶v_©xiv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb wkL‡jI †m¸‡jv g‡bv‡hvM I ˆah© mnKv‡i wkL‡Q wK-bv, †mUv ejv KwVb|
G¸‡jv GKBm‡½ weg~Z© †hvM¨ZvI e‡U| GKvi‡Y G¸‡jvi mwVK cÖwZdjb ZvB cy‡ivcywi wk¶‡Ki e¨w³MZ
`¶Zvi Ici wbf©i Ki‡e| Ab¨w`‡K cy‡iv eB‡qi wewfbœ cvV ev welqe¯‘ †_‡K Z…Zxq †hvM¨ZvwU cÖwZdwjZ
nq, Z‡e †mLv‡bI ¯úó wb‡`©kbv bv _vKvq wk¶‡Ki c‡¶ †m¸‡jv wk¶v_©x‡`i m‡PZbfv‡e †kLv‡bv m¤¢e bvI
n‡Z cv‡i|
17
11 14
0
6
12
18
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 6. wØZxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb
33
2
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 7. wØZxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb - †kvbv
20
†kvbv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³„Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z
cviv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYx‡Z †gvU PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv n‡jv:
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cvi‡e I Avb›` jvf Ki‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b, Mí I eY©bv ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z 2.1-G Qov I KweZv ï‡b eyS‡Z cvivi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI wØZxq
†kªYx‡Z †mwU‡Z Ôg~jfveÕ eyS‡Z cvivi K_vI ejv n‡q‡Q| 2.2-G K‡_vcK_b I M‡íi mv‡_ ÔeY©bvÕ AskwU
bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q| 2.3-G mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg †hvM¨Zvi avivevwnK cÖwµqv wn‡m‡e evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg
†kvbvi †hvM¨ZvwU hy³ n‡q‡Q| 2.4 †hvM¨Zvq †Kv‡bv cwieZ©b Av‡m wb A_©vr G †hvM¨ZvwU `yB †kªYxi Rb¨B
mgvbfv‡e cÖ‡hvR¨|
eª¨v‡Ki cvV¨avivi ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z ch©vß Qov, KweZv, Mí I eY©bv _vK‡jI K‡_vcK_b †bB| GQvov evsjv
evi gv‡mi bvg I Qq FZzi bvg m¤úwK©Z GKwU cvV i‡q‡Q| Míavivi eB¸‡jv‡Z ch©vß Mí, eY©bv _vK‡jI
Qov I KweZvi cwigvY Kg Ges †mLv‡b K‡_vcK_b-m¤úwK©Z welqe¯‘ †bB| wk¶K mnvwqKvq G `yB avivi
eB‡qi welqe¯‘ Kxfv‡e cov‡bv n‡e, †m m¤úwK©Z wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q| cvV¨avivi eB‡q mivmwi Qov I KweZvi
g~jfve eyS‡Z cvivi wel‡q †Kv‡bv Abykxjb bv _vK‡jI wk¶K mnvwqKvq †hfv‡e wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv n‡q‡Q, †m
Abyhvqx Abykxjb Kiv‡bv n‡j wk¶v_©xiv G †hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| GQvov Qov I KweZv Ave„wË K‡i I
wewfbœ `‡j fvM K‡i †hfv‡e cov‡bvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q, Zv‡Z wk¶v_©xiv Avb›` jvf Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv
Kiv hvq| A_©vr G As‡k K‡_vcK_‡bi AskwU Qvov evwK welq¸‡jv cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
†kvbv 3: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYx‡Z GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †mwU n‡”Q:
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK ï‡b eyS‡Z cvivi
†hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI GB †kªYx‡Z †mwUi cwiwa evwo‡q GKk Kiv n‡q‡Q|
msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kãm¤úwK©Z wbw`©ó †Kv‡bv cvV †bB
eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB‡Z| Z‡e wew”Qbœfv‡e wKQy msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
kã D‡V G‡m‡Q †h¸‡jv †_‡K wk¶v_©xiv AvswkKfv‡e G
†hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K
GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv m¤úwK©Z
†Kv‡bv wbw`©ó cvV bv _vKv‡Z evsjv wel‡qi gva¨‡g wk¶v_©xiv
G †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi AR©b Ki‡Z m¶g n‡e bv| GQvov evsjv
wk¶K mnvwqKv‡ZI G m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv †bB|
ejv: wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ ejv As‡k PviwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨
†gvU 14wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ cÖ_g
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ PviwU K‡i, wØZxqwUi Rb¨ QqwU, Z…ZxqwUi Rb¨ wZbwU Ges †kl cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨
6
44
0
2
4
6
8
10
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 8. wØZxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb - ejv
21
GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| GLv‡b eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB ev wk¶v mnvwqKvq AwaKvsk †hvM¨Zv AvswkK ev
cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
ejv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv I cÖ‡qvRbxq hy³eY© ¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I e¨ÄbaŸwbmg~n ¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 web‡qi m‡½ Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 ey‡S cÖkœ Ki‡Z I c~Y©ev‡K¨ cÖ‡kœi DËi ej‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z 1.1-G ïay evsjv eY©gvjv _vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx †_‡K ÔcÖ‡qvRbxq
hy³eY©Õ; AskwU AwZwi³ hy³ n‡q‡Q| 1.2 †hvM¨ZvwU ûeû cÖ_g †kªYx †_‡K G‡m‡Q| cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z 1.3
†hvM¨Zvq ïay Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab Kivi K_v ejv _vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z G‡m †mLv‡b Ôweb‡qi m‡½Õ Aby‡iva
I m‡¤^vab Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| 1.4 †hvM¨Zvq cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z †QvU †QvU cÖkœ Kivi K_v I DËi †`Iqvi K_v
ejv n‡q‡Q| G †hvM¨ZvwU wØZxq †kªYx‡Z cwiewZ©Z n‡q ey‡S cÖkœ Kiv I c~Y©ev‡K¨ DËi †`Iqvi K_v ejv
n‡q‡Q| A_©vr cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z GB As‡k wk¶v_©x‡`i KvQ †_‡K c~Y©ev‡K¨ DËi Avkv Kiv nq wb|
eª¨v‡Ki cvV¨avivi ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I e¨ÄbaŸwb m¤ú‡K© Avjv`v †Kv‡bv cvV bv _vK‡jI
hy³eY© Abykxj‡bi e¨e¯’v i‡q‡Q| GQvov wk¶K mnvwqKvq Kxfv‡e hy³eY© Abykxjb Kiv‡Z n‡e, †m m¤ú‡K©
wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q| web‡qi m‡½ Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab Kivi wel‡q mivmwi Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ †bB| Ab¨w`‡K ey‡S
cÖkœ Kivi g‡Zv †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ ev wb‡`©kbv bv _vK‡jI c~Y©ev‡K¨ cÖ‡kœi DËi ejvi Rb¨ h‡_ó Abykxjbx
i‡q‡Q|
ejv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ey‡S ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ QqwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 wb‡Ri wVKvbv I cwiwPZ cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 wb‡Ri gZ K‡i Mí ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 wb‡Ri K_vq cwiwPZ welq eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e I K‡_vcK_‡b Ask wb‡Z cvi‡e|
2.5 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg ci ci ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ï×fv‡e ej‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z ïay wk¶v_©xi wb‡Ri cwiPq ejvi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI G †kªYx‡Z †mwUi
†¶Î evwo‡q wk¶v_©xi wVKvbv ejvi †hvM¨Zv mwbœ‡ewkZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| cvkvcvwk wk¶v_©x wb‡Ri cwiwPZ cwi‡ek
m¤ú‡K© hv‡Z ej‡Z cv‡i, †m †hvM¨ZvI ivLv n‡q‡Q| 2.2 †hvM¨Zvq cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z Qov I KweZv ej‡Z cvi‡e
_vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z †mwU‡K Ave„wË Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| cvkvcvwk 2.3 †hvM¨Zvq wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i Mí
ej‡Z ejv n‡q‡Q| 2.4 †hvM¨ZvwU cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z wQ‡jv bv, G †kªYx‡Z bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q| cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z mßv‡ni
mvZ w`b I Qq FZzi bvg ejvi K_v D‡j−L _vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z †m¸‡jv cici ejvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q|
22
A_©vr cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z G¸‡jv ejvi †¶‡Î avivevwnKZv Avek¨K bv n‡jI wØZxq †kªYxi †¶‡Î †mwU cÖ‡hvR¨| Qq
FZzi bvg cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z ejvi K_v G‡m‡Q, wKš‘ wØZxq †kªYx‡Z Zv ï×fv‡e ejvi †hvM¨Zv wn‡m‡e G‡m‡Q|
wb‡Ri wVKvbv ejv m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv cvV eª¨v‡Ki eB¸‡jv‡Z bv _vK‡jI cwiwPZ cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© ejvi A‡bK
Abykxjb i‡q‡Q| GQvov Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Kiv, wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i ejv, cwiwPZ welq eY©bv Kivi
Abykxjb I welqe¯‘ i‡q‡Q g~jZ Míavivi eB¸‡jv‡Z Ges wk¶K mnvwqKvq G m¤úwK©Z wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q|
Z‡e †mLv‡b K‡_vcK_‡bi welqwU Abycw¯’Z| mßv‡ni mvZ w`b, evsjv evi gvm I Qq FZzi bv‡gi welqe¯‘
i‡q‡Q eB‡Z Ges cvV¨avivi eB‡qi welqe¯‘¸‡jv Kxfv‡e cov‡Z n‡e †m vcv‡i wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q wk¶K
mnvwqKvq|
ejv 3: mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï×, cÖwgZ, PwjZ
evsjvq K_v ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
3.1 cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cï-cvwL †`‡L Zv‡`i eY©bv w`‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ i‡Oi dzj-dj, RxeRš‘, MvQcvjv I Ab¨vb¨ wRwbmc‡Îi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z 3.1 As‡k cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejvi Abykxjb _vK‡jI GLv‡b
wk¶v_©xiv mivmwi A_©vr ev¯—eRxe‡b K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| 3.2-G cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv,
RxeRš‘ BZ¨vw` †`‡L cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z ïay Zv‡`i bvg ejvi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI G †kªYx‡Z †m¸‡jvi eY©bv †`Iqvi
K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| 3.3 †hvM¨ZvwU G As‡k bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q|
cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejvi welqwU g~jZ wbf©i K‡i Abykxj‡bi Ici| GwU wk¶v_©xi e¨w³MZ m‡PZbZv
ev `¶Zvi Ici wbf©i Kivi PvB‡Z wk¶‡Ki wb‡`©kbv GLv‡b †ewk ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| wk¶‡Ki wb‡`©kµ‡g ev
mnvqZvq wk¶v_©x Av‡¯— Av‡¯— cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejv Abykxjb Ki‡e Ges GKmgq Zv Zvi Af¨v‡m
cwiYZ n‡e| eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB‡Z cwiwPZ I wewfbœ i‡Oi dzj-dj, RxeRš‘, MvQcvjv ev Ab¨vb¨ wRwbmc‡Îi
bvgm¤úwK©Z welqe¯‘ _vK‡jI eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejvi welqe¯‘ ev Abykxjbx
†bB| eª¨v‡Ki wk¶K mnvwqKvq hw`I ejv n‡q‡Q Ô...cvV¨avivi K¬v‡m fvlvi mwVKZv I ï×Zvi w`‡K j¶¨
†i‡L wewfbœ wkLb Kvh©vewj cwiPvjbv Kiv n‡e|Õ
2
wKš‘ †mLv‡b wk¶v_©xiv Kxfv‡e cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v
ej‡e, †m m¤úwK©Z wb‡`©kbv †bB|
ejv 4: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡”Q:
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ej‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z G As‡k GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨vevPK †kLvi †hvM¨Zv
_vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z †mwU‡K ewa©Z K‡i GKk ch©š— Kiv n‡q‡Q|
2
wkw¶Kv mnvwqKv, gvZ…fvlv evsjv, wØZxq †kªYx, eª¨vK wk¶v Kg©m~wP, XvKv| RyjvB 2007
23
G m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó cvV ev welqe¯‘ eª¨vK eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq †bB| d‡j wk¶v_©x‡`i c‡¶ †hvM¨ZvwU
AR©b Kiv KwVb| MwYZ wel‡qi gva¨‡g G †hvM¨Zv AwR©Z n‡Z cv‡i|
cov: wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ cov As‡k PviwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi
Rb¨ †gvU bqwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨
cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ wZbwU, wØZxqwUi Rb¨ PviwU,
Z…Zxq I PZz_©wUi Rb¨ GKwU K‡i AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
i‡q‡Q| GLv‡b eª¨vK eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq cÖvq A‡a©K
†hvM¨ZvB cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ nq wb|
cov 1: evsjv fvlvi MVb cÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg
k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨
wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯^‡i, ¯úó I ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 hy³eY© †f‡O co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: 1.1 †hvM¨Zvq cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z ïay eY©gvjv covi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z
†m¸‡jv kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯^‡i, ¯úó I ï×fv‡e covi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| Av‡Mi †kªYxi Kvi wP‡ýi e`‡j wØZxq
†kªYx‡Z 1.2 As‡k hy³eY© †f‡O covi †hvM¨Zv G‡m‡Q| cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki I evK¨ cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y covi K_v
ejv n‡q‡Q 1.3 As‡k, hv cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y covi K_v ejv nq wb|
Avjv`vfv‡e evsjv eY©gvjv kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯^‡i, ¯úó I ï×fv‡e covi welqe¯‘ †bB eª¨v‡Ki eB‡Z| G welq¸‡jv
cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z wQ‡jv| Z‡e AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvq †h ¯úóZv ev ï×Zvi Ici ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q, †m
m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †bB eB‡Z| wk¶K mnvwqKvq ÔmwVKZv I ï×ZvÕi Ici wbw`©ó wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv
Av‡Q| GQvov hy³eY© †f‡O covi welqe¯‘ I Abykxjbx eB‡Z _vK‡jI Zv Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e Kg| cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki
kã I evK¨ cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvivi welqwU wk¶‡Ki wb‡`©kbvi Ici A‡bKUvB wbf©i K‡i| †mLv‡b eB
ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq ï×Zvi K_v ejv n‡jI cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Yi K_v ejv nq wb|
cov 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i c‡o g~jfve eyS‡Z
cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, msjvc cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y eB †`‡L Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg eB †`‡L co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg eB †`‡L ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: 2.1 †hvM¨Zvq cÖ_g kªYxi Zzjbvq GLv‡b ÔmsjvcÕ AskwU AwZwi³ hy³ n‡q‡Q|
cvkvcvwk GLv‡b Qov, KweZv I Mí cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y covi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z ïay mßv‡ni mvZ
234
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 9. wØZxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb - cov
24
w`‡bi bvg covi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI G †kªYx‡Z Gi cvkvcvwk evi gv‡mi bvg covi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| Qq FZzi
bvg cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z eB †`‡L covi K_v _vK‡jI GLv‡b ï×fv‡e covi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q|
Av‡MB ejv n‡q‡Q, eB ev wk¶K wb‡`©wkKvq cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y cov ev Abykxj‡bi w`Kwb‡`©kbv †bB| GwU wbf©i
Ki‡Q wk¶‡Ki wbR¯^ B”Qv I `¶Zvi Ici| Z‡e cÖ_g `ywU †hvM¨Zv AR©‡b mnvqK welqe¯‘¸‡jv †gvUvgywU
eB‡Z _vK‡jI msjvc †bB| eB †`‡L Ave„wË Kivi Abykxj‡bi my‡hvM i‡q‡Q| mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg, evsjv
evi gv‡mi bvg Ges Qq FZzi bvgm¤úwK©Z welqe¯‘ _vK‡j †m¸‡jvh ï×fv‡e covi wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q|
cov 3: evsjv fvlvi gy`ªv¶i I —v¶i ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z
mg_© nIqv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡”Q:
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv I A‡b¨i ¯úó †jLv co‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z ïay wb‡Ri †jLv eY© I covi K_v _vK‡jI GLv‡b ÔA‡b¨i ¯úó
†jLvÕ covi †hvM¨ZvwU hy³ Kiv n‡q‡Q|
mvaviYZ wb‡Ri †jLv mevB co‡Z cvi‡e e‡j g‡b Kiv nq| wKš‘ A‡b¨i †jLv co‡Z cviv GKwU Avjv`v
†hvM¨Zv| eB‡Z G w`KwUi Ici Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv nq wb| GQvov wk¶K mnvwqKv‡ZI G m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv
wb‡`©kbv †bB Ges Abykxj‡bi my‡hvM †bB| Z‡e avivi eB¸‡jvi Av‡jv‡K †h m„Rbkxj †jLvi Kg©KvÊ
i‡q‡Q, †mLv‡b wk¶v_©x‡`i ci¯ú‡ii †jLv covi my‡hvM i‡q‡Q| †mLvb †_‡K c‡iv¶fv‡e n‡jI Zviv G
†hvM¨Zv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq| Z‡e wb‡`©wkKvq G m¤úwK©Z ¯úó wb‡`©kbv _vKvi cÖ‡qvRb
wQ‡jv|
cov 4: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡jv:
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z G †hvM¨ZvwUi
Rb¨ vk ch©š— mxgv wba©viY Kiv n‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z
†mwU‡K evwo‡q GKk ch©š— Kiv n‡q‡Q|
G m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó cvV ev welqe¯‘ eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB
ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq †bB| d‡j wk¶v_©x‡`i c‡¶
†hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Kiv KwVb|
†jLv: wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †jLv As‡k wZbwU cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ †gvU 11wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q|
Gi g‡a¨ cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ QqwU, wØZxqwUi Rb¨
PviwU, Z…ZxqwUi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
i‡q‡Q| GLv‡b wPÎ 10 †_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q, AR©b Dc‡hvMx
6
1
4
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 10. wØZxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb - †jLv
25
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi AwaKvskB cÖwZdjwZ n‡jI weivUmsL¨K †hvM¨Zv †gv‡UI cÖwZdwjZ nq wb|
†jLv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ QqwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
1.1 ¯úó, mwVK AvK…wZ‡Z I cwi”Qbœfv‡e evsjv eY©gvjv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ ï‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cwiwPZ kã e¨envi K‡i evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 weivg wPý wP‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.6 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki †QvU †QvU mnR cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: G As‡ki cÖ_g †hvM¨Zvq cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z Ôcwi”Qbœfv‡eÕ evsjv eY©gvjv †jLvi K_v bv
_vK‡jI GwU wØZxq †kªYx‡Z bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q| 1.2 †hvM¨ZvwU ûeû cÖ_g †kªYx †_‡K G‡m‡Q| 1.3
†hvM¨ZvwU‡Z cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z Ô†`‡LÕ †jLvi K_v ej‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z Zv Ôï‡bÕ †jLvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| 1.4
†hvM¨ZvwU cÖ_g †kªYxi GKB As‡ki †hvM¨Zvi Dj−¤^ iƒc| †mLv‡b eY© w`‡q †jLvi K_v ejv n‡qwQ‡jv,
GLv‡b kã e¨envi K‡i evK¨ †jLvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| c~‡e©i †kªYx‡Z ïay hwZ wPý wP‡b †jLvi K_v ejv n‡jI
wØZxq †kªYx‡Z hwZ wP‡ýi cvkvcvwk weivg wPý wP‡b †jLvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| †kl A_©vr 1.6 †hvM¨ZvwU G
†kªYx‡Z bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q|
ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z cÖ_g †hvM¨ZvwU m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv welqe¯‘ bv _vK‡jI wk¶K mnvwqKvq eY©gvjv I hwZwPý
mwVKfv‡e †jLvi Ici ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| Z‡e Kvi wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i †jLvi Rb¨ Avjv`v
†Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †bB| weivg wPý‡KI †K›`ª K‡i evK¨ †jLv Abykxjb Kivi †Kv‡bv my‡hvM eB‡Z †bB| cvV¨cy¯—
‡Ki kã I evK¨ wjL‡Z cvivi welqwU m¤ú‡K© wk¶K mnvwqKvq wKQy wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv h_vh_
Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g Ges m„Rbkxj †jLv PP©vi gva¨‡g wk¶v_©x‡`i G †hvM¨ZvwU AwR©Z n‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq|
Ab¨w`‡K eB‡Z †hme Abykxjbx i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jvi gva¨‡g cwiwPZ envi K‡i evK¨ wjL‡Z cviv Ges
cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki †QvU †QvU mnR cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq|
†jLv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 wb‡Ri bvg cwiPq I wVKvbv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 Qq FZzi bvg ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cïcvwL I Ab¨vb¨ wRwbmc‡Îi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: Av‡Mi †kªYx‡Z ïay wk¶v_©x‡`i wb‡Ri I evev-gvi bvg †jLvi K_v ejv n‡qwQ‡jv,
†mwU G †kªYx‡Z ewa©Z n‡q wb‡Ri cwiPq I wVKvbv †jLvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg cÖ_g
†kªYx‡Z †jLvi K_v _vK‡jI wØZxq †kªYx‡Z †mwUi m‡½ evi gv‡mi bvg hy³ n‡q‡Q| Qq FZzi bvg cÖ_g
†kªYx‡ZI wQ‡jv, wKš‘ GLv‡b ï×fv‡e †jLvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| me©‡kl †hvM¨ZvwU G †kªYx‡Z bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q|
26
eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z Ges Míavivi eB¸‡jv‡Z cÖ_g †hvM¨Zv-m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv †jLvi Abykxjb †bB|
cieZ©x †hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi welqe¯‘ I Abykxjb i‡q‡Q eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z|
†jLv 3: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q|
†hvM¨ZvwU n‡jv:
3.1 evsjvfvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— †jLvi K_v ejv n‡jI GB †kªYx‡Z †mwU
evwo‡q GKk ch©š— Kiv n‡q‡Q|
msL¨vevPK I µgevPK ï×fv‡e †jLv m¤úwK©Z cvV eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z †bB| d‡j evsjv eB‡qi
gva¨‡g wk¶v_©xiv G †hvM¨ZvwU bvI AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i|
†jLv 4: ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv I g‡bvfve ï× I ¯úó fvlvq wj‡L cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv †bB|
†jLv 5: mvaviY wPwV Ges `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cviv Ges wewfbœ dig c~iY Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv †bB|
27
Z…Zxq †kªYx
Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †gvU 16wU cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q| G 16wU
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi g‡a¨ †kvbv As‡k
wZbwU, ejv I cov As‡k PviwU K‡i Ges
†jLv As‡k cuvPwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv
i‡q‡Q| GB 14wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi
wecix‡Z me©‡gvU 42wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 11 †_‡K †`Lv
hv‡”Q, AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdj‡bi gvÎv eª¨v‡Ki
DcKi‡Y GK-PZz_©vs‡kiI Kg|
A‡a©‡KiI Kg AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv AvswkKfv‡e wZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| G‡Kev‡iB cÖwZdwjZ nq wb Ggb
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi msL¨vI Kg bq| AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jv Kxfv‡e KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv
`¶ZvwfwËKfv‡e wb‡P Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡jv|
†kvbv: Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †kvbv As‡k wZbwU cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ †gvU mvZwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ PviwU,
wØZxqwUi Rb¨ `ywU, Z…ZxqwUi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| GLv‡b wPÎ 12 †_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q,
AwaKvsk AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv AvswkK ev cy‡ivcywi
cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
†kvbv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf Kiv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z †gvU PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv eY© I hy³eY© mn‡hv‡M MwVZ kã ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ kã I †QvU †QvU evK¨ ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, †NvlYv I wb‡`©k ï‡b cvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y K‡_vcK_b ï‡b cÖkœ Ki‡Z I DËi w`‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: 1.1 †hvM¨ZvwU g~jZ cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYxi G As‡ki cÖ_g `ywU †hvM¨Zvi avivevwnK
Dj−¤^ iƒc| cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z eY© I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z hy³eY© †kvbvi †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv Ges GLv‡b `ywU‡K GKÎ Kiv
n‡q‡Q| 1.2-m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv †hvM¨Zv cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z cÖZ¨¶fv‡e bv _vK‡jI 1.3 †hvM¨ZvwU c~‡e©i
`ywU †kªYxi avivevwnKZvq G‡m‡Q| cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYxi g‡ZvB GLv‡b Av‡`k I Dc‡`k †kvbvi welqwU
G‡m‡Q| Z‡e cÖ_g `y‡Uv †kªYx‡Z cÖkœ ï‡b eyS‡Z cvivi welqwU _vK‡jI Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z cÖ‡kœi e`‡j †NvlYvi
welqwU G‡m‡Q| D‡j−L¨, cÖ_g `y‡Uv †kªYx‡Z ïay G welq¸‡jv ï‡b eyS‡Z cvivi †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv, †mLv‡b Z…Zxq
†kªYx‡Z †m¸‡jv ï‡b cvjb Kivi Ici ¸i“Z¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| 1.4 Ask Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z G‡Kev‡iB bZzbfv‡e
G‡m‡Q|
33
1
0
2
4
6
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 12. Z…Zxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb - †kvbv
12
20
10
0
6
12
18
24
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 11. Z…Zxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi
cÖwZdjb
28
GUv a‡i †bIqv hvq, cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z wk¶v_©xiv evsjv eY© I hy³eY©-m¤úwK©Z cvV¸‡jv †_‡K cÖv_wgK
aviYv wb‡q G‡m‡Q| G †kªYx‡Z wewfbœ cv‡Vi mvnv‡h¨ †m¸‡jv Abykxjb ev e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Zv‡`i `¶Zv‡K
AviI cwic° Ki‡e| hy³eY© m¤úwK©Z Abykxjb eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z Abycw¯’Z| Z‡e eB‡qi cvV¸‡jv‡Z
†hme hy³eY© i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv h_vh_fv‡e wk¶K Abykxjb Kiv‡j wk¶v_©x‡`i c‡¶ †m¸‡jv mn‡RB AR©b Kiv
m¤¢e| GQvov wewfbœ kã I †QvU †QvU evK¨ ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv m¤úwK©Z Kvh©µg i‡q‡Q eB‡Z| Av‡`k, Dc‡`k,
†NvlYv I wb‡`©k m¤úwK©Z G‡Kev‡i mivmwi †Kv‡bv cvV bv _vK‡jI eB‡Z †h cvV i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jvi gva¨‡g G
†hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Kiv m¤¢e| K‡_vcK_b m¤úwK©Z Abykxjb _vK‡jI †m¸‡jv ï‡b cÖkœ Kiv I cÖ‡kœi DËi
†`Iqvi Rb¨ Avjv`v †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †bB|
†kvbv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³„Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z
cviv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z †gvU `ywU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv n‡jv:
2.1 cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~j welq eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b, Mí I eY©bv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y ï‡b welq eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: c~‡e©i †kªYx¸‡jv‡Z 2.1 †kªYx Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvq Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~jfve ï‡b
eyS‡Z cviv I Avb›` jvf Kivi welqwU wQ‡jv| Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z G‡m †m¸‡jvi cvkvcvwk Qov I KweZv ÔcÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡YÕ †kvbvi Ici ¸i“Z¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| 2.2 †hvM¨Zvi †¶‡ÎI GKB K_v cÖ‡hvR¨| Z‡e K‡_vcK_b
ï‡b †evSvi welqwU Z…Zxq †kªYx‡ZB 1.4 As‡kI G‡m‡Q| GQvov cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z †hLv‡b mßv‡ni mvZ
w`b, evi gv‡mi bvg I Qq FZzi bvg eySvi K_v ejv n‡qwQ‡jv, †m¸‡jv Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z Abycw¯’Z| A_©vr Avkv
Kiv n‡”Q, wØZxq †kªYx‡ZB G †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv cy‡ivcywi AwR©Z n‡e|
Qov, KweZv, K‡_vcK_b, Mí I eY©bv-m¤úwK©Z me ai‡bi welqe¯‘ i‡q‡Q eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z|
wk¶‡Ki h_vh_ wb‡`©kbvq G welqe¯‘¸‡jvi gva¨‡g wk¶v_©xiv GB †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv
Kiv hvq|
†kvbv 3: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv|
G cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †mwU n‡”Q:
3.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z h_vµ‡g GK †_‡K cÂvk I GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I
msL¨vevPK kã ï‡b †evSvi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z †miKg wbw`©ó K‡i †`Iqv nq wb| cwie‡Z© cv‡V
†hme msL¨vevPK kã e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv ï‡b †evSvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| GQvov cÖ_g `ywU †kªYx‡Z
msL¨vevPK k‡ãi mv‡_ msL¨v ï‡b †evSvi K_v _vK‡jI GLv‡b msL¨vi welqwU †bB| Ab¨w`‡K cÖ_g `yB
†kªYx‡Z bv _vK‡jI Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z msL¨vevP‡Ki mv‡_ µgevPK ZvwiLmn ï‡b eySvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q,
A_©vr G AskwU GLv‡b bZzb K‡i hy³ n‡q‡Q|
†h‡nZz ejv n‡q‡Q, cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e, myZivs GLv‡b †Kvb&
ch©š— msL¨vevPK I µgevPK _vK‡e, †mwU wbf©i Ki‡e cvV¨cy¯—K iPwqZv‡`i Ici| eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ
eB‡Z msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã _vK‡jI †m¸‡jv cwigv‡Y Kg| Z‡e MwYZ eB‡Z G m¤úwK©Z †ek wKQz cvV
I Abykxjbx _vKvi K_v| †h Kvi‡Y nq‡Zv evsjv wel‡q G m¤úwK©Z ch©vß cvV I Abykxjbx mwbœ‡ewkZ Kiv nq
wb| GQvov wewfbœ cv‡V wKQy ZvwiL i‡q‡Q|
29
ejv: Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ ejv As‡k PviwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi
Rb¨ †gvU 13wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨
cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ cuvPwU, wØZxqwUi Rb¨ wZbwU,
Z…ZxqwUi Rb¨ PviwU Ges †kl A_©vr PZz_©wUi Rb¨ `ywU
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| GLv‡b wPÎ 13 †_‡K
†`Lv hv‡”Q, eª¨v‡Ki DcKi‡Y AwaKvsk AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zv AvswkK ev cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| Z‡e
cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ nIqvi PvB‡Z AvswkK cÖwZdj‡bi nvi
†ewk|
ejv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg
k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
1.1 evsjv hy³eY© mn‡hv‡M MwVZ kã ¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z I D”PviY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ kã I †QvU †QvU evK¨ ey‡S ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Ñ (G As‡k †Kv‡bv †hvM¨Zv †bB)
1.4 wewfbœ ai‡bi Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, wb‡`©k I †NvlYvi K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 K‡_vcK_b ï‡b cÖkœ Ki‡Z Ges cÖkœ ï‡b DËi w`‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: eY©gvjv I hy³eY© ejvi avivevwnKZvq 1.1 †hvM¨ZvwU‡Z Ôhy³eY© mn‡hv‡M MwVZ kã
¯úó I ï×fv‡eÕ D”PviY Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| Gi Av‡M ïay hy³eY© ejvi K_v ejv n‡qwQ‡jv| Z‡e GLv‡b
ejv I D”PviY Ki‡Z cvivi ga¨Kvi cv_©K¨ cwi®‹vi bq| 1.2 †hvM¨ZvwU c~‡e©i †kªYxi avivevwnKZvq G‡m‡Q
Z‡e 1.4 †hvM¨ZvwU G †kªYx‡Z bZzb| 1.5 †hvM¨Zvq cÖkœ Ki‡Z Ges cÖkœ ï‡b DËi †`Iqvi welqwU c~‡e©i
†kªYx¸‡jv‡Z _vK‡jI GLv‡b K‡_vcK_b ï‡b cÖkœ Kivi I DËi †`Iqvi welqwU cÖ_gev‡ii g‡Zv G‡m‡Q|
eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z hy³eY©-m¤úwK©Z D`vniY ev Abykxjbx ch©vß †bB| Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, wb‡`©k I
†NvlYvi welq¸‡jv eB‡Z mivmwi bv Avm‡jI †mLv‡b †hme welqe¯‘ i‡q‡Q, wk¶‡Ki wb‡`©kbvq †m¸‡jv AR©b
Kiv m¤¢e| eB‡q K‡_vcK_‡bi welqe¯‘ _vK‡jI 1.5 †hvM¨ZvwUi Rb¨ mivmwi Abykxj‡bi cÖ‡qvRb| †m
ai‡bi wb‡`©kbv eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKv‡Z †bB|
ejv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ey‡S ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZvi g~j welq ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 †`Lv ev †kvbv NUbv wb‡Ri fvlvq ej‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: 2.1 †hvM¨ZvwU ûeû wØZxq †kªYxi mv‡_ _vK‡jI 2.2 I 2.3 †hvM¨Zv `y‡Uv GB
†kªYx‡Z bZzb|
3
7
3
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 13. Z…Zxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb - ejv
30
Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Kiv welqe¯‘ I Abykxjbx i‡q‡Q eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z| Z‡e KweZvi g~j welq
ejvi Abykxjbx eB¸‡jv‡Z ch©vß bq| Ab¨w`‡K, †`Lv ev †kvbv NUbv wb‡Ri fvlvq ej‡Z cvivi †Kv‡bv
mivmwi Abykxjbx eB¸‡jv‡Z †bB| eB‡q †hme NUbv i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv wk¶v_©xiv wb‡Ri fvlvq ej‡Z cvi‡jI
†`Lv ev †kvbv NUbv¸‡jv wb‡Ri fvlvq ejvi wKQy Abykxjb _vK‡j wk¶v_©xiv mn‡RB G †hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Ki‡Z
m¶g n‡Zv|
ejv 3: mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï×, cÖwgZ, PwjZ
evsjvq K_v ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
3.1 †kªYxK‡¶ cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cÖ‡kœvˇi welqe¯‘ eywS‡q ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 Rvbv ev †`Lv NUbv cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 we`¨vj‡q, evwo‡Z I wewfbœ cwi‡e‡k AbygwZ PvB‡Z Ges web‡qi m‡½ m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: 3.1 †hvM¨Zvq cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z Abykxjb Kivi I K_v
ej‡Z cvivi †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv| Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z †mwU ïay †kªYxK‡¶ mxwgZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| 3.2, 3.3 I 3.4
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jv G †kªYx‡Z bZzb n‡jI Av‡Mi `yB †kªYx‡Z G As‡k †h †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv wQ‡jv, †m¸‡jv GB †hvM¨Zvi
c~e©eZ©x avc wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
GLv‡b 3.1 I 3.3 †hvM¨Zvq cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejvi Ici ¸i“Z¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ eB‡Z PwjZ
ixwZ‡Z K_v ejvi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv my¯úó wb‡`©kbv †bB| Z‡e †hme Abykxjbx i‡q‡Q, Zv‡Z †kªYxK‡¶ Rvbv ev
†`Lv NUbv ejvi g‡Zv †hvM¨Zv wk¶v_©xiv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq| 3.2 †hvM¨Zvi cÖ‡kœvˇi
welqe¯‘ eywS‡q ejvi g‡Zv Abykxjbx i‡q‡Q| 3.4 †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z G m¤úwK©Z
†Kv‡bv cvV †bB|
ejv 4: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ `ywU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡”Q:
4.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiL wb‡`©kmn ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.2 Rvbv msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã w`‡q evK¨ MVb K‡i ej‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: Av‡Mi `y †kªYx‡Z wk¶v_©x‡`i GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK ej‡Z cvivi
†hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI G †kªYx‡Z †m¸‡jvi cvkvcvwk µgevPK kã ZvwiL wb‡`©kmn ej‡Z cvivi welqwU bZzbfv‡e
G‡m‡Q| GQvov Av‡Mi †kªYx¸‡jv‡Z ïay msL¨v ev msL¨vevPK kã ej‡Z cvivi g‡a¨B mxgve× _vK‡jI GLv‡b
†m¸‡jv w`‡q evK¨ ˆZwi Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q|
eB‡Z msL¨v, msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã-m¤úwK©Z ch©vß welqe¯ev Abykxjbx †bB| wew”Qbœfv‡e wewfbœ
msL¨v, msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã wewfbœ Aa¨v‡q G‡m‡Q| K‡qKwU Aa¨v‡q welqe¯‘-m¤úwK©Z ZvwiL i‡q‡Q|
4.2 †hvM¨Zv‡Z Rvbv msL¨v ej‡Z Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q, Zv cwi®‹vi bq| m¤¢eZ Av‡Mi `ywU †kªYx I eZ©gvb
†kªYx‡Z eB‡q †h msL¨v¸‡jv i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jvi K_vB GLv‡b eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ Gi evB‡iI MwYZ welqwU
31
covi mgq wk¶v_©xiv A‡bK kã Rvb‡Z cv‡i| †m¸‡jv G wel‡qi †¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨ wK-bv Zv ¯úó bq|
Aciw`‡K wewfbœ kã w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kivi ch©vß Abykxjbx _vK‡jI msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã w`‡q evK¨ MVb
Kivi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv Abykxjbx †bB|
cov: Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ cov As‡k PviwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi
Rb¨ †gvU 10wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨
cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ wZbwU, wØZxqwUi Rb¨ `ywU,
Z…ZxqwUi Rb¨ PviwU Ges †kl A_©vr PZz_©wUi Rb¨ GKwU
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 14 †_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q,
AwaKvsk AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv AvswkKfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q‡Q, bq †Zv G‡Kev‡iB cÖwZdwjZ nq wb| cy‡ivcywi
cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Lye Kg|
cov 1: evsjv fvlvi MVb cÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg
k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
1.1 Ñ (G As‡k †Kv‡bv †hvM¨Zv †bB)
1.2 k‡ã e¨eüZ hy³eY© wP‡b ¯úó I ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cv‡V e¨eüZ kã I evK¨ kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯úó ¯^‡i I cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 wewfbœ weivg wPý wP‡b evK¨ I PiY co‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: eY©gvjv covm¤úwK©Z †h †hvM¨ZvwU c~‡e©i †kªYx‡Z wQ‡jv, †mwU G †kªYxi Rb¨
we‡ewPZ nq wb| Z‡e hy³eY© covi †hvM¨ZvwU G‡m‡Q Av‡Mi `yB †kªYxi avivevwnKZvq| cv‡V e¨eüZ I
evK¨ c~‡e©i †kªYx¸‡jv‡Z ïay cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y covi K_v _vK‡jI Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z bZzbfv‡e ÔkªeY‡hvM¨ ¯úó
¯^‡iÕ covi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| weivg wPý wP‡b evK¨ I PiY covi †hvM¨ZvwU GB †kªYx‡ZB cÖ_gev‡ii g‡Zv
G‡m‡Q|
hy³eY© m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ D`vniY I Abykxjbx ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z Avjv`vfv‡e Abykxjbx †bB| eB‡Z weivgwPý
wb‡qI Avjv`v †Kv‡bv Abykxjbx ev cvV †bB| Ab¨w`‡K cv‡V e¨eüZ I evK¨ _vK‡jI †m¸‡jv cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y covi Rb¨ eB‡q Avjv`v †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv †bB|
cov 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i c‡o g~jfve eyS‡Z
cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ `ywU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, M`¨iPbv I msjvc cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z I eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 eB †`‡L Qov I KweZv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: 2.1-Gi †hvM¨ZvwU Av‡Mi †kªYx‡Z ïay covi K_v ejv _vK‡jI GLv‡b covi
cvkvcvwk eyS‡Z cvivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| wØZxq †hvM¨ZvwU A_©vr 2.2 †hvM¨ZvwU wØZxq †kªYx †_‡K ûeû Z…Zxq
†kªYx‡Z G‡m‡Q|
1
5
4
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 14. Z…Zxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb - cov
32
Dchy©³ †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv g~jZ cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Yi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z| Qov, KweZv, Mí, M`¨iPbv I msjvcÑ me¸‡jv
welqB eB‡Z i‡q‡Q ch©vß cwigv‡Y| wKš‘ Qov I KweZvi Abykxj‡b Ave„wË Kivi RAvjv`vfv‡e wb‡`©kbv
†`Iqv _vK‡jI cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y covi †Kv‡bv mivmwi wb‡`©kbv †bB| d‡j wk¶‡Ki m‡PZb wb‡`©kbv Abyhvqx
Abykxjb bv Ki‡j wk¶v_©xiv G †hvM¨ZvwU AR©b bvI Ki‡Z cv‡i|
cov 3: evsjv fvlvi gy`ªv¶i I —v¶i ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z
mg_© nIqv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ PviwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡”Q:
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv I A‡b¨i ¯úó nv‡Zi †jLv co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cvV¨cy¯—K I mggv‡bi wkï‡Zvl I Ab¨vb¨ eB co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ ai‡bi mnR ms‡KZ/wb‡`©k, e¨w³ I cÖwZôv‡bi bvgdjK I Kw¤úDUv‡ii evsjv cvV
co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 bxi‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: 3.1 †hvM¨ZvwU ûeû wØZxq †kªYx †_‡K Avm‡jI cieZ©x wZbwU †hvM¨Zv G †kªYx‡Z
bZzb G‡m‡Q|
cÖ_g †hvM¨ZvwU Abykxj‡bi Rb¨ mivmwi †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv eB‡Z †bB, Z‡e GwU wbf©i Ki‡e wk¶‡Ki Ici|
KviY wk¶v_©x‡`i wb‡Ri Ges A‡b¨i †jLv cov‡bvi welqwU †kªYxK‡¶ Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡gB wbwðZ Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i| 3.2 †hvM¨Zvi cÖ_g Ask A_©vr cvV¨cy¯—K covi `¶Zv wk¶v_©xiv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv
hvq| wKš‘ mggv‡bi wkï‡Zvl I Ab¨vb¨ eB covi Rb¨ mywbw`©ó †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv ev KvR eB¸‡jv‡Z †bB| GwU
Avm‡j wbf©i Ki‡e wk¶K I Awffve‡Ki wb‡`©kbv Ges wk¶v_©xi e¨w³MZ AvMÖ‡ni Ici| wKš‘ wkï hw` wbR
†kªYxi eB¸‡jv co‡Z cv‡i Zvn‡j mggv‡bi Ab¨vb¨ eB co‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq| 3.3 †hvM¨Zvi
†Kv‡bv cvVB †bB| Z‡e cvV¨cy¯—K¸‡jv †h‡nZz Kw¤úDUvi K‡¤úv‡Ri gva¨‡gB ˆZwi, ZvB †k‡lv³ AskwU
wk¶v_©xiv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq| bxi‡e co‡Z cvivi †hvM¨ZvwU wbf©i K‡i Abykxj‡bi
Ici| eB‡qi †Kv_vI bxi‡e co‡Z cviv m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbv †bB|
cov 4: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨
GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU n‡jv:
4.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK ZvwiL
wb‡`©kKmn co‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: c~‡e©i `yB †kªYx‡Z GK †_‡K
GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK covi welq _vK‡jI
Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z †m¸‡jvi cwie‡Z© cv‡V †hme msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK kã e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv covi K_v ejv
n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b ZvwiL wb‡`©kK welqwU bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q|
55
2
0
2
4
6
8
cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
wPÎ 15. Z…Zxq †kªYxi AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb - †jLv
33
G †hvM¨ZvwU eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv †kvbv 3 I ejv 4 As‡ki gš—‡e¨ cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q‡Q|
†jLv: Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ †jLv As‡k cuvPwU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ †gvU 12wU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q|
Gi g‡a¨ cÖ_g cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Rb¨ cuvPwU, wØZxqwUi Rb¨ `ywU, Z…Zxq I PZz_©wUi Rb¨ GKwU K‡i Ges
†klwUi Rb¨ wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| wPÎ 15 †_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q, eª¨v‡Ki DcKi‡Y AwaKvsk
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv AvswkKfv‡e ev cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
†jLv 1: evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ cuvPwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
1.1 e‡Y©i MVb wVK †i‡L kã I evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi, djv I hy³eY© e¨envi K‡i kã I evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ ï‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cwiwPZ kã e¨envi K‡i ï× evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 weivgwPý h_vm¤¢e wP‡b evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: c~‡e©i `yB †kªYx‡Z mwVK AvK…wZ I cwi”Qbœfv‡e eY©gvjv †jLvi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI
Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z e‡Y©i MV‡bi Ici †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z Kvi wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³
K‡i †jLvi †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv| Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z Kvi-Gi mv‡_ djv I hy³eY© hy³ n‡q‡Q| Z…Zxq A_©vr 1.3
†hvM¨ZvwU wØZxq †kªYxi ûeû, hw`I GwU cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z †kvbvi e`‡j †`‡L †jLvi †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv| 1.4-G
cwiwPZ e¨envi K‡i ï× evK¨ †jLvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| cÖ_g †kªYx‡Z GB †hvM¨Zv bv _vK‡jI wØZxq
†kªYx‡Z ïay evK¨ †jLvi †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv| Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z G‡m ï×Zvi welqwU G‡m‡Q| 1.5-G weivgwPý
h_vm¤¢e wP‡b wjL‡Z cvivi †hvM¨ZvwU wØZxq †kªYxi avivevwnKZvq G‡m‡Q| wØZxq †kªYx‡Z ïay weivgwPý
†jLvi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡jI GLv‡b ev‡K¨ weivgwPý e¨env‡ii welqwU G‡m‡Q|
e‡Y©i MVb wVK †i‡L, Kvi, djv I hy³eY© e¨envi K‡i Ges cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki I evK¨ †jLvi Rb¨ ch©vß
welqe¯‘ i‡q‡Q eB‡Z| Z‡e hy³eY©-m¤úwK©Z Abykxj‡bi my‡hvM †bB| GQvov cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki ev evK¨ ï‡b
†jLvi Rb¨ †h ai‡bi Abykxjbx _vKv `iKvi, ZvI †bB| d‡j wk¶‡Ki m‡PZb wb‡`©kbv bv _vK‡j
wk¶v_©x‡`i c‡¶ G †hvM¨ZvwU AR©b Kiv KwVb| cwiwPZ e¨envi K‡i evK¨ †jLvi Rb¨ cÖPzi Abykxjb
i‡q‡Q eB‡Z| weivgwPý wP‡b evK¨ †jLvi Rb¨ Abykxjb ÔG‡mv cw eB‡Z †bB| GLv‡b AR©b Dc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvq Ôh_vm¤¢eÕ kãwU w`‡q Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q, ZvI cwi®‹vi bq| Avi Dchy©³ †hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi welqe¯‘
eB‡Z _vK‡jI ch©vß wb‡`©kbvi Afv‡e †m¸‡jv wk¶v_©x‡`i cy‡ivcywi AwR©Z bvI n‡Z cv‡i|
†jLv 2: evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ `ywU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv: 2.1 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki Qov I KweZv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 welqwfwËK mnR cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z G As‡k †h †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv wQ‡jv, Zvi †Kv‡bvwUB Z…Zxq
†kªYx‡Z Av‡m wb| GLv‡b †h `y‡Uv †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv cÖ_gev‡ii g‡Zv G‡m‡Q|
34
cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki Qov I KweZv †jLvi Rb¨ h‡_ó welqe¯‘ I Abykxjbx eª¨v‡Ki ÔG‡mv cwoÕ eB‡Z i‡q‡Q| GQvov
welqwfwËK cÖ‡kœi DËi †jLvi AbykxjbI i‡q‡Q ch©vß|
†jLv 3: msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡jv:
3.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: c~‡e©i `yB †kªYx‡Z GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK covi welq
_vK‡jI Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z †m¸‡jvi cwie‡Z© cv‡V †hme msL¨vevPK I µgevPK e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv
covi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b ZvwiL wb‡`©kK welqwU bZzb hy³ n‡q‡Q|
G †hvM¨ZvwU eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q, Zv †kvbv 3 I ejv 4 As‡ki gš—‡e¨ cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q‡Q|
†jLv 4: ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv I g‡bvfve ï× I ¯úó fvlvq wj‡L cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ GKwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨ZvwU
n‡jv:
4.1 mnR fvlvq cwiwPZ cwi‡e‡ki K_v wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z GB As‡k †Kv‡bv †kªYx Dc‡hvMx welqwfwËK †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv
bv| Z…Zxq †kªYx †_‡KB GwU ïi“ n‡q‡Q|
cwiwPZ cwi‡ek m¤úwK©Z †ek K‡qKwU cvV i‡q‡Q eBwU‡Z| GQvov cÖZ¨¶ I c‡iv¶fv‡e cwiwPZ cwi‡e‡ki
wewfbœ Dcv`v‡bi K_vI G‡m‡Q| welqe¯‘¸‡jv‡Z †jLvi †h Abykxjb i‡q‡Q, Zvi gva¨‡g wk¶v_©x‡`i mn‡RB
cwiwPZ cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© wjL‡Z cvivi K_v|
†jLv 5: mvaviY wPwV Ges `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cviv Ges wewfbœ dig c~iY Ki‡Z cviv|
G welqwfwËK cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi Aax‡b Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ wZbwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q| †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv
n‡jv:
5.1 AvcbR‡bi Kv‡Q mnR fvlvq wPwV wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
5.2 `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
5.3 mnR dig c~iY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
c~‡e©i †kªYxi mv‡_ cv_©K¨: cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYx‡Z G As‡kI †Kv‡bv †kªYx Dc‡hvMx welqwfwËK †hvM¨Zv wQ‡jv
bv| Z…Zxq †kªYx †_‡KB GwU ïi“ n‡q‡Q|
AvcbR‡bi Kv‡Q mnR fvlvq wPwV †jLvi GKwU Aa¨vq i‡q‡Q eB‡Z| †mLv‡b mivmwi GKwU wPwV †`Iqv
n‡q‡Q hv‡Z wPwV m¤ú‡K© wk¶v_©xiv aviYv †c‡Z cv‡i, wKš‘ wPwV †jLvi wbqgKvbyb ejv nq wb| wk¶K hw`
m‡PZbfv‡e wk¶v_©x‡`i Kxfv‡e wPwV wjL‡Z nq, Zv bv †kLvb Zvn‡j ï×fv‡e wPwV †jLvi †hvM¨Zv AwR©Z bvI
n‡Z cv‡i| Aciw`‡K `iLv¯— †jLvi †Kv‡bv cvV eB‡Z †bB| dig c~iY Ki‡Z cviv m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv cvV
†bB|
35
Av‡jvPbv I Dcmsnvi
GUv wVK †h, cÖvwš—K I †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb GKKfv‡e cvV¨eB‡qi Ici wbf©i K‡i
bv; cvV¨eB‡qi cvkvcvwk Míavivi eB, wk¶K mnvwqKv, wkLb-wk¶Y Kvh©vejx BZ¨vw` A‡bK wKQzi Ici wbf©i
K‡i| d‡j me †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb GKKfv‡e wbw`©ó †Kv‡bv Dcv`v‡bi g‡a¨ cy‡ivcywi _vK‡eÑ GUv Avkv Kiv
wVK bq| Z‡e cvV¨eB‡qi mxwgZ cwim‡i hZ`~i m¤¢e nq, Z‡Zv¸‡jv †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb NUv‡bvi †Póv _vKv
`iKvi| ZvQvov Ggb A‡bK †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q, †h¸‡jv gyw`ªZ †Kv‡bv DcKi‡Yi PvB‡Z wfbœZi wk‡¶vcKiY
`vwe K‡i wKsev Avjv`v Kg©Kv‡Êi gva¨‡g †m¸‡jv cÖwZdwjZ n‡Z cv‡i|
eB‡Z me©vwaK msL¨K G KvRwU Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i Av‡iKwU Dcv‡q| †h‡nZz GbwmwUwe wba©vwiZ cÖvwš—K I
†kªYxwfwËK †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bvfv‡e ci¯ú‡ii mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z, Kv‡RB GKvwaK cÖvwš—K I
†kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv‡K †K›`ª K‡i GKwU welqe¯‘ I Abykxjb mvRv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| GQvov Ggb
wKQz †hvM¨Zv Av‡Q †h¸‡jvi Rb¨ cÖK…Zc‡¶ Avjv`v welqe¯‘i cÖ‡qvRb nq bv, GKwU welqe¯‘‡KB wewfbœfv‡e
Dc¯’vcb K‡i †m¸‡jv c~iY Kiv hvq| †hgbÑ i‡Oi e¨envi I cwiwPwZ| †h‡nZz eB¸‡jvi GKwU Ask iwOb,
†m‡nZz i‡Oi Rb¨ GKwU Avjv`v welqe¯‘ bv †i‡L wewfbœ Aa¨vq wewfbœ i‡O mvwR‡q †mLv‡b ch©vß wb‡`©kbvi
gva¨‡g †hvM¨ZvwUi cÖwZdjb NUv‡bv hvq| A_©vr cÖwZ‡¶‡ÎB mxwgZ welqe¯‘i g‡a¨ m‡e©v”P msL¨K AR©b
Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb m¤¢e Ges †mwU Kiv `iKvi|
cvkvcvwk ïay eB‡Z cÖwZdjb _vK‡jB Pj‡e bv, ch©vß wb‡`©kbv I Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g wk¶v_©xiv †h‡bv †m¸‡jv
ev¯—e Rxe‡b PP©v Ki‡Z cv‡i, †m welqwUi cÖwZI j¶¨ ivL‡Z n‡e| G‡¶‡Î wk¶K mnvwqKv †ek Kvh©Ki
f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †ekwKQz †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jvi wel‡q wk¶K mnvwqKvq wb‡`©kbv _vK‡j wk¶K
†m¸‡jv mn‡RB ev¯—evqb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| †hgbÑ cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejv| GKwU wbw`©ó ch©vq ch©š—
cvV¨eB‡qi gva¨‡g cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejvi Abykxjbx _vK‡jI cieZ©x mg‡q wk¶K mnvwqKvq GB
Abykxjbx Pjgvb ivLvi wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i; hv‡Z wk¶K eyS‡Z cv‡ibÑ cvV¨eB‡Z bv _vK‡jI
wk¶v_©x‡`i GwU ev¯—e Rxe‡b e¨env‡ii Af¨vm Kiv‡Z n‡e|
G M‡elYvi cÖvß we‡k−lY †_‡K †`Lv †M‡Q, A‡bK †kªYxwfwËK †hvM¨ZvB i‡q‡Q, †h¸‡jv mvgvb¨ GKUz
wb‡`©kbvi Afv‡ei Kvi‡Y cvV¨eB ev wb‡`©wkKvq fv‡jvfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ nq wb| †hgb- GKB †hvM¨Zvi nq‡Zv
†kvbv, ejv, cov I †jLv- PviwU AskB i‡q‡Q| wKš‘ eB‡Z †Kej `ywU ev wZbwUi Rb¨ wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv i‡q‡Q|
d‡j ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB evwK †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv cÖwZdwjZ n‡”Q bv| GLv‡b wk¶K hw` wb‡R †_‡K †m¸‡jvi Abykxjb
wk¶v_©x‡`i bv Kivb, Zvn‡j GKRb wk¶v_©xi H †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv Ac~Y© _vKvi m¤¢vebv †ewk|
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi fvlv I Gi web¨vm wb‡qI cÖkœ †Zvjv hvq| wKQy wKQy †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv cÖK…Zc‡¶ D‡Ï‡k¨i mv‡_ gvbvbmB| Avevi Ggb wKQy †hvM¨Zv †mLv‡b mwbœ‡ewkZ n‡q‡Q,
†h¸‡jv †hvM¨Zv wn‡m‡e PgrKvi wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z †m¸‡jv AR©b Kiv KwVb| d‡j †m‡¶‡Î
†m¸‡jvi Dc‡hvwMZv wb‡qI cÖkœ †Zvjv hvq| we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi mb wKsev eÜyevÜe‡`i Rb¥ZvwiL g‡b ivLv
cÖvwš—K Rb‡Mvôxi Rb¨ Lye KwVb| Aciw`‡K w`bcwÄ †jLvi †hvM¨Zv Avgv‡`i †`‡ki cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z KZUzKz
Dc‡hvMx ZvI †f‡e †`Lv `iKvi| ZvQvov AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv wn‡m‡e w`bcwÄ †jLvi K_v ejv n‡jI †mwU
wK m„Rbkxj †jLvi GKwU †¶Î n‡e, bvwK ¯^vfvweK eY©bvg~jK †jLvi PP©vi GKwU †¶Î n‡e- ZvI ¯úó bq| G
welq¸‡jv we‡ePbvq wb‡q eZ©gvb mg‡qi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡K bZzb K‡i
web¨¯— Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
Ab¨ GKwU M‡elYvq GbwmwUwecÖYxZ eB¸‡jvi we‡k−l‡Y †`Lv †M‡Q, AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cÖwZdj‡bi †¶‡Î
†mLv‡bI GKB ai‡bi NvUwZ wQ‡jv| d‡j G w`K w`‡q †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi eB-B ¯^qsm¤ú~Y©Zv AR©b Ki‡Z
cv‡i wb| Dfq cÖwZôv‡bi cvV¨DcKi‡Yi †ek wKQz kw³kvjx I mxgve×Zv i‡q‡Q| G‡KKwU eB G‡KKw`‡K
36
kw³kvjx| †m Kvi‡Y `ywU cÖwZôvbB A‡b¨i kw³kvjx w`K¸‡jv we‡ePbv K‡i †mLvb †_‡K AwfÁZv wb‡q
Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i|
djvdj As‡k †kªYxwfwËK †h AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb we‡k−lY Kiv n‡q‡Q, †mLvb †_‡K †`Lv
hv‡”Q, A‡bK †hvM¨ZvB i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv GKwU wba©vwiZ †kªYx‡Z cÖwZdwjZ nIqvi e`‡j Ab¨ †kªYx‡Z
cÖwZdwjZ n‡”Q| d‡j cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi wePv‡i †m¸‡jv nq‡Zv wVKfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q ejv †M‡jI
†kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx hvM¨Zvi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z †h wk¶vcÖ`v‡bi K_v ejv nq, †m D‡Ïk¨ e¨nZ n‡”Q| †m
Kvi‡Y cÖwZwU †kªYxi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv‡K †K›`ª K‡i eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB I wk¶v mnvwqKv cwigvR©b Kiv
†h‡Z cv‡i|
Dchy©³ djvdj I Av‡jvPbvi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq wKQz mycvwik wb‡gœ D‡j−L Kiv n‡jv:
cÖvwš—K I †kªYxwfwËK †hme AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi fvlv Ges D‡Ïk¨ cwi®‹vi bq, †m¸‡jv cwigvR©b I
cybtwe©‡ePbv Kiv `iKvi| GB KvRwU Ki‡Z n‡e mswk−ó KZ…©c¶ A_©vr GbwmwUwe‡K|
eª¨vK we`¨vj‡qi wk¶v_©x‡`i wewfbœ cvwicvwk¦©K Ae¯’v we‡ePbv K‡i mwZ¨Kvi A‡_©B GK †kªYxi †kªYxwfwËK
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv Ab¨ †kªYx‡Z cÖwZ¯’vcb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb wKbv, †m welqwU AviI my¯úó Kiv `iKvi|
hw` †mwUi `iKvi bv nq, Zvn‡j wbw`©ó †kªYxi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ †kªYxwfwËK †hvM¨Zv †mB †kªYx‡ZB AR©‡bi
e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb|
cvV¨eB, Míavivi eB ev wk¶K mnvwqKvi gva¨‡g hv‡Z cÖvwš—K I †kªYxwfwËK †hvM¨Zv¸‡jvi cÖwZdjb
wVKg‡Zv nq, †mw`‡K j¶ †i‡L G eB¸‡jv I wk¶K mnvwqKv iPbv I m¤úv`bv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb|
cvV¨eB‡q e¨eüZ wewfbœ D`vniY I we‡klY cÖ‡qv‡M AviI mZK©Zv `iKvi| cvV¨eB‡q e¨eüZ
D`vniY¸‡jv mgmvgwqK NUbvi Av‡jv‡K †`Iqv `iKvi| †m‡¶‡Î GKwU wbw`©ó mgq cici cvV¨eB¸‡jv
cwigvR©b I cwiea©b Ki‡Z n‡e|
GKB welqe¯‘ ev Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g Kxfv‡e GKvwaK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb NUv‡bv hvq, †m
welqwUi cÖwZ j¶¨ †i‡L eB‡qi welqe¯‘¸‡jv cwigvR©b Ki‡Z n‡e|
†h wb‡`©kbv¸‡jv mivmwi cvV¨eB‡Z `Iqv m¤¢e bq, †m¸‡jv †h‡bv Aek¨B wk¶K mnvwqKv‡Z _v‡K †m
wel‡q AviI ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv `iKvi|
37
MÖš’
cÄx
Lvb, †gvnv¤§` †di`vDm Ges †eMg, Lv‡Zgb Aviv| wkï| XvKv, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, 1985|
cÖv_wgK wk¶vq evsjv wel‡q wk¶K cÖwk¶Y g¨vbyqvj| XvKv, RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW©, 2003|
wdbmvi, †Uvwib Gg. (Aby.)| wk¶vi AwfhvÎv| XvKv, BDwbfvwm©wU †cÖm wjwg‡UW, 2003|
gymv, gbmyi Ges Ab¨vb¨| cÖv_wgK ¯—‡ii cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki fvlvZvwË¡K g~j¨vqb| XvKv, wk¶v cÖKíb I Dbœqb
M‡elYv dvD‡Ûkb (†d«cW), 2003|
ivq, †MŠZg I Ab¨vb¨| cÖv_wgK ¯—‡ii †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb ch©v‡jvPbv: GK-
GbwmwUwecÖYxZ evsjv eB| XvKv, eª¨vK M‡elYv I g~j¨vqb wefvM, 2008|
jwZd, Avey nvwg`| evsjv‡`‡ki DcvbyôvwbK wk¶v| XvKv, Avey nvwg` jwZd, 2001|
jwZd, Avey nvwg`| wk¶v wkLb wk¶Y cÖwk¶Y| XvKv, Avey nvwg` jwZd, 2007|
Ahmed M, Nath SR, Hossain A, Kabir MM, Kalam MA, Shahjamal MM, Yasmin RN
and Zafar T. (2005). Quality with equity: the primary education agenda. Dhaka:
Campaign for Popular Education.
Freeman R and Lewis R (1998). Planning and implementing assessment. London:
Kogan Page Limited.
Ardt K, Hastings C, Hopkins K, Knebel R, Loh J and Woods R (2005). Report on
primary education in Bangladesh: challenges and successes. Dhaka: BANBEIS and
MWCA.
Mukhopadhyay M (2005). Total quality management in education. New Delhi: Sage
Publications.
Nath SR and Chowdhury AMR (Editors) (2000). A question of quality- State of
primary education in Bangladesh: achievement of competencies, Dhaka: Campaign
for Popular Education and The University Press Limited.
NCTB (undated): Revision and modification of curriculum of the primary stage
against the background of universal primary education- essential learning continua
(primary education). Dhaka: National Curriculum and Textbook Board.
NCTB and UNICEF (1988). Sarbahanin prathamik sikshyar patabhumite Prathamik
starer sikshyacramer parimarjan O nbayan [In Bangla]. Dhaka: National Curriculum
and Textbook Board and UNICEF.
Wiersma, W (1996). Research methods in education: an introduction. Philadelphia:
J.B. Lippincott Company.
UNESCO (2005). EFA global monitoring report. Paris: UNESCO.
38
cwiwkó
cwiwkó 1: GbwmwUwe cÖYxZ 53wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv
1. mekw³gvb mªóv I we‡k¦i kvmbKZ©v Avj−vni GK‡Z¡ AUj wek¦vm ¯’vcb Kiv|
2. Avj−vni Amxg AbyMÖ‡ni Rb¨ K…ZÁZv‡eva Kiv Ges mKj Kv‡R Zuv‡K ¯§i‡Yi gva¨‡g †m K…ZÁZv cÖKvk Kiv|
3. Avj−vni ivmyj nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (`t) Gi/ ¯^ ¯^ ag© cÖeZ©‡Ki RxebPwiZ Rvbv I Zv‡`i wk¶v I Av`k© AbymiY
Kiv|
4. mªóvi mKj m„wó‡K fv‡jvevmv|
5. mKj ag©vej¤^xi cÖwZ m¤§vb I mnbkxjZv cÖKvk Kiv|
6. bvix-cyi“l, abx-wba©b, †ckv I Rxeb avivi ˆewPΨ wbwe©‡k‡l mK‡ji cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Kiv|
7. KvwqK kªghy³ Kv‡R AvMÖnx nIqv I kªgRxwe gvby‡li cÖwZ AvMÖnx nIqv|
8. wcZvgvZv, ¸i“Rb, cÖwZ‡ekx I AvZ¥xq¯^Rb‡`i cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b I KZ©e¨ cvjb Kiv|
9. cwiev‡ii m`m¨ wn‡m‡e wbR `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges M„nK‡g© AskMÖnY Kiv|
10. mgv‡Ri m`m¨ wn‡m‡e wbR `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges mvgvwRK Kg©Kv‡Ê AskMÖnY Kiv|
11. evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK wn‡m‡e wbR `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ m¤^‡Ü Rvbv Ges bvMwiK `vwqZ¡ cvjb Kiv|
12. Ac‡ii gZvgZ cÖKv‡ki my‡hvM`vb Ges e¨³ gZvg‡Zi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b|
13. we`¨vjq KZ…©K M„nxZ wewfbœ Kvh©µg m¤^‡Ü mw¤§wjZfv‡e wm×vš— MÖn‡Y mwµq f~wgKv cvjb Kiv|
14. mZZv I wbôvi mv‡_ `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ cvj‡bi gva¨‡g †hvM¨ `j‡bZv I `‡ji m`m¨ wn‡m‡e M‡o IVv|
15. †`k‡K Rvbv I fv‡jvevmv|
16. RvZxq HwZn¨ I ms¯‹…wZ‡Z (fvlv, †jvK m½xZ, Pvi“ I Kvi“Kjv Ges cÖL¨vZ e¨w³Z¡) †MŠie‡eva Kiv|
17. RvZxq cZvKv I RvZxq m½x‡Zi cÖwZ kª×v cÖ`k©b Kiv|
18. m¤ú‡`i AcPq cwinvi Kiv|
19. my¯’ Rxebhvc‡bi Rb¨ mej †`n MV‡bi ¸i“Z¡ eySv|
20. †Ljvayjv Ges kixiPP©vq AskMÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g mej †`n MV‡b AvMÖnx nIqv|
21. ˆ`wnK I cvwicvwk¦©K ¯^v¯’¨wewa Rvbv I cvjb Kiv|
22. mylg Lv`¨ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv, Gi ¸i“Z¡ eySv Ges Giƒc Lv`¨ MÖn‡Yi Af¨vm Kiv|
23. mvaviY †ivM-e¨vwa, G¸wji KviY I mZK©ZvgyjK e¨e¯’v m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges mZK©Zv Aej¤^‡b AvMÖnx nIqv|
24. mnR evsjv fvlvq Qvcv I nv‡Z †jLv welqe¯‘ ey‡S ï×fv‡e co‡Z cviv Ges cVb `¶Zv AR©‡bi gva¨‡g evsjv
fvlvq wjwLZ welqe¯‘ c‡o ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z mg_© nIqv|
25. ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv I g‡bvfve mnR evsjv fvlvq ï× I ¯úófv‡e wj‡L cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv, mvaviY wPwV I
`iLv¯— wjL‡Z cviv Ges wewfbœ dg© c~iY Ki‡Z cviv|
26. mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i mv‡_ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ mwVK I Kvh©Kifv‡e cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï× PjwZ
evsjvq K_v ej‡Z cviv|
27. mnR PjwZ evsjvq K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cviv|
28. msL¨vi †gŠwjK aviYv jvf Kiv Ges msL¨v e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
29. MwY‡Zi PviwU †gŠwjK wbqg Rvbv I e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
30. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mgm¨v mgvav‡b wnmve-wbKv‡ki mnR †KŠkj¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
31. gy`ªv, ˆ`N©¨, IRb, †¶Îdj, AvqZb I mg‡qi GKK¸‡jv Rvbv I e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
32. R¨vwgwZK AvKvi-AvK…wZ¸wj †Pbv I eySv|
33. Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni mvg_©¨ AR©b Kiv|
34. cvV¨ewnf~©Z eB-cy¯—K, msev`cÎ Ges mvgwqK cwÎKv cv‡Vi Af¨vm MVb Kiv|
35. ¯^vaxbfv‡e wPš—v Kiv Ges wb‡Ri gZ e¨³ Kivi mvg_©¨ AR©b Kiv|
36. bZzb a¨vb-aviYv MÖnY Ges Ac‡ii m‡½ †mme aviYv m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbvq AvMÖnx nIqv|
37. wb‡Ri Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Ac‡ii MVbg~jK mgv‡jvPbv MÖnY I e¨env‡i AvMÖnx nIqv|
38. ch©‡e¶Y I AbymÜv‡bi gva¨‡g wbKU cÖvK…wZK I mvgvwRK cwi‡ek‡K Rvbv I eySv|
39. wRÁvmv mywbw`©ó Kiv, cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ e¯‘ ch©‡e¶Y I †kªYxKiY Kiv Ges mnR Abygvb Kivi ÔˆeÁvwbK
AbymÜvb `¶ZvÕ AR©b Kiv|
40. KviY I djvd‡ji m¤úK© mbv³ Kiv Ges ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mvaviY mgm¨v m¤úwK©Z mnR cix¶Y Kiv|
39
41. weÁvb I cÖhyw³i e¨env‡i ˆ`bw›`b RxebhvÎvi gv‡bvbœqb ch©‡e¶Y Kiv, mbv³ Kiv Ges Gi ¸i“Z¡ Dcjwä Kiv|
42. bKkv A¼b, wPÎv¼b, gvwUi KvR, KvM‡Ri KvR, m½xZ, b„Z¨, bvUK BZ¨vw` wkíKjvi gva¨‡g wb‡R‡K cÖKvk
Ki‡Z cviv|
43. cÖvK…wZK I mvgvwRK cwi‡e‡ki †mŠ›`h©¨ ch©‡e¶Y I Dcjwä Kiv|
44. wbR¯^ wRwbmcÎ I cwi‡eóbx †mŠ›`h©gwÊZ Kivi Af¨vm MVb Kiv|
45. wbqgk„•Ljv AbymiY Kiv|
46. e¨w³MZ I Rbmvavi‡Yi m¤ú‡`i hZœ †bIqv|
47. mgqvbyewZ©Zvi Af¨vm M‡o †Zvjv|
48. wewfbœ m¤úK©hy³ e¨w³i m‡½ wKiƒc AvPiY Ki‡Z n‡e Zv Rvbv Ges Z`vbyhvqx wkóvPvi Abykxjb Kiv|
49. Ab¨vb¨ †`‡ki wkï‡`i m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges wewfbœ ai‡bi Rxebaviv m¤ú‡K© AvMÖnx nIqv|
50. Bs‡iwR fvlvq Qvcv I nv‡Z †jLv mnR welqe¯‘ co‡Z cviv|
51. Bs‡iwR fvlvq mnR K‡_vcK_b, Mí I Qov †kvbv, eySv Ges Avb›` jvf Kiv|
52. wbR ch©‡e¶Y I aviYv eySvevi Rb¨ Bs‡iwR‡Z evK¨ ej‡Z cviv|
53. Bs‡iwR‡Z ï× I ¯úó K‡i cwiwPZ e¯‘i msw¶ß weeiY wjL‡Z cviv|
cwiwkó 2: cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi †kªYxwefvM
†Wv‡gBb cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zvi b¤^i msL¨v
Ávbg~jK 19, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 38, 50, 52, 53 13
wek¦vm-g‡bvfvegyjK 1, 4, 7, 16, 36, 37 6
`¶Zv-Af¨vmg~jK 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18, 34, 35, 44, 45, 46, 47 13
Ávbg~jK+wek¦vm-g‡bvfvegyjK 15, 23, 49 3
Ávbg~jK+`¶Zv-Af¨vmg~jK 3, 9, 10, 11, 21, 22, 24, 27, 39, 40, 48 11
wek¦vm-g‡bvfvegyjK+`¶Zv-
Af¨vmg~jK
2, 14, 20, 42, 43 5
Ávbg~jK+wek¦vm-g‡bvfvegyjK+`¶Zv-
Af¨vmg~jK
41, 51 2
m~Î: Nath SR and Chowdhury (Edited) (2001), A question of quality- State of Primary Education in Bangladesh:
Achievement of Competencies, Dhaka: Campaign for Popular Education and The University Press Limited.
40
cwiwkó 3: cwigvwR©Z 50wU cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv
1. me©kw³gvb Avj−vnZvÕqvjvi cÖwZ AUj Av¯’v I wek¦vm ¯’vcb Kiv|
2. m„wóKZ©v m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges mªóv‡K mKj Kv‡R ¯§iY Kiv I Zuvi cÖwZ K…ZÁZv cÖKvk Kiv|
3. Avj−vni ivmyj nhiZ gynv¤§` (m:) Gi/ ¯^ ¯^ a‡g©i cÖeZ©‡Ki RxebPwiZ Rvbv Ges Zv‡`i wk¶v I Av`k© AbymiY
Kiv|
4. ¯^ ¯^ ag©MÖš’ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges ¯^ ¯^ a‡g©i Abykvmb Abymi‡Yi gva¨‡g ˆbwZK I PvwiwÎK ¸Yvewj AR©b Kiv|
5. mªóvi mKj m„wó‡K fvjevmv|
6. RvwZ-ag©-eY©, bvix-cyi“l wbwe©‡k‡l mK‡ji cÖwZ m¤§vb I mnbkxjZv cÖ`k©b Kiv|
7. Ab¨vb¨ †`‡ki gvbyl m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges Zuv‡`i cÖwZ fvjevmv I ggZ¡‡eva mÂvi Kiv|
8. gvby‡li †gŠwjK Pvwn`v m¤ú‡K© aviYv jvf Kiv Ges my›`i Rxeb MV‡b m‡PZb nIqv|
9. wb‡Ri AwaKvi Ges A‡b¨i AwaKvi m¤^‡Ü m‡PZb nIqv|
10. Ac‡ii gZvgZ cÖKv‡ki my‡hvM`vb Kiv Ges e¨³ gZvg‡Zi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Kiv|
11. mK‡ji cÖwZ mn‡hvwMZvc~Y© Ges eÜzZ¡myjf AvPiY Kiv|
12. KvwqK kªghy³ Kv‡R AvMÖnx nIqv Ges kªgRxex gvby‡li cÖwZ kª×vkxj nIqv|
13. cvwievwiK m`m¨ wn‡m‡e wbR `vwqZ¡ I KZ…©e¨ m¤^‡Ü Rvbv Ges M„nK‡g© AskMÖnY Kiv|
14. mvgvwRK I we`¨vj‡qi Kg©Kv‡Ê mwµq AskMÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g wb‡Ri I Ac‡ii AwaKvi, KZ…©e¨ I `vwqZ¡ m¤ú‡K©
m‡PZb nIqv|
15. MYZvwš¿K ixwZ m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb nIqv Ges mybvMwiK wn‡m‡e wbR `vwqZ¡ I KZ…©e¨ m¤^‡Ü mRvM nIqv|
16. ¯^v_©Z¨v‡Mi g‡bvfv‡e AbycÖvwYZ n‡q †`kMVbgyjK Kv‡R AskMÖnY Kiv|
17. evsjv‡`‡ki †fŠ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v Ges ˆewkó¨ m¤ú‡K© m¤§K Ávb jvf Kiv|
18. gyw³hy‡×i †PZbvq †`k‡cÖg I RvZxqZv‡ev‡a DØy× nIqv|
19. RvZxq BwZnvm, HwZn¨, ms¯‹…wZ I mvwnZ¨ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges G wel‡qi cÖwZ kª×vkxj nIqv|
20. cwi‡ek Dbœqb I msi¶‡Y mwµq nIqv|
21. wek¦-åvZ…Z¡ Ges wewfbœ †`‡ki ms¯‹…wZi cÖwZ D`viZv‡eva Ges wek¦kvwš— †PZbvi cÖwZ AvMÖnx nIqv|
22. e¨w³MZ, cvwievwiK, mvgvwRK I ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i myô e¨envi I msi¶‡Y hZœkxj nIqvi `„wófw½ MVb Kiv|
23. †`‡ki µgea©gvb RbmsL¨v m¤ú‡K© AewnZ nIqv Ges cwi‡e‡ki Dci Gi cÖfve m¤ú‡K© m‡PZbZv jvf Kiv|
24. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
25. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, e³„Zv, eY©bv I K‡_vcK_b g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cviv|
26. mncvVx I Ab¨‡`i m‡½ †evaMg¨fv‡e ï× Ges cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y PwjZ evsjvq ej‡Z cviv|
27. evsjv fvlvq Qvcv I nv‡Z †jL welqe¯‘ ï×fv‡e co‡Z cviv Ges cwVZ welqe¯‘i gg© Abyaveb Kiv|
28. ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv I g‡bvfve evsjv fvlvq ï× I ¯úófv‡e wj‡L cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv, mvaviY wPwV I `iLv¯—
wjL‡Z cviv Ges wewfbœ dig cyiY Ki‡Z cviv |
29. msL¨vi aviYv jvf Kiv Ges msL¨v e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
30. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK (ZvwiLmn) kã mg~n ïb‡Z, ej‡Z, co‡Z I wjL‡Z cviv|
31. MwY‡Zi cÖv_wgK Pvi wbqg Rvbv I e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
32. cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ e¯‘i R¨vwgwZK AvKvi AvK…wZ †Pbv I e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
33. ˆ`N©¨, IRb, †¶Îdj, AvqZb, mgq Ges gy`ªvi GKK Rvbv I e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
34. ev¯—egyLx Ges Z_¨wfwËK mnR mgm¨v mgvav‡b MvwYwZK †KŠkj cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
35. cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ Z_¨ msMÖn, web¨vm I cÖwµqvKi‡Yi gva¨‡g Zv e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
36. K¨vjKz‡jUi I Kw¤úDUvi m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges wnmve wbKv‡k K¨vjKz‡jUi e¨envi Ki‡Z cviv|
37. RbmsL¨v welqK mgm¨v mgvav‡b MvwYwZK Ávb cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
38. Bs‡iwR fvlvq mnR K‡_vcK_b, Mí I Qov †kvbv, †evSv Ges Dc‡fvM Kiv|
39. ch©‡e¶Y, aviYv I g‡bvfve Bs‡iwR‡Z mnR ï× ev‡K¨ ej‡Z cviv|
40. Bs‡iwR fvlvq Qvcv I nv‡Z †jLv welqe¯‘ co‡Z I eyS‡Z cviv|
41. Bs‡iwR‡Z ï× I mnRfv‡e AwfÁZv I cwiwPZ welq m¤ú‡K© msw¶ß weeiY wjL‡Z cviv|
42. ˆ`bw›`b Rxeb hvÎvi gv‡bvbœq‡bi j‡¶¨ weÁvb I cÖhyw³i e¨envi m¤úv‡K© Ávb AR©b Kiv|
43. ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ Aej¤^‡b mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Af¨vm MVb Kiv|
44. weÁvbm¤§Z `„wófw½ M‡o †Zvjv|
45. ch©‡e¶Y I AbymÜv‡bi gva¨‡g cwi‡ek‡K Rvbv Ges AwR©Z Áv‡bi wfwˇZ wewfbœ e¯‘ I NUbv‡K †kªYxKiY
Ki‡Z cviv|
46. Pvi“ I Kvi“Kjv PP©vi (†hgb, bKkv AsKb, wPÎv¼b, gvwU, KvV, Kvco I KvM‡Ri KvR) gva¨‡g m„wói ˆewPΨ
m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb nIqv Ges wb‡Ri m„RbkxjZv weKvk I †mŠ›`h© Dc‡fv‡Mi †¶Î cÖmvi Kiv|
47. msMxZ, b„Z¨ Ges bv‡U¨i gva¨‡g wb‡Ri m„RbkxjZv, †mŠ›`h©‡PZbv, bv›`wbK‡eva I eyw×i DrKl© mvab Kiv|
48. †Ljvayjv Ges kixiPP©vq AvMÖnx nIqv|
49. my¯’ Rxeb hvc‡bi j‡¶¨ ¯^v¯’¨wewa Rvbv I cvjb Kiv|
50. mZZv, b¨vq‡eva, KZ…©e¨‡eva, k„•Ljv‡eva I wkóvPvimn mK‡ji m‡½ wg‡jwg‡k evm Kivi gvbwmKZv AR©b Ges
AvPi‡Y DØy× nIqv|
cwiwkó 4: cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv - evsjv
†kvbv
1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖYvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf Kiv;
2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³„Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cviv;
3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv|
ejv
1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖYvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv;
2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³„Zv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ey‡S ej‡Z cviv;
3. mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï×, cÖwgZ, PwjZ evsjvq K_v
ej‡Z cviv;
4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
cov
1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖYvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv;
2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³„Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i c‡o g~jfve eyS‡Z cviv;
3. evsjv fvlvi gy`ªv¶i I n¯—v¶i ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z mg_© nIqv;
4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
†jLv
1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖYvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv;
2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³„Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv;
3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z cviv;
4. ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv I g‡bvfve ï× I ¯úófvlvq wj‡L cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv;
5. mvaviY wPwV I `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cviv Ges wewfbœ dig cyiY Ki‡Z cviv|
cwiwkó 5: †kªYxwfwËK cÖvwš—K I AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
Avek¨Kxq wkLbµg
welq: gvZ…fvlvÑevsjv
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
cÖ_g †kYx wØZxq †kªYx Z…Zxq †kªYx PZy_© †kªYx cÂg †kªYx
†kvbv:
1. evsjv fvlvi
MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨
web¨vm I wbqg
k„•Ljvi wel‡q
Ávbjvf Kiv|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb
g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb ˆah©
mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, cÖkœ I
Aby‡iva ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 evsjv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM
mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.2 evsjv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb ˆah©
mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, cÖkœ, wb‡`©k I
Aby‡iva ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 evsjv eY© I hy³eY© mn‡hv‡M
MwVZ kã ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ kã I †QvU †QvU evK¨
ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, †NvlYv I
wb‡`©k ï‡b cvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y K‡_vcK_b
ï‡b cÖkœ Ki‡Z I DËi w`‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.1 cwiwPZ I AaxZ ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ ai‡bi kã I †QvU †QvU
evK¨ ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, wb‡`©k I
†NvlYv ï‡b h_vh_fv‡e cvjb
Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 -
1.5 K‡_vcK_b I cÖkœ ï‡b eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.1 Ñ
1.2 wewfbœ ai‡bi K_v ï‡b eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.3 Ñ
1.4 Ñ
1.5 Ñ
1.6 †iwWI-†Uwjwfk‡b cwVZ
msev` ï‡b eyS‡Z I AbymiY
Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2. evsjvq Qov,
KweZv, Mí,
K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv,
eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM
mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve
eyS‡Z cviv|
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b eyS‡Z I
Avb›` jvf Ki‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b I Mí ï‡b eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~jfve
eyS‡Z cvi‡e I Avb›` jvf Ki‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b, I eY©bv ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.1 cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y Qov I KweZv
ï‡b g~j welq eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b, Mí I eY©bv cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y ï‡b welq eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~j welq I
fve eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 , eY©bv I Av‡jvPbv cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y ï‡b g~j welqe¯‘ eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~j welq
I fve Abyaveb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Mí, eY©bv, bvwUKv, e³e¨ I
Av‡jvPbv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y ï‡b
welqe¯‘ I NUbvaviv eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y e³…Zv ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
3.msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK
ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z
cviv|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.1 Ñ 3.1 cv‡V I Ab¨vb¨ †¶‡Î e¨eüZ
msL¨vevPK I µgevPK
ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv:
43
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
cÖ_g †kYx wØZxq †kªYx Z…Zxq †kªYx PZy_© †kªYx cÂg †kªYx
1. evsjv fvlvi
MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨
web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv
cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv ¯úó I ï×fv‡e
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I
e¨ÄbaŸwbmg~n ¯úó I ï×fv‡e
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.4 †QvU †QvU cÖkœ Ki‡Z I cÖ‡kœi
DËi ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv I cÖ‡qvRbxq
hy³eY© ¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I
e¨ÄbaŸwbmg~n ¯úó I ï×fv‡e
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 web‡qi m‡½ Aby‡iva I
m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 ey‡S cÖkœ Ki‡Z I c~Y©ev‡K¨
cÖ‡kœi DËi ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 evsjv hy³eY© mn‡hv‡M MwVZ
¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z I
D”PviY cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ kã I †QvU †QvU evK¨
ey‡S ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 -
1.4 wewfbœ ai‡bi Av‡`k, Dc‡`k,
wb‡`©k I †NvlYvi K_v ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.5 K‡_vcK_b ï‡b cÖkœ Ki‡Z
Ges cÖkœ ï‡b DËi w`‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 cwiwPZ I AaxZ kã cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Ñ
1.3 Ñ
1.4 Ñ
1.5 K‡_vcK_b ï‡b h_vh_fv‡e
cÖkœ Ki‡Z Ges cÖkœ ï‡b DËi w`‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.1 cwiwPZ I AaxZ evK¨ h_vh_
ixwZ‡Z I ¯^vfvweK MwZ i¶v K‡i
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ ai‡bi evK¨ ¯úó I
cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Ñ
1.4 Ñ
1.5 K‡_vcK_b I e³e¨ ï‡b cÖkœ
Ki‡Z, DËi w`‡Z I wb‡Ri
gZvgZ ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2. evsjvq Qov,
KweZv, Mí,
K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv,
eY©bv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K©
ey‡S ej‡Z cviv|
2.1 wb‡Ri cwiPq, evev-gvi cwiPq
Ges mncvVx‡`i bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov, KweZv I ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 wb‡Ri wVKvbv I cwiwPZ
cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 wb‡Ri gZ K‡i ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.4 wb‡Ri K_vq cwiwPZ welq
eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e I K‡_vcK_‡b
Ask wb‡Z cvi‡e|
2.5 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I
evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg ci ci ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.6 Qq FZzi bvg ï×fv‡e ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZvi g~j welq ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 †`Lv ev †kvbv NUbv wb‡Ri
fvlvq ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Ñ
2.2 Qov I KweZvi g~j fve ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 Ñ
2.4 Qov I KweZvi wel‡q †QvU
†QvU cÖ‡kœi DËi ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.5 mnR wel‡q eY©bv I Av‡jvPbv
Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov I KweZv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y
Q›` eRvq †i‡L Ave„wË Ki‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZvi g~jfve I
welq eywS‡q ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 Ñ
2.4 mnR wel‡q eY©bv I
Av‡jvPbv K‡i wb‡Ri gZvgZ
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.5 mnR wel‡q e³…Zv w`‡Z
cvi‡e|
3. mncvVx I
Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½
g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ
cÖKvk I Av`vb
cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï×
cÖwgZ, PwjZ evsjvq
K_v ej‡Z cviv|
3.1 cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejv
Abykxjb Ki‡e|
3.2 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv,
RxeRš‘, cï-cvwL ev¯—‡e I Qwe
†`‡L bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ is wP‡b i‡Oi bvg ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.1 cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.2 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv,
RxeRš‘, cï-cvwL †`‡L Zv‡`i
eY©bv w`‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ i‡Oi dzj-dj, RxeRš‘,
MvQcvjv I Ab¨vb¨ wRwbmc‡Îi bvg
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 †kªYxK‡¶ cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z
K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cÖ‡kœvˇi welqe¯‘ eywS‡q
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 Rvbv ev †`Lv NUbv cÖwgZ
PwjZ ixwZ‡Z ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 we`¨vj‡q, evwo‡Z I wewfbœ
cwi‡e‡k AbygwZ PvB‡Z Ges
web‡qi m‡½ m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 we`¨vj‡q cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z
c~Y©ev‡K¨ K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 Rvbv welqe¯‘ cÖwgZ PwjZ
ixwZ‡Z eywS‡q ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 Rvbv, †`Lv, †kvbv NUbvi
welqe¯‘ cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z eywS‡q
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 Ñ
3.1 cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z mevi
m‡½ K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 ï‡b ev †`‡L welqe¯‘i
g~jfve/e³e¨ †evaMg¨fv‡e ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.3 wb‡Ri AwfÁZvi K_v ¸wQ‡q
cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.4 wewfbœ AvbyôvwbK I
AbvbyôvwbK cwi‡e‡k †gŠwLK
44
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
cÖ_g †kYx wØZxq †kªYx Z…Zxq †kªYx PZy_© †kªYx cÂg †kªYx
Av`e-Kvq`v cÖKvk I web‡qi
m‡½ m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
4. msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK
ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK ZvwiL wb‡`©kmn
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.2 Rvbv msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
w`‡q evK¨ MVb K‡i ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 Ñ
4.2 Ñ
4.3 N‡U hvIqv †Kvb NUbvi
welqe¯‘ ZvwiL, gvm I mbmn
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 Ñ
4.2 Ñ
4.3 Ñ
4.4 †`‡ki wewfbœ RvZxq w`em,
mb, gvm, ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.5 cwiev‡ii mevi Rb¥ w`b,
¯‹z‡ji cÖwZôvevwl©Kx eÜz‡`i Kv‡Q
mb, gvm I ZvwiLmn ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
cov:
1. evsjv fvlvi
MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨
web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv
cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i
co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ co‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯^‡i,
¯úó I ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 hy³eY© †f‡O co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 -
1.2 k‡ã e¨eüZ hy³eY© wP‡b ¯úó
I ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cv‡V e¨eüZ I evK¨
kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯úó ¯^‡i I cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 wewfweivg wPý wP‡b evK¨ I
PiY co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 -
1.2 -
1.3 cv‡V e¨eüZ I evK¨
kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯úó ¯^‡i I cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y h_vm¤¢e ¯^vfvweK MwZ‡Z
co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 weivg wPý †`‡L A_©hwZ I
k¦vmhwZ eRvq †i‡L ¯—eK I
Aby‡”Q` co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 -
1.2
1.3 - k‡ã e¨eüZ bZzb hy³eY©
¯úó I ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.4 -
2. evsjvq Qov,
KweZv, Mí,
K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv,
eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM
mnKv‡i c‡o gyjfve
eyS‡Z cviv|
2.1 Qov, KweZv I co‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv eB †`‡L Ave„wË
Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg eB
†`‡L co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg eB †`‡L co‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.5 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv,
RxeRš‘, cïcvwL I Ab¨vb¨
wRwbmc‡Îi bvg co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, msjvc cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y
eB †`‡L Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I
evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg eB †`‡L
co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg eB †`‡L
ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, M`¨iPbv I
msjvc cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z I
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 eB †`‡L Qov I KweZv cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, M`¨iPbv I
bvwUKv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y I h_vm¤¢e
¯^vfvweK MwZ‡Z co‡Z I eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 -
2.3 eB †`‡L Qov I KweZv h_vh_
Q‡›` I ¯^ifw½‡Z cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y
Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, M`¨iPbv I
bvwUKv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y I ¯^vfvweK
MwZ‡Z co‡Z I g~jfve eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 -
2.3 -
3. evsjv fvlvi
gy`ªv¶i I n¯—v¶i ï×
D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv eY© I kã co‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv I A‡b¨i ¯úó
†jLv co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv I A‡b¨i ¯úó
nv‡Zi †jLv co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cvV¨cy¯—K I mggv‡bi
3.1 wb‡Ri jLv I A‡b¨i †jLv,
¯úó K‡i †jLv wPwVcÎ I `iLv¯—
co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv I ¯úóv¶‡i
nv‡Z †jLv wPwVcÎ I `iLv¯—
co‡Z cvi‡e|
45
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
cÖ_g †kYx wØZxq †kªYx Z…Zxq †kªYx PZy_© †kªYx cÂg †kªYx
Ges evsjv fvlvq
ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ
ivL‡Z mg_© nIqv|
wkï‡Zvl I Ab¨vb¨ eB co‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ ai‡bi mnR
ms‡KZ/wb‡`©k, e¨w³ I cÖwZôv‡bi
bvgdjK I Kw¤úDUv‡ii evsjv cvV
co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 bxi‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cvV¨cy¯—K I mggv‡bi
wkï‡Zvl I Ab¨vb¨ eB Ges cÎ-
cwÎKv co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ ai‡bi mnR
ms‡KZ/wb‡`©k, e¨w³ I cÖwZôv‡bi
bvgdjK, weÁvcb, †`qvjcÎ,
cÖPvicÎ BZ¨vw` co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 ¯^vfvweK MwZ‡Z bxi‡e co‡Z
I eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cvV¨cy¯—K, mggv‡bi
wkï‡Zvl I Ab¨vb¨ eB Ges cÎ-
cwÎKv co‡Z I eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ ai‡bi mnR
ms‡KZ/wb‡`©k, e¨w³ I cÖwZôv‡bi
bvgdjK, weÁvcb, †`qvjcÎ,
cÖPvicÎ BZ¨vw` co‡Z I eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.4 -
3.5 ˆ`wbK cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ
wewfbœ Le‡ii wk‡ivbvg ï×fv‡e
co‡Z cvi‡e|
4. msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK
ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
co‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK ZvwiL wb‡`©kKmn
co‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK kã ZvwiL wb‡`©kKmn
co‡Z I eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 -
†jLv:
1. evsjv fvlvi
MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨
web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv
cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 ¯úó I mwVK AvK…wZ‡Z evsjv
eY©gvjv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³
K‡i kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki I evK¨ †`‡L
†`‡L wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 eY© w`‡q kã ˆZwi K‡i wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.5 hwZ wPý wP‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 ¯úó, mwVK AvK…wZ‡Z I
cwi”Qbœfv‡e evsjv eY©gvjv wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³
K‡i kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ ï‡b
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cwiwPZ e¨envi K‡i evK¨
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 weivg wPý wP‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.6 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki †QvU †QvU mnR
cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 e‡Y©i MVb wVK †i‡L I
evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi, djv I hy³eY© e¨envi
K‡i kã I evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ ï‡b
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cwiwPZ e¨envi K‡i ï×
evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 weivg wPý h_vm¤¢e wP‡b evK¨
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 Ñ
1.2 Kvi I djv e¨envi K‡i
ï×fv‡e I evK¨ wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.3 Ñ
1.4 AaxZ kã e¨envi K‡i evK¨
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 weivg wPý e¨envi K‡i evK¨
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.6 mnR kÖ“Zwjwc wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.1 Ñ
1.2 h_vh_fv‡e Kvi I djv
e¨envi K‡i ï×fv‡e I evK¨
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Ñ
1.4 Ñ
1.5 weivgwPý h_vh_fv‡e e¨envi
K‡i ï× evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.6 ï×fv‡e kÖ“Zwjwc wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
2. evsjvq Qov,
KweZv, Mí,
K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv,
eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve
ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv|
2.1 wb‡Ri bvg I evev gvi bvg
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 Qq FZzi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 wb‡Ri bvg cwiPq I wVKvbv
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I
evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 Qq FZzi bvg ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.1 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki Qov I KweZv
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 welqwfwËK mnR cÖ‡kœi DËi
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 Mí, e³…Zv, eY©bv c‡o I ï‡b
ï× K‡i cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 welqwfwËK cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 h_vm¤¢e wb‡Ri g‡bvfve e¨³
K‡i wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.1 cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 wb‡Ri g‡bvfve e¨³ K‡i
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 wbw`©ó wel‡qi g~jfve e¨³
K‡i wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 gvwR©b Ges kã I jvB‡bi
g‡a¨ h_vh_ duvK eRvq †i‡L
46
cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv †kªYxwfwËK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv
cÖ_g †kYx wØZxq †kªYx Z…Zxq †kªYx PZy_© †kªYx cÂg †kªYx
2.4 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv,
RxeRš‘, cïcvwL I Ab¨vb¨
wRwbmc‡Îi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
¯^vfvweK MwZ‡Z wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
3. msL¨vevPK I
µgevPK
ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z
cviv|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk
ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I
µgevP ZvwiLmn ï×fv‡e
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 Ñ
3.2 Rvbv msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã
e¨envi K‡i evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
3.1 Ñ
3.2 Ñ
4. ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv
I g‡bvfve ï× I
¯úó fvlvq wj‡L
cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv|
4.1 mnR fvlvq cwiwPZ cwi‡e‡ki
K_v wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 cwiwPZ cwi‡ek I AwfÁZvi
K_v wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
4.2 mnR wel‡qi Ici Aby‡”Q`
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
4.1 cwiwPZ cwi‡ek I AwfÁZvi
weeiY wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
4.2 mnR fvlvq iPbv wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
5. mvaviY wPwV Ges
`iLv¯— wjL‡Z cviv
Ges wewfbœ dig c~iY
Ki‡Z cviv|
5.1 AvcbR‡bi Kv‡Q mnR fvlvq
wPwV wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
5.2 `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
5.3 mnR dig c~iY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
5.1 Ñ
5.2 wPwV I QzwUi `iLv¯— wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
5.3 Ñ
5.1 Ñ
5.2 wPwVcÎ I `iLv¯— ï×fv‡e
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
5.3 cÖ‡qvRbxq dig ï×fv‡e
c~iY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
5.4 w`bcwÄ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
cwiwkó 6: eª¨vKcÖYxZ eB I wk¶K mnvwqKvq AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi cÖwZdjb
cÖ_g †kªYx
cÖwZdj‡bi gvÎv cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
†kvbv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf Kiv|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi aŸwb ˆah© mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, cÖkœ I Aby‡iva ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
†kvbv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cviv|
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b eyS‡Z I Avb›` jvf Ki‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b I Mí ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
†kvbv 3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
kã ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv ¯úó I ï×fv‡e ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I e¨ÄbaŸwbmg~n ¯úó I ï×fv‡e
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 QvU †QvU cÖkœ Ki‡Z I cÖ‡kœi DËi ej‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ey‡S ej‡Z cviv|
2.1 wb‡Ri cwiPq, evev-gvi cwiPq Ges mncvVx‡`i bvg
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov, KweZv I Mí ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 3. mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï× cÖwgZ, PwjZ evsjvq K_v
ej‡Z cviv|
3.1 cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ejv Abykxjb Ki‡e|
3.2 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cï-cvwL ev¯—‡e I
Qwe †`‡L bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ is wP‡b i‡Oi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
kã ej‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ co‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i c‡o gyjfve eyS‡Z cviv|
48
cÖwZdj‡bi gvÎv cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
2.1 Qov, KweZv I Mí co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv eB †`‡L Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg eB †`‡L co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg eB †`‡L co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.5 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cïcvwL I Ab¨vb¨
wRwbmc‡Îi bvg co‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 3. evsjv fvlvi gy`ªv¶i I n¯—v¶i ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z mg_©
nIqv|
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv eY© I kã co‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
kã co‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 ¯úó I mwVK AvK…wZ‡Z evsjv eY©gvjv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ †`‡L †`‡L wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 eY© w`‡q kã ˆZwi K‡i wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 hwZ wPý wP‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv|
2.1 wb‡Ri bvg I evev gvi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 Qq FZzi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z cviv|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K cÂvk ch©š— msL¨v I msL¨vevPK
kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
49
wØZxq †kªYx
cÖwZdj‡bi gvÎv cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
†kvbv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf Kiv|
1.1 evsjv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.2 evsjv hy³e‡Y©i aŸwb ˆah© mnKv‡i ïb‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, cÖkœ, wb‡`©k I Aby‡iva ï‡b eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
†kvbv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cviv|
2.1 Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cvi‡e I Avb›` jvf
Ki‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b, Mí I eY©bv ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
†kvbv 3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I
msL¨vevPK kã ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1
evsjv eY©gvjv I cÖ‡qvRbxq hy³eY© ¯úó I ï×fv‡e
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I e¨ÄbaŸwbmg~n ¯úó I ï×fv‡e
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 web‡qi m‡½ Aby‡iva I m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 ey‡S cÖkœ Ki‡Z I c~Y©ev‡K¨ cÖ‡kœi i ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
ejv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ey‡S ej‡Z cviv|
2.1 wb‡Ri wVKvbv I cwiwPZ cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 wb‡Ri gZ K‡i Mí ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 wb‡Ri K_vq cwiwPZ welq eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e I
K‡_vcK_‡b Ask wb‡Z cvi‡e|
2.5 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg ci
ci ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.6 Qq FZzi bvg ï×fv‡e ej‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 3. mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï× cÖwgZ, PwjZ evsjvq K_v
ej‡Z cviv|
3.1 cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cï-cvwL †`‡L
Zv‡`i eY©bv w`‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ i‡Oi dzj-dj, RxeRš‘, MvQcvjv I Ab¨vb¨
wRwbmc‡Îi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I
msL¨vevPK kã ej‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
50
cÖwZdj‡bi gvÎv cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
1.1 evsjv eY©gvjv kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯^‡i, ¯úó I ï×fv‡e co‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.2 hy³eY© †f‡O co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki I evK¨ cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z
cvi‡e|
cov 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i c‡o gyjfve eyS‡Z cviv|
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, msjvc cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y eB †`‡L Ave„wË Ki‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.3 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg eB
†`‡L co‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 Qq FZzi bvg eB †`‡L ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 3. evsjv fvlvi gy`ªv¶i I n¯—v¶i ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z mg_©
nIqv|
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv I A‡b¨i ¯úó †jLv co‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
4.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I
msL¨vevPK kã ï×fv‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 ¯úó, mwVK AvK…wZ‡Z I cwi”Qbœfv‡e evsjv eY©gvjv
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi wPý wP‡b e‡Y©i m‡½ hy³ K‡i kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ ï‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cwiwPZ kã e¨envi K‡i evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 weivg wPý wP‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.6 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki †QvU †QvU mnR cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
†jLv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv|
2.1 wb‡Ri bvg cwiPq I wVKvbv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg I evsjv evi gv‡mi bvg
wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 Qq FZzi bvg ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.4 cwiwPZ dzj-dj, MvQcvjv, RxeRš‘, cïcvwL I
Ab¨vb¨ wRwbmc‡Îi bvg wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z cviv|
3.1 evsjv fvlvq GK †_‡K GKk ch©š— msL¨v I
msL¨vevPK kã ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
Z…Zxq †kªYx
cÖwZdj‡bi gvÎv cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
†kvbv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljvi wel‡q Ávbjvf Kiv|
1.1
evsjv eY© I hy³eY© mn‡hv‡M MwVZ kã ï‡b eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ kã I †QvU †QvU evK¨ ï‡b eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
1.3 Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, †NvlYv I wb‡`©k ï‡b cvjb Ki‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.4 cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y K‡_vcK_b ï‡b cÖkœ Ki‡Z I DËi
w`‡Z cvi‡e|
†kvbv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ï‡b g~jfve eyS‡Z cviv|
2.1 cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y Qov I KweZv ï‡b g~j welq eyS‡Z
cvi‡e|
2.2 K‡_vcK_b, Mí I eY©bv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y ï‡b welq
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
†kvbv 3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b eyS‡Z cviv|
3.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï‡b
eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 evsjv hy³eY© mn‡hv‡M MwVZ kã ¯úó I ï×fv‡e
ej‡Z I D”PviY cvi‡e|
1.2 wewfbœ kã I †QvU †QvU evK¨ ey‡S ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 wewfbœ ai‡bi Av‡`k, Dc‡`k, wb‡`©k I NvlYvi K_v
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 K‡_vcK_b ï‡b cÖkœ Ki‡Z Ges cÖkœ ï‡b DËi w`‡Z
cvi‡e|
ejv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ey‡S ej‡Z cviv|
2.1 Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 Qov I KweZvi g~j welq ej‡Z cvi‡e|
2.3 †`Lv ev †kvbv NUbv wb‡Ri fvlvq ej‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 3. mncvVx I Ab¨vb¨‡`i m‡½ g‡bvfve I Abyf~wZ cÖKvk I Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ï× cÖwgZ, PwjZ evsjvq K_v
ej‡Z cviv|
3.1 †kªYxK‡¶ cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cÖ‡kœvˇi welqe¯‘ eywS‡q ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.3 Rvbv ev †`Lv NUbv cÖwgZ PwjZ ixwZ‡Z ej‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 we`¨vj‡q, evwo‡Z I wewfbœ cwi‡e‡k AbygwZ PvB‡Z
Ges web‡qi m‡½ m‡¤^vab Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
ejv 4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn ej‡Z cviv|
4.1
cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK ZvwiL
wb‡`©kmn ej‡Z cvi‡e|
4.2 Rvbv msL¨v I msL¨vevPK kã w`‡q evK¨ MVb K‡i
ej‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.2 k‡ã e¨eüZ hy³eY© wP‡b ¯úó I ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z
cvi‡e|
52
cÖwZdj‡bi gvÎv cÖvwš—K
†hvM¨Zv
AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cy‡ivcywi AvswkK nq wb
1.3 cv‡V e¨eüZ kã I evK¨ kªeY‡hvM¨ ¯úó ¯^‡i I cÖwgZ
D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 wewfbœ weivg wPý wP‡b evK¨ I PiY co‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw` g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i c‡o gyjfve eyS‡Z cviv|
2.1 Qov, KweZv, Mí, M`¨iPbv I msjvc cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y
co‡Z I eyS‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 eB †`‡L Qov I KweZv cÖwgZ D”Pvi‡Y Ave„wË Ki‡Z
cvi‡e|
cov 3. evsjv fvlvi gy`ªv¶i I n¯—v¶i ï× D”Pvi‡Y co‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR©b Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z mg_©
nIqv|
3.1 wb‡Ri †jLv I A‡b¨i ¯úó nv‡Zi †jLv co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.2 cvV¨cy¯—K I mggv‡bi wkï‡Zvl I Ab¨vb¨ eB co‡Z
cvi‡e|
3.3 wewfbœ ai‡bi mnR ms‡KZ/wb‡`©k, e¨w³ I cÖwZôv‡bi
bvgdjK I Kw¤úDUv‡ii evsjv cvV co‡Z cvi‡e|
3.4 bxi‡e co‡Z cvi‡e|
cov 4. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn co‡Z cviv|
4.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevPK ZvwiL
wb‡`©kKmn co‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 1. evsjv fvlvi MVbcÖYvjx, evK¨ web¨vm I wbqg k„•Ljv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|
1.1 e‡Y©i MVb wVK †i‡L kã I evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.2 Kvi, djv I hy³eY© e¨envi K‡i I evK¨ wjL‡Z
cvi‡e|
1.3 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki kã I evK¨ ï‡b wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.4 cwiwPZ kã e¨envi K‡i ï× evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
1.5 weivg wPý h_vm¤¢e wP‡b evK¨ wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 2. evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K‡_vcK_b, e³…Zv, eY©bv BZ¨vw`i g~jfve ey‡S wjL‡Z cviv|
2.1 cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki Qov I KweZv wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
2.2 welqwfwËK mnR cÖ‡kœi DËi wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 3. msL¨vevPK I µgevPK kã ZvwiLmn wjL‡Z cviv|
3.1 cv‡V e¨eüZ msL¨vevPK I µgevP ZvwiLmn
ï×fv‡e wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 4. ch©‡e¶Y, AwfÁZv I g‡bvfve ï× I ¯úó fvlvq wj‡L cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv|
4.1 mnR fvlvq cwiwPZ cwi‡e‡ki K_v wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
†jLv 5. mvaviY wPwV Ges `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cviv Ges wewfbœ dig c~iY Ki‡Z cviv|
5.1 AvcbR‡bi Kv‡Q mnR fvlvq wPwV wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
5.2 `iLv¯— wjL‡Z cvi‡e|
5.3 mnR dig c~iY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
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Zv, eY© bv BZ¨vw`BZ¨vw`g ‡bv ‡hvM mnKv ‡i ï ‡b g~ jfve ey S ‡Z cviv; 3. msL¨vevPK I gevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï ‡b ey S ‡Z cviv| ejv 1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖ Yvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk
  • Evsjvq Qov
  • Kwezv
evsjvq Qov, KweZv, Mí, K ‡_vcK_b, e³ " Zv, eY© bv BZ¨vw`BZ¨vw`g ‡bv ‡hvM mnKv ‡i ï ‡b g~ jfve ey S ‡Z cviv; 3. msL¨vevPK I gevPK kã ZvwiLmn ï ‡b ey S ‡Z cviv| ejv 1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖ Yvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk " @BULLETLjv cÖ ‡qvM Ki ‡Z cviv;
ªgy`ª v ¶i I n¯— v ¶i ï× D " Pvi ‡Y co ‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR© b Ae¨vnZ ivL ‡Z mg_© nIqv; 4. msL¨vevPK I gevPK kã ZvwiLmn co ‡Z cviv| †jLv 1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖ Yvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk
  • Evsjv Fvlvi Gy
evsjv fvlvi gy`ªgy`ª v ¶i I n¯— v ¶i ï× D " Pvi ‡Y co ‡Z cviv Ges evsjv fvlvq ÁvbvR© b Ae¨vnZ ivL ‡Z mg_© nIqv; 4. msL¨vevPK I gevPK kã ZvwiLmn co ‡Z cviv| †jLv 1. evsjvfvlvi MVb cÖ Yvjx, evK¨web¨vm I wbqgk " @BULLETLjv cÖ ‡qvM Ki ‡Z cviv;